The Spread of Lutheranism 1517 - 95 Thesis nailed to the church door in Wittenberg.
The Peasant Revolt - 1525 Things are fermenting and changing!
The Peace of Augsburg 1555 http://occawlonline.pearsoned.com/bookbind/pubbooks/brummettconcise/chapter98/medialib/illustrations/WALL5295292.gif
After Luther there are even more religious groups…. Calvinism
Calvin and Calvinism In 1531, there was a war between Protestant and Catholic states in Switzerland. http://images.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/9/9f/Historische_Karte_CH_1536_E.png/180px-Historische_Karte_CH_1536_E.png&imgrefurl=http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Reformation_in_Switzerland&usg=__ioLeFiCK088-8Tp-AnV3U43octU=&h=112&w=180&sz=42&hl=en&start=49&tbnid=4AeCyPoe2M9BHM:&tbnh=63&tbnw=101&prev=/images%3Fq%3DCalvinism%2Bwars%2Bin%2BSwitzerland%26gbv%3D2%26ndsp%3D20%26hl%3Den%26safe%3Dactive%26sa%3DN%26start%3D40
Calvin and Calvinism <ul><li>John Calvin assumed the leadership of Protestantism in Switzerland. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Here is his story… </li></ul></ul>
Calvin and Calvinism John Calvin fled Catholic France for Switzerland after he converted to Protestantism. <ul><li>He placed a new emphasis on the all-powerful nature of God–what Calvin called the “power, grace, and glory of God.” </li></ul><ul><li>This led him to the important idea of predestination, which meant that God had determined in advance who would be saved (the elect) and who would be damned (the reprobate). </li></ul>http://www.historyguide .org/images/calvin.jpg
Calvin and Calvinism <ul><li>Calvin’s followers came to believe they were certain of salvation and were doing God’s work on Earth. </li></ul><ul><li>Calvinism became a dynamic, activist faith. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1536, Calvin began to reform the city of Geneva. </li></ul><ul><li>He created a church government and a body called the Consistory , which enforced moral discipline. </li></ul><ul><li>This form of church running a gov’t is known as a theocracy </li></ul>
Calvin and Calvinism <ul><li>He set up a court to oversee the moral life and doctrinal purity of Genevans. </li></ul>People who deviated could be punished, even for such “crimes” as dancing and gambling. http://www.midway.org/atf/cf/%7BF2639556-5527-41A0-B327-5DAF8D139628%7D/Dancing%20Boy.jpg
<ul><li>Calvin’s success in Geneva made it a powerful center of Protestantism. </li></ul><ul><li>Missionaries trained in Geneva were sent throughout Europe. </li></ul><ul><li>By the mid-sixteenth century, Calvinism had replaced Lutheranism as the most important form of Protestantism. </li></ul>Calvin and Calvinism
It Spreads to France http://www.thetakeaway.org/media/photologue/photos/cache/warning-religious-wars-sign_large_image.jpg
<ul><li>Huguenots – people of wealth in France who converted to Calvinism </li></ul><ul><li>Bloody civil wars against Catholics in France </li></ul><ul><li>1598 Henry IV issued Edict of Nantes saying Huguenots had freedom of worship </li></ul>http://images.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/5/5f/Louis_XIV_of_France.jpg/180px-Louis_XIV_of_France.jpg&imgrefurl=http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edict_of_Nantes&usg=__hwpQiM7szB-bTd_pqL1mOie2bN0=&h=256&w=180&sz=17&hl=en&start=13&tbnid=CxxxP9npeUfbjM:&tbnh=111&tbnw=78&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dedict%2Bof%2Bnantes%26gbv%3D2%26hl%3Den%26safe%3Dactive
Maps and Charts 4 Remember the Peace of Augsburg of 1555? What can you say about geography and Rome and new religions? As these territorial boundaries change there is increasing religious Tension especially when Calvinism joins in battle of faith (they weren’t mentioned in the Peace of Augsburg) This will lead to the Thirty Years War between Catholic and Protestants
Thirty Years War - It All Began Over Pooh Pooh The year was 1618 It was Lutherans against Calvinists and against Catholics! It was a time of slanderous pamphlets….full of false accusations against each other In 1618 it all changed Someone threw pooh…… You could say it hit the fan….
Thirty Years War - It All Began Over Pooh Pooh In Prague, a Protestant mob grabbed the Catholic governors of the state and threw them out the window of the castle into a pile of dung below. The Catholic gov’nors, unhurt but smelly, demanded that the Protestant mob immediately be punished Catholic and Protestant rulers across Europe quickly began to take sides, form alliances, and build their armies Most of the leaders of the Protestant mob in Prague were beheaded by the Catholics and their heads displayed above the main bridge in Prague All of Europe immediately went to war
Maps and Charts 4 <ul><ul><ul><li>Finally after 30 years of warfare, battle weary forces met 1648 to sign the Treaty of Westphalia . The agreement reaffirmed the Peace of Augsburg, but added Calvinism to the religious choices. It divided up Europe into the Protestant and Catholic states we know today. </li></ul></ul></ul>One thing not mentioned in the treaty…Christianity. All that brutality in the name of Christianity. 30,000 women burned as witches This will open the door to the age of reason…the age of Enlightenment
Why Is the Treaty of Westphalia(1648) So Important? <ul><li>Europe is now its own political authority- no more is the Pope the only recognized authority </li></ul><ul><li>After century of bloody war of religious slaughter philosopher John Locke’s ideas that religion was dangerous seemed true </li></ul>
The Anabaptists Dutch persecution of Anabaptists (Mennonites)
The Anabaptists and Effects on the Role of Women (cont.) <ul><li>Based on New Testament accounts of early Christianity, Anabaptists considered all believers equal. </li></ul><ul><li>Any member of the community could be a minister because all Christians were considered priests. </li></ul><ul><li>Women were often excluded from the ministry, however. </li></ul>
<ul><li>Anabaptists believed in the complete separation of church and state. </li></ul><ul><li>Government was not to even have political authority over real Christians. </li></ul><ul><li>Anabaptists would not hold office or bear arms. </li></ul><ul><li>They took literally the biblical commandment to not kill. </li></ul><ul><li>Their political and religious beliefs caused Anabaptists to be branded dangerous radicals. </li></ul>The Anabaptists and Effects on the Role of Women (cont.)
http://www.uwec.edu/Geography/Ivogeler/w188/utopian/persecution.htm The metal cattle catcher was called an Anabaptist Catcher . The Anabaptist, meaning second baptism, was used by the state churches to describe those who believed in adult baptism. Today, the term is accepted by these very groups. <ul><li>Protestants and Catholics agreed on the need to persecute Anabaptists. </li></ul><ul><li>Contemporary Mennonites and Amish are Anabaptist communities. </li></ul>
Radical Reformation What was their view of women?
<ul><li>Protestantism continued the traditional subservience and obedience of the wife. </li></ul><ul><li>Woman’s role was to bear children. </li></ul><ul><li>This function was part of the divine plan, according to Luther and Calvin. </li></ul><ul><li>Protestantism did not change women’s subordinate place in society. </li></ul>
Maps and Charts 4 So what changes did the Catholics make to stop the spread of Catholicism? It’s the Catholic Reformation… the Catholic Church set two goals, one external and one internal. 1.Externally, the Church sought to attack Protestantism wherever it existed and tried to reconvert Protestants back to Catholicism. 2. Internally, the Church wanted to reform the age-old abuses and reenergize Catholicism
The Catholic Reformation <ul><li>In addition to attempts to stop the spread of Protestantism, the Catholic Church looked at itself and enacted internal reforms . This reforming spirit culminated with the Council of Trent that lasted on and off from 1545-1563. </li></ul><ul><li>In the town of Trent, Catholic officials met to consider what changes were necessary. </li></ul><ul><li>The Council cracked down on simony, pluralism and absenteeism. It also helped increase the level of education of the clergy. </li></ul>
The Catholic Reformation While Trent outlawed the selling of indulgences , the practice of granting indulgences continued . However, in the area of religious doctrine, there were no changes made. The Council confirmed the previous practices.
The Catholic Reformation <ul><ul><li>Another arm of the internal reform movement was an order known as the Society of Jesus . Founded by Ignatius of Loyola , the Society of Jesus, or Jesuits, sought to help Catholics rediscover their faith. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ignatius wrote a handbook, The Spiritual Exercises, to help Catholics study and practice Catholicism. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The ranks of the Jesuits grew quickly and they spread out all over the world to convert and preach a disciplined Catholic morality . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ultimately, the efforts of these loyal shock troops paid off, as many Protestants reconverted to Catholicism. </li></ul></ul>
Reviewing Key Facts History How did Ignatius of Loyola help to reform Catholicism? He helped reform Catholicism by establishing the Society of Jesus, or Jesuits, a religious order that took a special vow of absolute obedience to the pope and used education to spread their messages, restoring Catholicism to parts of Germany and eastern Europe and spreading it to other parts of the world.