Transcript of "The Asia And Islamic Empires In Transition33"
Asia and Islamic Empires in Transition <ul><li>Time to pull out those maps.... </li></ul>
China Ming and Qing Dynasties Ming and Qing Dynasties
Ming and Qing Empires Here is your reference point - BEIJING MING Qing
Ming Dynasty of China 1368-1600 <ul><li>Ming Foreign Policy </li></ul><ul><li>Early experienced sailors - used boats called junks </li></ul><ul><li>Instead spent $ on northern defense rather than explorations </li></ul><ul><li>fortified Great Wall in N. China. </li></ul><ul><li>gave land in area to soldiers for defense . </li></ul>
Ming Dynasty of China 1368-1600 <ul><li>Trade </li></ul><ul><li>Wiped out all Mongol influence </li></ul><ul><li>Restored Confucian ways. Based on relationships </li></ul><ul><li>Scholar gentry most important </li></ul><ul><li>merit system in securing gov’t offices </li></ul><ul><li>farmers </li></ul><ul><li>artisans </li></ul><ul><li>merchants (lowest b/c they produce nothing) </li></ul><ul><li>Nothing foreign allowed - no trade - no foreign people - they considered themselves self sufficient </li></ul><ul><li>Not like Europeans looking for colonies under economic policy of mercantilism </li></ul>
Mercantilism <ul><li>Economic theory that says the mother country should get as much gold and silver from trade as possible and the colonies should just supply raw materials </li></ul><ul><li>colonies should only sell to mother country </li></ul><ul><li>gov’t involved in trade </li></ul>
Ming Dynasty of China 1368-1600 DECLINE 1644 Northern tribes united under Manchurian ruler take over. Ming dynasty dies out. Qing dynasty is born
Qing Dynasty of China 1644-1850 <ul><li>Qing made </li></ul><ul><li>Made native traditional Han Chinese wear queue (tail) to signify submission </li></ul>Economy, Culture, Society
Qing Dynasty of China 1644-1850 <ul><li>Economy - Trade is important </li></ul><ul><li>http://artstyleonline.com/wp-content/uploads/2007/08/chinese-tea-set-small.jpg </li></ul><ul><li>Society </li></ul><ul><li>literature flourished. Philology - study of history of languages </li></ul>http://www.thebeijingguide.com/francais/panjia_market/porcelin2.jpg http://yayashoes.com/Images%5Cex313b.jpg
The Biggest Impact on China <ul><li>Opium </li></ul><ul><li>Christianity </li></ul><ul><li>Both threaten to rip apart traditional Chinese society </li></ul>
<ul><li>Why oh why, did the Europeans put up with all the trade restrictions in China and Japan? </li></ul>everyone in Europe wanted those Asian goods - silk, porcelin, tea, gunpowder, etc.
China and the Europeans The British o 1600 Tea – all the rage in Br. - British East India Tea Company monopolized trade o Restrictions: must deal w/ only few Ch merchants. Special foreign settlements called enclaves o Free trade replaces mercantilsm Free trade is the idea that anyone should sell and buy from anyone that you can. Best deal works. No gov’t involvement. Not obligated to sell to mother country
<ul><li>Now, for an interesting story.... </li></ul>
The Great Appeal of China <ul><li>If only we could sell one _________ to each Chinese person our factories could be in business forever. </li></ul>
Entering China Through Trade <ul><li>It’s the early 1800s and William Delano went out in the world to make money. He went to China but the Chinese didn’t need anything and he didn’t have anything unusual to offer. </li></ul>http://www.rawa.org/temp/runews/data/upimages/us_opium.jpg
Trade Wars <ul><li>British owned East India Tea Company became the biggest drug dealer in the world....and the Chinese people became the victims </li></ul>http://academic.brooklyn.cuny.edu/ core9 /phalsall/images/opium.gif The Opium Wars of 1839 Not only was the war the most humiliating defeat the Chinese had ever suffered, but it was also an example of how weak and vulnerable the Chinese are once their doors are opened to foreigners. For this reason, and many others, nationalist societies in China have struggled (and continue) to keep the destructive foreigners out.
Trade Wars lead to Civil Wars in China <ul><li>With the Opium introduction, the British also introduced missionaries to spread the word of Christianity. Missionaries in China become a well-established pattern that continues today. </li></ul><ul><li>The mix of drug and religion contributes to MAJOR CIVIL WAR 1850s </li></ul><ul><li>Begins with the Taiping Rebellion - strange mixture of gender equality and sex. </li></ul>25 Million Dead! US Civil War 1861-1865 620,000 dead
What happened to William Delano? <ul><li>He made a fortune in the Opium trade. Married and moved his family to New York City. </li></ul><ul><li>He had a daughter named Sarah. She married the neighbor’s son James Roosevelt. </li></ul><ul><li>They had a son. </li></ul><ul><li>Franklin Delano Roosevelt </li></ul>
China and the Europeans The British o Opium Trade ♣ Trade w Ch meant lots of silver flowing out of Ch economy ♣ Trade was for cotton from India but not enough Ch buy ♣ Intro new product: Opium ♣ Devasted Ch society ♣ Huge trade imbalance. ♣ Br refuse to stop
China and the Europeans The British o o Opium War - 1839-1842 o British defeat the Chinese o 1842 Treaty of Nanjing o Hong Kong to Br. Special living places, enclaves , special rules, extraterritoriality - until 1999 when it reverted back to China o More o Unequal treaties o More concessions Kwoloon land more ports o Now other foreign powers – Russia France, etc. but not the U.S. Mark Hong Kong on your map Mark Taiwan on your map
China and the Europeans Chinese culture views outsiders as inferior barbarians The Portuguese o Early 1500 Portuguese sailors work around coast to China. Some trade o 1557 – Trading station allowed at Macao o Jesuit missionaries o Astronomy opens the imperial court (they who had to predict such things) o Powerful positions allowed. o Catholic converts w/in high officials o Influence imperial policy Mark Macao on your map
Qing Dynasty of China 1644-1850 Decline corruption, disasters, foreigners pressure to be allowed to trade
<ul><li>Rebellions That Weaken Qing Dynasty </li></ul>
Qing Dynasty of China 1644-1850 Rebellions 1) White Lotus Rebellions - Religous based - peasants rebel. 1796-1800 then off/on ‘til 1850 mid 1800s Hong Xiuguan Christian convert. Wants new dynasty. Lots of destruction lots of damange in Yangtze River Valley and in southern China
China and the Europeans Rebellions 2) Taiping Rebellion 1850-1864 (this after the White Lotus Rebellion of earlier times (1796-1850) o Seriously weakened Qing dynasty o Foreign powers take advantage and estb more footholds
Japanese Shogunate Mark Japan on your map 1500-1860
<ul><li>3 Shogun-(real power - military power) </li></ul>In Japan, the Emperor is only a figurehead.
<ul><li>3 Shogunates (rulers) </li></ul>Tokugawas and the Shoguns in Japan o 1467 +100 yrs of bitter fighting among Ashikaga family in Japan. o Local daimyo fought for control o Late 1500s 3 daimyo emerge as leaders o Built a centralized feudal system in Japan
Japanese Shogunate 1) Oda Nobunaga Couldn’t control rivals
Japanese Shogunate 2) Toyotomi Hideyoshi o Weakened diamyo by reducing territory and with sword hunt among peasants. o Invaded Korea 2x but Chinese helped Korea defeat Toyotomi
Japanese Shogunate 2) Tokugawa Ieyasu o Capitol at Edo (now known as Tokyo). o Tokugawa shogunate ruled for 200+ yrs o Feudalism + central monarchy. o Peasants paid taxes to daimyo who were supported by samurai
Japanese Shogunate 2) Tokugawa Ieyasu o *Japan remained politically and economically decentralized o kept diamyo from making allies by requiring that they live in Edo every other year – families in Edo as hostages – that was expensive for diamyo. o *Tokugawa helped b/c strong central gov’t meant stability 200 yrs o *kept trade restrictions and limited foreigners.
Japanese Shogunate Foreign Control o mid 1500s Portuguese in Japan. Brought o Christianity - Jesuits o Muskets – anti Samurai lifestyle o Tokugawa shoguns conclude Christianity was threat – it weaken their authority o Evicted Portuguese o *island nation meant better able to achieve isolation than China
Japanese Shogunate Change in Japan US Pres Millard Fillmore sent Commodore Matthew Perry s teamed into Tokyo bay in 1853 – amazing technology
Japanese Shogunate Change in Japan o negotiated 1854 – Treaty of Kanagawa. 2 ports to US for food, shelter o signed similar treaties with GB, Fr etc o foreigners estb. consulates – d iplomatic offices
Japanese Shogunate Change in Japan o * 1860 civil war in Japan…anti Tokuguawa forces calling for change. o New emperor – Meiji Rule
How did Japan and China feel about trade with the Europeans?
Japan and China loved to sell goods to Europeans but did not like European influences in their own empires
Columbian Exchange <ul><li>wool, cloth, leather, florins </li></ul><ul><li>ginger, nutmeg, cinnamon, cloves, saffron, pepper, silk </li></ul><ul><li>maize, cacao, potatoes, tobacco, lima beans, tomatoes, pineapples, squash </li></ul><ul><li>horses, oranges, rice, sugar cane, wheat, coffee, bananas </li></ul><ul><li>African Slaves </li></ul>which one could not have been made to Europe before 1492?
Columbian Exchange <ul><li>Columbian exchange impacted the world in the following ways </li></ul><ul><li>a shortage of labor to grow cash crops led to using African slaves </li></ul><ul><li>new foods and products were introduced to Europe and the Americas </li></ul><ul><li>slavery was based on race </li></ul>
Mercantilsm <ul><li>Know the economic theory! </li></ul><ul><li>what purpose does a colony serve in mercantilism? </li></ul><ul><li>what is the single most important thing in this newly created economic plan called mercantilism? </li></ul>gold - silver - the huge wealth in the colonies
What is... <ul><li>Joint Stock Company - company where people buy a “share” or a “Stock” which they jointly own. Everyone pays up part of the costs of the company (usually an exploration party to the new world) and then if there is any profit everyone gets to split it. </li></ul>a plan for the average man - new wealth results in a new middle class
Leads to another new economic theory <ul><li>Free trade - economic theory stating gov’ts should not be involved in trade. Not about serving the mother country but about individual wealth </li></ul>
A particular slide catching your eye?
Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later.