Gerrymandering And Pork Spending

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Gerrymandering And Pork Spending

  1. 1. <ul><ul><li>Recap/ Summary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>About Congress </li></ul></ul>
  2. 2. <ul><ul><li>Summary -Congress </li></ul></ul>HOUSE <ul><li>435 members that serve 2 year terms </li></ul><ul><li>Can only one major committee assignment (policy specialists) </li></ul><ul><li>Speaker’s referral of bills to committee is hard to challenge </li></ul><ul><li>Committees almost always consider legislation first </li></ul><ul><li>Scheduling and rules are controlled by the majority party </li></ul><ul><li>Rules Committee is powerful; controls time of debate, admissibility of amendments </li></ul><ul><li>Debate is usually limited to one hour </li></ul><ul><li>Nongermane amendments may not be introduced from the floor </li></ul><ul><li>Revenue bills must start here. </li></ul><ul><li>Decide prez if no winner in e college </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><ul><li>Summary -Congress </li></ul></ul>SENATE <ul><li>100 members that serve 6 year terms (staggered terms) </li></ul><ul><li>Can sit on 2 or more committees (policy generalists) </li></ul><ul><li>Referral decisions are easy to challenge </li></ul><ul><li>Committee consideration is easily bypassed </li></ul><ul><li>Scheduling and rules are generally agreed to by majority and minority leaders </li></ul><ul><li>Rules Committee is weak; few limits on debate or amendments </li></ul><ul><li>Debate is unlimited unless shortened by unanimous consent or by invoking cloture </li></ul><ul><li>Nongermane amendments may be introduced. (Riders) </li></ul><ul><li>Choose VP if no winner in e college. </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><ul><li>Reapportionment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gerrymandering </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Gerrymandering http://www.prisonersofthecensus.org/images/gerrymander.jpg Define it Gerrymandering is a form of boundary redistricting in which electoral or constitutional boundaries are deliberately modified for electoral purposes (i.e. benefiting one party) - producing a contorted shape. The resulting district is known as gerrymander
  6. 6. Gerrymandering What is the purpose? 1) The purpose of gerrymandering is to either concentrate opposition votes into a few districts to gain more seats for the majority in surrounding districts (called packing), 2) or to diffuse minority strength across many districts (called dilution). 3) Draw districts so independents will be distributed evenly throughout districts rarely contested. 4) Vote the redistricting plan through because they have the majority votes
  7. 7. Gerrymandering Who is responsible for drawing those lines? What limitations do they have? Compact Contiguous Population Equality (640,000-650,000)
  8. 8. Gerrymandering
  9. 9. Gerrymandering
  10. 10. <ul><ul><li>BakBaBer Bav Carr </li></ul></ul>How can gerrymandering be limited beyond Congress? In the courts
  11. 11. <ul><ul><li>BakBaBer Bav Carr </li></ul></ul>Baker v Carr estb. that reapportionment was a justifiable issue for the court (no longer a political issue to avoid) and that the “one person one vote” principle in legislative districts ought to be relatively equal Reynolds v Sims was a follow up to Baker that held that the Alabama state legislative districts unconstitutionally violated the principal Westbury v Saunders then applied that principal to Congressional districts
  12. 12. <ul><ul><li>BakBaBer Bav Carr </li></ul></ul>Gomillion v. Lightfoot electoral district boundaries drawn only to disenfranchise blacks violates the 15th A Shaw v Reno 1993 redistricting based on standards of race must be held to strict scrutiny under equal protection clause
  13. 13. <ul><ul><li>BakBaBer Bav Carr </li></ul></ul>How can gerrymandering be limited beyond Congress? 1) courts, yes.... 2) voter patterns change 3) citizens move in and out of districts 4) pluralism can effect
  14. 14. <ul><ul><li>BakBaBer Bav Carr </li></ul></ul>What are the positive effects of gerrymandering? 1) minority representatives can be elected in minority districts 2) it is a clear violation of representative democracy...
  15. 15. <ul><ul><li>BakBaBer Bav Carr </li></ul></ul>PORK BARREL SPENDING An incumbent advantage
  16. 16. <ul><ul><li>BakBaBReader Bav Carr </li></ul></ul>PORK BARREL SPENDING Why do Congressmen allow it? Read article Pork in Congress Congressmen work hard so why allow these earmarks? They aren’t going to let a bill go on the basis of one item
  17. 17. <ul><ul><li>BakBaBReader Bav Carr </li></ul></ul>PORK BARREL SPENDING Let’s look deeper at earmarked spending... http://earmarks.omb.gov /
  18. 18. <ul><ul><li>BakBaBer Bav Carr </li></ul></ul>PORK BARREL SPENDING Reformers claim that pork-barrel legislation (“bring home the bacon”) is a misallocation of tax dollars because it supports trivial social projects for reelection prospects. Truthfully, not all pork is bad because many congressional districts get benefits that are long overdue to them. Additionally, spending on pork legislation is only a small fraction of what is spent on entitlement programs. A citizen-oriented Congress= a pork-barrel oriented Congress.
  19. 19. <ul><ul><li>BakBaBer Bav Carr </li></ul></ul>PORK BARREL SPENDING Why not a line item veto? Many states have it. Clinton v New York ? sc says president can't veto line item. Now it will have to be amendment.

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