Portuguese prince – Son of King John I (first king of Portugal)
Started a school of navigation in Portugal
Wanted to bring the Renaissance to Portugal – needed money to do so
spices = money
Dreamed of sailing around Africa and reaching the Spice Islands of the Indies
Prince Henry the Navigator and the Portugal Empire The Portuguese yearned to find a sea route to India to thwart Arab m i ddlemen who controlled overland routes, keeping prices of pepper and other spices high by keeping supplies low.
The concept of corporations was first established under ancient Roman law [source: University of Virginia].
But it wasn't until England emerged from the Middle Ages that it created what we recognize as the modern corporate structure.
It all began on Dec. 31, 1600, when Queen Elizabeth I granted a charter to the British East India Corporation, naming the corporation "The Governor and Company of Merchants of London, trading with the East Indies."
The corporation conducted business in the East Indies (land that we now consider India and the Middle East) at the behest of the queen
Japanese society characterized by powerless emperors ruled by military leaders (shoguns)
Adopted policy of isolation to limit foreign influences
Foreigners (Dutch) could only trade in Nagasaki
Let’s go back to the rivalry between Spain and Portugal
Spain is behind the game- even with what will be the #1 navy (called the Spanish Armada) in the world. That armada will later be sunk by fate, bad weather, and Elizabeth I of England in 1588 - never to rise again!
http://www.mypodcast.com/fmimage-4-174264.jpeg In 1598 Philip III of Spain offered a prize and a lifetime pension to anyone who could discover a way to find the longitude at sea. Later the English through Parliament and the scientific societies did the same. el escorial http://www.cs.utah.edu/~bigler/pictures/europe2002/spain/el%20escorial.jpg
Meanwhile on the other side of the world…the unknown world
It’s a lot of Gold…. It’s a lot of gold and silver coming from the new world to Spain http://www.flheritage.com/archaeology/underwater/galleontrail/plateFleets.cfm
It’s a lot of Gold…. http://www.flheritage.com/archaeology/underwater/galleontrail/plateFleets.cfm The vast amounts of natural resources discovered in the New World inspired envy among Spain’s European rivals, especially France and England. Spanish shipments of silver ( plata ), gold, gems, spices, and other exotic goods soon became prey for pirates and corsairs intent on stealing their share. To counter this threat, Spain developed a formal convoy system as early as 1537 to protect its merchant vessels from predators. At least two armed escorts, a capitana or flagship sailing at the front of the fleet and an almiranta or vice-flagship in the rear, accompanied the heavily laden ships across the Atlantic. Additional armed galleons often protected large fleets. To pay for this protection, merchants whose cargos were carried in the fleet paid a tax on their goods to the Spanish Crown How much gold and silver? $2.35 Trillion in today’s money
Remember that rivalry between Spain and Portugal?
Treaty of Tordesillas 1494 The Treaty of Tordesillas was a treaty to solve the land dispute between Castile (present-day Spain) and Portugal. 1) It clarified the spheres of influence and rights of possession in the New World.- 2) it reserved Brazil and all newly discovered lands east of Brazil to Portugal.- 3) it granted all lands west of Brazil to Spain. The treaty was organized where the land would be divided by a hypothetical north-south (longitudinal) line around the world.
Nueva Espana Indigenous - native - people became enslaved on plantations where they worked until they died. These mega-farms or mining plantations were called encomienda - labor system used by the Spanish to colonize the New World https://jspivey.wikispaces.com/file/view/EXPL2A-00099~Cruelty-of-the-Spanish-Encomienda-System-on-a-Sugar-Plantation-Santo-Domingo-Posters.jpg
What purpose did the colonies serve? Why did they exist?
Mercantilism – economic system whereby colonies exist solely to serve the mother country in terms of providing raw materials and as a market for finished goods. The “needs” of the colony were secondary to the needs of the mother country.