Third Parties


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Third Parties

  1. 1. Parties in Elections & Third Parties
  2. 3. Third Parties <ul><li>What is a “third party”? </li></ul><ul><li>Cite examples of third parties </li></ul><ul><li>Identify and describe major challenges to third party success in the United States today </li></ul>
  3. 4. History of Third Parties <ul><ul><ul><li>Third parties have gotten great attention, but in fact h a ve not assumed the importance that all the academic attention on them suggests. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>No minor third party as ever come close to winning the presidency: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>キ  Only 8 have won as much as a single electoral vote. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>キ  Only 5 third party candidates including TR in 1912 and Ross Perot in 1992 have won more than 10% of popular vote. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 5. Minor Parties (3rd parties) <ul><li>1) Ideological parties- comprehensive, radical views, most enduring </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples include Communist, Socialist, Libertarians </li></ul></ul><ul><li>2) One-issue parties- address one concern </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples: Free Soil, Prohibition </li></ul></ul><ul><li>3) Economic Protest parties- regional </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples: Greenback, Populist </li></ul></ul><ul><li>4) Factional parties- split from major party </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples: Bull Moose, Christian Coalition </li></ul></ul>
  5. 6. 3rd Parties <ul><li>Factional parties probably have the greatest influence on public policy. </li></ul><ul><li>The BIG TWO may pay a heavy price if it fails to recognize the faction that has split from its party. </li></ul>
  6. 7. <ul><ul><ul><li>Critical Thinking: The US is the only major Western nation that does not have at least one significant and enduring national third party. Significance? </li></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 8. Purpose of Third Parties <ul><ul><ul><li>1. The electoral progress of third parties is in direct proportion to the failure of the two major parties to incorporate new ideas </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2. Influence: Major parties often take on the ideas of third parties. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The Democratic Party in 1896 incorporated much of the Populist Party’s platform. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The Republican Party in 1970s took on George Wallace’s “S t ates’ rights ” plank. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Both the Republican and Democratic Parties in 1992 took on Perot’s reform government ideas, reduce the deficit. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>3 . Once the major parties incorporate their ideas, third parties b u rn out. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 9. Parties in Elections <ul><li>U.S. electoral system favors a two party dominance </li></ul><ul><li>Why a two party dominance </li></ul><ul><li>1. single member districts- one man/one vote </li></ul><ul><li>2. Electoral College – “winner take all” </li></ul><ul><li>3. plurality system stacks the deck against 3 rd parties </li></ul><ul><li>4. money – PAC money (contributions from interest </li></ul><ul><li> groups) goes to party with power </li></ul><ul><li>C. Third parties have little voice in public agenda </li></ul><ul><li>1. Electoral College system makes it impossible to win </li></ul><ul><li> states, even with broad support </li></ul><ul><li>2. have very little money because they have no power </li></ul>
  9. 10. Parties in Elections <ul><li>Parties on the Spectrum </li></ul><ul><li>1. Democrats & Republicans are both centrist because </li></ul><ul><li> the majority of voters are in the middle of the </li></ul><ul><li>spectrum </li></ul><ul><li>2. Successful third parties are not too extreme (Perot- </li></ul><ul><li> Reform Party) </li></ul><ul><li>3. Most third parties are ideological </li></ul><ul><li>( Libertarian, Green, etc) and tend </li></ul><ul><li>to be to the right or left on the </li></ul><ul><li>spectrum </li></ul><ul><li>4. An Independent is a voter who is </li></ul><ul><li>not affiliated with ANY party </li></ul>
  10. 12. Ross Perot- unusual style but garnered 19% of the vote! (other parties paid attention)
  11. 14. Nader - 2000 election