Us cold war0


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Us cold war0

  1. 1. Cold War The Essential Question How did the opposing ideologies of the US and the USSR affect political, cultural, and economic developments of the Third World?
  2. 2. What is so nifty about the 1950s?
  3. 3. What is so nifty about the 50s? By the light of the atomic bomb Better dead than Red!
  4. 6. <ul><li>1945 -1989 </li></ul><ul><li>Promise and Menace </li></ul><ul><li>Baby boomers </li></ul><ul><li>Fantastic standard of living </li></ul><ul><li>Welfare state (elderly) </li></ul><ul><li>Opportunities for women </li></ul><ul><li>Welcome immigrants </li></ul><ul><li>Civil rights and AAs </li></ul><ul><li>Activist foreign policy </li></ul>PLASTICS! - great new inventions
  5. 10. What you should be aware of: <ul><li>By raising educational levels and stimulating construction of the housing industry the GI Bill profoundly shaped the entire industry of postwar America. This would become the most highly educated generation in the world. </li></ul>The Montgomery GI Bill gov’t loans with LOW interest rates for all veterans of WWII - used for education or to start new businesses or to buy homes
  6. 11. Yalta Potsdam the United Nations the Iron Curtain
  7. 12. Atlantic Charter – estb. United Nations Yalta – decided fate of Germany and E Europe after WWII Potsdam – decided fate of East Asia and use of Atomic bomb in WWII
  8. 13. The United Nations
  9. 14. The United Nations General Assembly Security Council Secretary- General Ban Ki Moon
  10. 15. The United Nations
  11. 16. Iron Curtain <ul><li>British prime minister Winston Churchill’s “Iron Curtain” speech (1946) illustrated the division within Europe at that time. Following World War II, Europe had clearly been divided into two political and economic systems supported by two superpowers, the Soviet Union and the </li></ul><ul><li>United States. </li></ul><ul><li>In his speech, Churchill described the conflict this way: “From Stettin in the Baltic to Trieste in the Adriatic, an iron curtain has descended across the Continent.” Churchill was outlining the ideological conflict between Soviet Communism and democratic capitalism </li></ul>
  12. 18. Germany After WWII
  13. 20. Not only is Germany divided but the capitol city Berlin (in the Russian controlled communist section) is also divided
  14. 22. Germany After WWII <ul><li>The Western Democratic side was united under a market economy. </li></ul>
  15. 23. The World 1948
  16. 25. <ul><li>America decides to end its isolationist policy. No longer </li></ul><ul><li>will they tuck their head in the sand and ignore what is going on in the world. </li></ul><ul><li>now they will practice a policy of containment - to “contain” the communists to their side of the world/ iron curtain. </li></ul><ul><li>this will entail lots of economic aid - lots and lots of money to help rebuild the economies- because poor countries where bread is rationed and there are no factories tend to go communist </li></ul>
  17. 26. Truman Plan <ul><li>Pres. Truman decides to send lots of money to Turkey and Greece. </li></ul><ul><li>They were having civil wars and the communists might take over. </li></ul><ul><li>We send $55 million to rebuild their economies and their gov’ts </li></ul>
  18. 27. Marshall Plan <ul><li>American General and Secretary of State Marshall developed this plan to help most of Europe </li></ul><ul><li>Sent $17 billion to rebuild Europe in the hopes of holding off communism. </li></ul>
  19. 30. NATO and Warsaw
  20. 31. NATO <ul><li>North Atlantic Treaty Organization </li></ul><ul><li>military security pact made up of western European countries. </li></ul><ul><li>Missile bases set up in Europe to point to USSR </li></ul>
  21. 32. WARSAW <ul><li>Communist version of NATO </li></ul><ul><li>defensive military pact </li></ul>
  22. 34. Text Berlin Blockade and Airlift
  23. 36. Mao Zedong Takes China
  24. 37. Red Scare McCarthyism in America
  25. 38. McCarthyism or the Red Scare Joe McCarthy, a junior US senator, began a witch hunt for communists. Everyone was afraid of being turned in as a communist. People feared to be independent or different.
  26. 39. Joe McCarthy- Jr. Senator from Wisconsin - looking for a political cause Wheeling, W. Va; speaking to the Women’s Republican Club Holding up some papers and shouting: “I have here in my hand a list of 205- a list of names that were made known to the Secretary of State as being members of the Communist Party and who nevertheless are still working and shaping policy in the State Dept.” Next day, in Salt Lake City, McCarthy claimed he had a list of 57 (numbers kept changing) such Communists in the State Dept. Shortly afterward, on the Senate floor, he appeared with 100 dossiers from the State Dept loyalty files. The files were 3 years old and most of the people no longer worked for the State Dept but he claimed they were, “ Communistically inclined” or active traveler became, “ active Communist ” and so on Howard Zinn He insisted: Communism won in China because of softness on Communism in the American gov’t
  27. 40. McCarthyism or the Red Scare Congress created a special committee to investigate people. Especially the Hollywood people. It was called HUAC The Red Scare ended when McCarthy accused the army of being communist (that was too much)
  28. 41. McCarthyism <ul><li>Mickey Spillane published in 1951 One Lonely Night (3 million copies sold) in which the hero, Mike Hammer, says: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ I killed more people tonight than I have fingers on my hands. I shot them in cold blood and enjoyed every minute of it...They were sons-of-bitches who should have died long ago....” </li></ul></ul>
  29. 42. A classical example of American containment policy
  30. 45. Bombs Rockets Space Races
  31. 46. Race To Build Bigger, Better BOMBS!
  32. 47. Hydrogen Bombs, Tsar Bombs, MAD - Mutual Assured Destruction DETERANCE
  33. 49. Tsar Bomb Fears this will lead to a build up and then it will be.... NORAD North American Defense Command
  34. 51. Eisenhower Doctrine
  35. 52. Eisenhower Doctrine We reserve the right to protect the Middle East (and by that we mean Israel)
  36. 53. ANZUS and SEATO
  37. 54. ANZUS
  38. 55. SEATO South East Asian Treaty Organization
  39. 56. Sputnik
  40. 57. Sputnik - 1957 USSR launches the first space satellite
  41. 58. Sputnik <ul><li>Russians beat us to it - their technology must be good </li></ul><ul><li>If they can put a satellite up in space then they must be able to shoot nuclear missiles all the way over to us! </li></ul><ul><li>time to invest lots of money into US science and math programs so we can catch up with the Soviets </li></ul>
  42. 60. Leads To
  43. 61. More Bomb Testing <ul><li>testing on land outlawed. </li></ul><ul><li>testing in air ok </li></ul><ul><li>testing in water ok </li></ul><ul><li>the nuclear race is on! </li></ul><ul><li>lots of spying to find out what the other side has </li></ul>
  44. 62. U2 Plane Shot Down
  45. 63. Terms to Know <ul><li>Intercontinental Ballistic Missiles = ICBMs </li></ul><ul><li>MAD - Mutual Assured Destruction </li></ul><ul><li>detente - this means a “thawing of tensions” but it isn’t occurring yet.... </li></ul>
  46. 64. Geneva Convention <ul><li>Stalin finally died! New ruler of USSR is Krushchev </li></ul><ul><li>Krushchev (USSR) and Eisenhower (US) meet at Geneva, Switz to discuss “open skies” </li></ul><ul><li>the idea was open skies would mean less spying...more transparency </li></ul><ul><li>except....something embarrassing happened </li></ul>
  47. 66. U2 Crisis <ul><li>Eisenhower was at the Geneva summit with Russian Krushchev </li></ul><ul><li>Discussing reducing nuclear stockpiles. </li></ul><ul><li>With the U2 incident it was clear America was spying </li></ul><ul><li>The Geneva summit was called off </li></ul><ul><li>Cold War attitudes hardened </li></ul>
  48. 67. Berlin Wall
  49. 68. Space Race to the Moon
  50. 69. Space Race to the Moon
  51. 70.
  52. 72. Cuban Missile Crisis
  53. 73. First came the embarrassing incident of the Bay of Pigs invasion
  54. 74. Bay of Pigs Invasion US army with Cuban exiles plan what would be a failed invasion of Cuba - trying to rid Cuba of the communist leader Fidel Castro
  55. 75. The world sat in tension for 13 days as there was a show-down between the US and the USSR the country of Cuba
  56. 76. Kennedy Addresses the Nation Movie about the Cuban Missile Crisis Thirteen Days
  57. 77. Vietnam War
  58. 78. Vietnam - What Happened? <ul><li>Vietnam was known as IndoChina - a French colony since before World War I </li></ul><ul><li>After WWII it was still a French colony...but there were problems. </li></ul><ul><li>The French were suppose to give it up to the Vietnamese...there were suppose to be free elections.....but there were communist parties involved...... </li></ul><ul><li>Northern Vietnamese were communist - Southern Vietnamese were democratic </li></ul>
  59. 79. Vietnam - What Happened? <ul><li>Things got worse </li></ul><ul><li>Northern Communist Vietnamese were led by a man named Ho Chi Minh - he wanted to get rid of any other country’s influence..... (he had asked Woodrow Wilson back in WWI to allow free elections and rule by the Vietnamese people - he was turned down) </li></ul><ul><li>Southern Vietnamese - the free, democratic ones - were horribly corrupt </li></ul><ul><li>You couldn’t tell them apart by looks </li></ul><ul><li>Things got worse </li></ul>
  60. 80. Vietnam - What Happened? <ul><li>The elections went badly. </li></ul><ul><li>The French were attacked in 1957 </li></ul><ul><li>The UN sent some support personnel </li></ul><ul><li>The US didn’t get too heavily involved - we sent $ (under President Eisenhower) </li></ul><ul><li>Things got worse </li></ul><ul><li>The US sent $ and military advisors to support the democratic Vietnamese in their effort to defeat the communist Vietnamese (under President John F Kennedy) </li></ul>
  61. 81. Vietnam - What Happened? <ul><li>Things got worse </li></ul><ul><li>Finally under Pres. Johnson in 1964 the </li></ul><ul><li>Gulf of Tonkin incident occurred. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The boat USS Maddox took a hit from underwater missiles. It was in the international water zone just outside Northern Vietnam. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It seemed the Northern/Communist Vietnamese had attacked the US </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Things got worse... </li></ul>
  62. 82. Gulf of Tonkin Incident
  63. 83. Vietnam - What Happened? <ul><ul><li>By 1964 we are sending young men to fight. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The draft has begun. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It was young, Southern, black, undereducated men who made up most to the grunts and privates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>College boys could avoid the draft as long as grades were good </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some men chose to move to Canada </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Things got worse... </li></ul>
  64. 84. Vietnam - What Happened? <ul><ul><li>This was a TV war </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Images every night were broadcasted on the evening news - everyone sat down to watch the evening news in the 1960s (there were only 3 TV channels) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>America was wondering why it was fighting for other people who didn’t want us there </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Muhammed Ali, “no Vietnamese ever called me nigger” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Civil Rights mov’t was tearing America apart - it looked like it would be the 2nd Civil War in America </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Things got worse... </li></ul>
  65. 85. Napalm
  66. 86. Vietnam- What Happened? <ul><li>The American public no longer supported the war in Vietnam </li></ul><ul><li>By 1973 Nixon declared a gradual withdrawal - a “Vietnamization” of Vietnam </li></ul><ul><li>Except he lied. </li></ul><ul><li>things got worse </li></ul>
  67. 87. Vietnam- What Happened? <ul><li>The Paris Peace Accords were suppose to end the war </li></ul><ul><li>Secretly Nixon ordered the Christmas bombings of Vietnam’s neighbor - Cambodia - because Communists were coming in to support the Communists in Vietnam </li></ul><ul><li>things got worse </li></ul>
  68. 88. Vietnam- What Happened? <ul><li>students protested at Kent State in Ohio </li></ul>
  69. 89. Vietnam- What Happened? <ul><li>Finally the Vietnam war was over </li></ul><ul><li>The results: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vietnam became a communist country </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cambodia fell to a CRUEL communist party called the Pol Pot regime led by the Khmer Rouge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Millions were killed in the killing fields </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Americans no longer trusted their gov’t </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Solders who fought in the Vietnam war where mocked as “baby killers” </li></ul></ul>
  70. 90. Six Day War in Middle East 1967
  71. 91. In the Six Day War of June 1967, Israel defeated the combined armies of Egypt, Syria and Jordan, capturing the West Bank, East Jerusalem, the Gaza Strip, the Golan Heights and the Sinai Peninsula. For Israel, it was a stunning triumph; for Arabs, a humiliating defeat. Israel no longer occupies the Sinai or Gaza, but its continued hold over the other territories has stymied efforts to bring comprehensive peace to the Middle East.
  72. 92. Six Day War June a.k.a. Arab-Israeli War 5-10, 1967 <ul><li>War b/w Israel & enemies Egypt, Jordan, Syria </li></ul><ul><li>Egypt’s Nasser used Soviet false claim of Israeli forces gathering on Sinai penninsula to kick out the UN Emergency Force </li></ul><ul><li>Both Egypt and Israel mobilized forces </li></ul>Israel won control of Sinai penninsula results of this war affect geopolitics of this region even today!
  73. 93. Non Alignment Mov’t 1955 still exists today
  74. 94. Non Alignment Mov’t The movement was originally motivated by the founder- member countries’ desire not to be drawn into the Cold War ideological and military confrontation. However, this idealistic obsession of these leaders soon gave way to the global realpolitik realities and all these countries became to be known as closely aligned with the former Soviet Union. Nasser of Egypt Nehru of India Tito of Yugoslavia
  75. 95. Nuclear Non Proliferation Treaty 1968
  76. 96. Nuclear Non Proliferation Treaty 1968 Several major nuclear and even non-nuclear nations sign this treaty which is created to prevent the spread of nuclear technology. It did not prevent the spread BUT - It was a success for people asking for arms control because it did begin a serious mov’t to reduce arms Cooperation is now the name of the game!
  77. 97. Detente a loosening or warming of relations and words between Communists and Free World one example is the true instance where President Nixon sent the US pingpong team to China for display during an athletic conference
  78. 98. SALT Treaty
  79. 99. SALT treaties Strategic Arms Limitations Talks
  80. 100. Berlin Wall Comes Down
  81. 102. Dissolution of U.S.S.R.
  82. 103. 1945 End of WWII 1950 Korean War McCarthyism 1958-1970s Vietnam War Great Society Feminism Civil Rights Watergate 1980s Conservatism Republicanism Technologies Computers Berlin Wall comes down Disco 20 years of economic success!