1<br />Big Era Five<br />Patterns of Interregional Unity<br />300 – 1500 C.E.<br />
2<br />300 CE – 1500 CE<br />300 CE – 1500 CE<br />Big Era 2<br />Big Era 3<br />Big Era 5<br />Big Era 4<br />Big Era 6<b...
3<br />Microsoft®Encarta®Reference Library 2002. ©1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.<br />During Big Er...
4<br />At the start of Big Era Five, numerous inventions, trade goods, ideas, and religions were starting to spread from t...
5<br />…That spread of ideas and things is part of cultural exchange.<br />By the end of Big Era Five, many of these impor...
6<br />Cultural exchange had many aspects.<br />Population increased and people migrated.<br />Trade networks expanded and...
7<br />Population<br />Trade<br />Ideas<br />Empires<br />Let’s take a closer look at each of these causes of cultural exc...
8<br />Population<br />World population grew from about 250 million to 460 million between <br />200 CE and 1500 CE.<br />
9<br />Population<br />Were there billions of people living on the earth then as there are now?<br />No, then people were ...
10<br />World Population<br />Population<br />American Population<br />The population of the Americas was much smaller tha...
11<br />Population<br />As a result, cultural exchange in the Americas was less extensive than in Afroeurasia.<br />40 mil...
12<br />Population<br />So, we’ll look at cultural exchange in Afroeurasia, and then return to the Americas later.<br />Af...
13<br />Population growth in Afroeurasia affected the environment.<br />Population<br />Deforestation happened when cities...
14<br />Population<br />Human impact on the environment had serious effects!<br /><ul><li>Wood was insufficient for heat, ...
Soil eroded and degraded.
River flooding devastated villages, farmlands, and cities.
Famines meant people didn’t get enough to eat.</li></li></ul><li>15<br />Population<br />Population increases affected the...
16<br />Population<br />Vikings<br />Mongols<br />Germanic Tribes<br />Turkic Groups<br />Chinese<br />Arabs<br />Bantu-Sp...
17<br />Population<br />Migrations encouraged more cultural exchanges across Afroeurasia.<br /><ul><li>Migrating groups mo...
Migrating groups introduced new plants and animals into their new homes.
Migrations diffused technologies for farming, warfare, and crafts.
Migrations diffused languages, styles of living, and arts.</li></li></ul><li>18<br />Empires<br />During Big Era Five, man...
19<br />Empires<br />New ruling groups built on the foundations of earlier states and empires.<br />
20<br />Frankish Kingdoms<br />Avar Kingdom<br />Parhae<br />Yamoto Japan<br />Sassanid Empire<br />Byzantine Empire<br />...
21<br />Carolingian<br />Parhae<br />Byzantine<br />Cordoba Caliphate<br />Silla<br />Gurjara-Pratihara<br />Tang China<br...
22<br />Scandanavian Kingdoms<br />Russia<br />England<br />Poland<br />H.R.E.<br />Mongol Empire<br />France<br />Hungary...
23<br />Union of Kalmar<br />Russian States<br />ScotlandEngland<br />Poland-Lithuania<br />Khanate of the Golden Horde<br...
24<br />Empires<br /><ul><li>Wars led to destruction but produced new inventions.
Strong governments protected trade routes and stabilized currencies.
Royal courts were patrons of science, religious institutions, and arts.
Large states brought together many ethnic, language, and religious groups.</li></ul>How did states and empires stimulate c...
25<br />Trade<br />Trade was also closely linked to cultural exchange.<br />Empires supported trade in Afroeurasia.   Merc...
26<br />Trade<br />The number of cities grew, as well as trade networks between them.<br />
27<br />Trade<br />Microsoft®Encarta®Reference Library 2002. ©1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.<br />F...
28<br />Trade<br /><ul><li>Trade helped spread religions, languages, ideas, and arts.
Trade stimulated use of natural resources.
Cities and manufacturing centers grew bigger.
Banks, credit, and money systems encouraged regional and long distance trade.</li></ul>How did expanding trade networks br...
29<br />Ideas<br />During Big Era Five, universal religions spread across Afroeurasia.<br />Universal religions are belief...
30<br />Buddhism<br />Christianity<br />Ideas<br />Hinduism<br />Islam<br />The spread of universal religions from 300-150...
31<br />Monks spread Buddhism.<br />Traders and Sufi orders spread Islam.<br />Missionaries<br />spread Christianity.<br /...
32<br />Ideas<br /><ul><li>Universal faiths gave members a sense of community beyond political, class, or ethnic identities.
Religious scholars gathered and recorded knowledge and founded institutions of learning.
The spread of religions stimulated production and exchange of arts, literature, philosophy, and the sciences.</li></ul>How...
33<br />Ideas<br />What inventions, technologies, products, and ideas were exchanged across Afroeurasia?<br />
34<br />Scholars studied and spread knowledge in many institutions of learning.<br />Korean library<br />Sung scholar<br /...
35<br />Chinese<br />Muslim<br />Ideas<br />Indian<br />European<br />Natural sciences developed in <br />many places.<br />
36<br />Books & paper<br />Mapmaking<br />Stern-rudder<br />Ideas<br />North Arabian camel saddle<br />Astrolabe<br />Stir...
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Review Of World Trade 300 1500 Era05

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Review Of World Trade 300 1500 Era05

  1. 1. 1<br />Big Era Five<br />Patterns of Interregional Unity<br />300 – 1500 C.E.<br />
  2. 2. 2<br />300 CE – 1500 CE<br />300 CE – 1500 CE<br />Big Era 2<br />Big Era 3<br />Big Era 5<br />Big Era 4<br />Big Era 6<br />Big Era 2<br />Big Era 3<br />Big Era 5<br />Big Era 4<br />1800 CE<br />10,000 BCE<br />1000 BCE<br />1800 CE<br />10,000 BCE<br />1000 BCE<br />Patterns of Interregional Unity<br />Big Era Five lasted from 300 CE to 1500 CE.<br />Welcome to Big Era Five!<br />
  3. 3. 3<br />Microsoft®Encarta®Reference Library 2002. ©1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.<br />During Big Era Five, many connections were established among regions. These formed interregional patterns of unity.<br />
  4. 4. 4<br />At the start of Big Era Five, numerous inventions, trade goods, ideas, and religions were starting to spread from their regions of origin.<br />
  5. 5. 5<br />…That spread of ideas and things is part of cultural exchange.<br />By the end of Big Era Five, many of these important ideas and useful things had spread all across Afroeurasia…<br />…<br />
  6. 6. 6<br />Cultural exchange had many aspects.<br />Population increased and people migrated.<br />Trade networks expanded and cities grew.<br />Huge empires brought many different groups of people together.<br />People shared ideas across regions.<br />
  7. 7. 7<br />Population<br />Trade<br />Ideas<br />Empires<br />Let’s take a closer look at each of these causes of cultural exchange. <br />
  8. 8. 8<br />Population<br />World population grew from about 250 million to 460 million between <br />200 CE and 1500 CE.<br />
  9. 9. 9<br />Population<br />Were there billions of people living on the earth then as there are now?<br />No, then people were counted only in the millions.<br />A world population of 460 million in 1500 CE is about the same as the population of North America today!<br />
  10. 10. 10<br />World Population<br />Population<br />American Population<br />The population of the Americas was much smaller than the population of Afroeurasia.<br />
  11. 11. 11<br />Population<br />As a result, cultural exchange in the Americas was less extensive than in Afroeurasia.<br />40 million equals the population of Spain or Colombia today!<br />Less than 40 million people were spread over two huge continents.<br />
  12. 12. 12<br />Population<br />So, we’ll look at cultural exchange in Afroeurasia, and then return to the Americas later.<br />Afroeurasia<br />Microsoft®Encarta®Reference Library 2002. ©1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.<br />
  13. 13. 13<br />Population growth in Afroeurasia affected the environment.<br />Population<br />Deforestation happened when cities and farming expanded.<br />
  14. 14. 14<br />Population<br />Human impact on the environment had serious effects!<br /><ul><li>Wood was insufficient for heat, construction, and metal-working.
  15. 15. Soil eroded and degraded.
  16. 16. River flooding devastated villages, farmlands, and cities.
  17. 17. Famines meant people didn’t get enough to eat.</li></li></ul><li>15<br />Population<br />Population increases affected the environment. Sometimes, people got up and moved on to new lands.<br />Large groups of people moved around, or migrated. <br />
  18. 18. 16<br />Population<br />Vikings<br />Mongols<br />Germanic Tribes<br />Turkic Groups<br />Chinese<br />Arabs<br />Bantu-Speaking People of Africa<br />People of Oceania<br />People migrated to new places in (and out) of Afroeurasia.<br />
  19. 19. 17<br />Population<br />Migrations encouraged more cultural exchanges across Afroeurasia.<br /><ul><li>Migrating groups moved into other groups’ territories, forcing them to go elsewhere.
  20. 20. Migrating groups introduced new plants and animals into their new homes.
  21. 21. Migrations diffused technologies for farming, warfare, and crafts.
  22. 22. Migrations diffused languages, styles of living, and arts.</li></li></ul><li>18<br />Empires<br />During Big Era Five, many, many states and empires came… and went.<br />Building states and empires involved cultural exchanges in Afroeurasia.<br />
  23. 23. 19<br />Empires<br />New ruling groups built on the foundations of earlier states and empires.<br />
  24. 24. 20<br />Frankish Kingdoms<br />Avar Kingdom<br />Parhae<br />Yamoto Japan<br />Sassanid Empire<br />Byzantine Empire<br />Sui China<br />Silla<br />Harsha’ Empire<br />Chalukya<br />Ghana<br />Axum<br />States and Empires in 600 CE<br />
  25. 25. 21<br />Carolingian<br />Parhae<br />Byzantine<br />Cordoba Caliphate<br />Silla<br />Gurjara-Pratihara<br />Tang China<br />Heian Japan<br />Abbasid Caliphate<br />Ghana<br />Axum<br />Srivijaya<br />States and Empires in 800 CE<br />
  26. 26. 22<br />Scandanavian Kingdoms<br />Russia<br />England<br />Poland<br />H.R.E.<br />Mongol Empire<br />France<br />Hungary<br />Spain<br />Rum<br />Koryo<br />Portugal<br />Almohad Caliphate<br />Sung China<br />Kamakura Japan<br />Ayyubid Caliphate<br />Delhi Sultanate<br />Mali<br />Angkor<br />Ethiopia<br />Oyo<br />Benin<br />Zimbabwe<br />States and Empires in 1237 CE<br />
  27. 27. 23<br />Union of Kalmar<br />Russian States<br />ScotlandEngland<br />Poland-Lithuania<br />Khanate of the Golden Horde<br />Jagatai Khanate<br />Holy Roman Empire<br />France<br />Hungary<br />Portugal<br />Castile<br />Ottoman Emp.<br />Korea<br />Ashikaga Japan<br />Timurid Empire<br />Granada<br />Ming China<br />Marinids Hafsids<br />Mamluk Sultanate<br />Mali<br />Ethiopia<br />Siam<br />Oyo Benin<br />Vijayanagara<br />Zanj City-States<br />Majapahit<br />Zimbabwe<br />States and Empires in 1400 CE<br />
  28. 28. 24<br />Empires<br /><ul><li>Wars led to destruction but produced new inventions.
  29. 29. Strong governments protected trade routes and stabilized currencies.
  30. 30. Royal courts were patrons of science, religious institutions, and arts.
  31. 31. Large states brought together many ethnic, language, and religious groups.</li></ul>How did states and empires stimulate cultural exchanges in Afroeurasia?<br />
  32. 32. 25<br />Trade<br />Trade was also closely linked to cultural exchange.<br />Empires supported trade in Afroeurasia. Merchants traveled great distances in search of wealth.<br />
  33. 33. 26<br />Trade<br />The number of cities grew, as well as trade networks between them.<br />
  34. 34. 27<br />Trade<br />Microsoft®Encarta®Reference Library 2002. ©1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.<br />From 300-1500 CE, trade routes extended farther and were used by more travelers.<br />
  35. 35. 28<br />Trade<br /><ul><li>Trade helped spread religions, languages, ideas, and arts.
  36. 36. Trade stimulated use of natural resources.
  37. 37. Cities and manufacturing centers grew bigger.
  38. 38. Banks, credit, and money systems encouraged regional and long distance trade.</li></ul>How did expanding trade networks bring about cultural exchanges in Afroeurasia?<br />
  39. 39. 29<br />Ideas<br />During Big Era Five, universal religions spread across Afroeurasia.<br />Universal religions are belief systems that anyone can join – they’re not limited to any one group.<br />
  40. 40. 30<br />Buddhism<br />Christianity<br />Ideas<br />Hinduism<br />Islam<br />The spread of universal religions from 300-1500 CE<br />
  41. 41. 31<br />Monks spread Buddhism.<br />Traders and Sufi orders spread Islam.<br />Missionaries<br />spread Christianity.<br />Ideas<br />Who spread these universal <br />religions across Afroeurasia?<br />
  42. 42. 32<br />Ideas<br /><ul><li>Universal faiths gave members a sense of community beyond political, class, or ethnic identities.
  43. 43. Religious scholars gathered and recorded knowledge and founded institutions of learning.
  44. 44. The spread of religions stimulated production and exchange of arts, literature, philosophy, and the sciences.</li></ul>How did the spread of religion encourage cultural exchange in Afroeurasia?<br />
  45. 45. 33<br />Ideas<br />What inventions, technologies, products, and ideas were exchanged across Afroeurasia?<br />
  46. 46. 34<br />Scholars studied and spread knowledge in many institutions of learning.<br />Korean library<br />Sung scholar<br />European astronomer<br />Ideas<br />Muslim astronomers<br />
  47. 47. 35<br />Chinese<br />Muslim<br />Ideas<br />Indian<br />European<br />Natural sciences developed in <br />many places.<br />
  48. 48. 36<br />Books & paper<br />Mapmaking<br />Stern-rudder<br />Ideas<br />North Arabian camel saddle<br />Astrolabe<br />Stirrup<br />Lateen sail<br />Transport and communication technologies improved.<br />
  49. 49. 37<br />Ideas<br />Water & energy technologies were transferred across Afroeurasia.<br /><ul><li>Hydraulic systems carried water where expanding cities needed it.
  50. 50. Wheels lifted water to irrigate crops and drain swamps.
  51. 51. Waterwheels, windmills, and trip-hammers provided energy for pumping, grinding, milling, and pounding.</li></li></ul><li>38<br />Ideas<br />Crops also diffused across Afroeurasia. Travelers and migrants introduced plants into new regions. People began to grow, eat, and sell these crops.<br />
  52. 52. 39<br />Ideas<br /><ul><li>Sorghum fattened up folks when this cereal crop spread from eastern Africa to China.
  53. 53. Citrus fruits rolled from Southwest Asia to Spain, celebrated in garden and song.
  54. 54. Cane sugar sweetened a path from India to the Mediterranean.
  55. 55. Cotton wove its way from India to North Africa, Central Asia, and China.
  56. 56. Veggies like spinach, asparagus, and broccoli stirred vitamins into meals across the hemisphere.</li></li></ul><li>40<br />Ideas<br />How did transfers of technology and products change people’s lives in Afroeurasia?<br /><ul><li>The pace of innovation increased.
  57. 57. Knowledge accumulated more quickly.
  58. 58. Manufacturing and farming productivity increased.
  59. 59. People’s diets and health improved.
  60. 60. Sea travel and transport webs became thicker.</li></li></ul><li>41<br />If you had to put the changes in Big Era Five into one sentence, what would it be?<br />You might say that by 1500 CE the world was connected, right?<br />But wait! You still haven’t said much <br />about the Americas!<br />
  61. 61. 42<br />Well…the Americas and Afroeurasia were not yet permanently linked together.<br />…not until 1492 . . .<br />When Columbus set sail across the Atlantic . . .<br />Microsoft®Encarta®Reference Library 2002. ©1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.<br />
  62. 62. 43<br />The Americas had fewer people than Afroeurasia, and the two land masses were geographically isolated from each other. Developments in the two regions were similar in some ways and different in others. In any case, the Americas were also a region of active human interchange. <br />Microsoft®Encarta®Reference Library 2002. ©1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.<br />
  63. 63. 44<br />Cultural development and exchange in the Americas:The Maya, Inca, and Aztec Empires<br />Moche Ceramic<br />Mississippian Mica<br />Mayan Calendar<br />Inca Gold<br />Corn & Potatoes<br />Sciences like astronomy, mathematics and engineering were developed.<br />Trade routes connected regions.<br />Mining, irrigation, and agricultural technologies developed.<br />Crops like potatoes, maize, tomatoes, cotton, and chocolate were grown.<br />
  64. 64. 45<br />States and Empires in the Americas in 1500 CE<br />Mayan States<br />Aztec Empire<br />Inca Empire<br />Microsoft®Encarta®Reference Library 2002. ©1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.<br />
  65. 65. 46<br />At the very end of Big Era Five, European mariners set out on trans-oceanic voyages to the Americas.<br />Those voyages linked the Americas with Afroeurasia for the first time since the migrations of people over 13,000 years earlier!<br />It had to happen sooner or later!<br />
  66. 66. 47<br />Mapmaking<br />Lateen Sail<br />Compass<br />Stern-rudder<br />Cultural exchange in Afroeurasia before 1500 CE made possible the technologies that in turn permitted transoceanic voyages.<br />Is that why people from Afroeurasia discovered the Americas, and not the opposite?<br />
  67. 67. 48<br />In Big Era Six, we’ll see learn about the explosive things that happened when migration, empires, trade, and ideas started moving around the entire globe.<br />End of Big Era Five<br />http://www.lvna.net/Activities/Fireworks/fireworks.html<br />
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