Chp 6 Text Version

11,501 views

Published on

Published in: News & Politics
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
11,501
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
10,217
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
40
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Chp 6 Text Version

  1. 1. Public Opinion and Political Action Chapter 6 Edwards, Wattenberg, and Lineberry Government in America: People, Politics, and Policy Fourteenth Edition
  2. 2. Introduction <ul><li>Public Opinion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The distribution of the population’s beliefs about politics and policy issues </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Demography </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The science of population changes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Census </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A valuable tool for understanding population changes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Required every 10 years by the Constitution </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. The American People <ul><li>The Immigrant Society </li></ul><ul><ul><li>United States is a nation of immigrants. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Three waves of immigration: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Northwestern Europeans (prior to late 19 th Century) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Southern and eastern Europeans (late 19 th and early 20 th centuries) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hispanics and Asians (late 20 th century) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 4. The American People <ul><li>The American Melting Pot </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Melting Pot: the mixing of cultures, ideas, and peoples that has changed the American nation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Minority Majority: the emergence of a non-Caucasian majority </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Political culture is an overall set of values widely shared within a society. </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. The American People
  6. 6. The American People <ul><li>The American Melting Pot (continued) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>African Americans face a legacy of racism. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hispanics are the largest minority group faced with the problem of illegal immigration. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Simpson-Mazzoli Act: requires employers document citizenship of employee </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Asian immigration has been driven by a new class of professional workers. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Native Americans: indigenous and disadvantaged </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. The American People <ul><li>The Regional Shift </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Population shift from east to west </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reapportionment: the process of reallocating seats in the House of Representatives every 10 years on the basis of the results of the census </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. The American People <ul><li>The Graying of America </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fastest growing age group is over 65 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Potential drain on Social Security </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pay as you go system </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>In 1942, 42 workers per retiree </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>In 2040, 2 workers per retiree </li></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 9. How Americans Learn About Politics: Political Socialization <ul><li>Political Socialization: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“the process through which and individual acquires [their] particular political orientation” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Orientation grows firmer with age </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Process of Political Socialization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Family: Political leanings of children often mirror their parents’ leanings </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. How Americans Learn About Politics: Political Socialization
  11. 11. How Americans Learn About Politics: Political Socialization <ul><li>The Process of Political Socialization (continued) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Mass Media </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Chief source of information as children age </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Generation gap is viewing television news </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>School </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Used by government to socialize young into political culture </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Better-educated citizens are more likely to vote and are more knowledgeable about politics and policy. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 12. How American Learn About Politics: Political Socialization <ul><li>Political Learning Over a Lifetime </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Aging increases political participation and strength of party attachment. </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Measuring Public Opinion and Political Information <ul><li>How Polls Are Conducted </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sample: a small proportion of people who are chosen in a survey to be representative of the whole </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Random Sampling: the key technique employed by sophisticated survey researchers which operates on the principle that everyone should have an equal probability of being selected for the sample </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sampling Error: the level of confidence in the findings of a public opinion poll </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Measuring Public Opinion and Political Information <ul><li>The Role of Polls in American Democracy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Polls help politicians detect public preferences. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>But critics say polls make politicians think more about following than leading public </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Even though politicians do not track opinion to make policy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Question wording may affect survey results </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Measuring Public Opinion and Political Information <ul><li>The Role of Polls in American Democracy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Polls may distort election process </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Exit Polls: used by the media to predict election day winners </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>May discourage people from voting </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2000 presidential election in Florida </li></ul></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Measuring Public Opinion and Political Information <ul><li>What Polls Reveal About Americans’ Political Information </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Americans don’t know much about politics. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Americans may know their basic beliefs but not how that affects policies of the government. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Decline of Trust in Government </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Since 1964, trust in government has declined. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trust in government has gone up somewhat since September 11. </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Measuring Public Opinion and Political Information
  18. 18. Measuring Public Opinion and Political Information
  19. 19. What Americans Value: Political Ideologies <ul><li>Political Ideology: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A coherent set of beliefs about politics, public policy, and public purpose </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Who Are the Liberals and Conservatives? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Predominance of conservative over liberal thinking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Currently about 38% conservative, 24% liberal, 38% moderate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Gender gap: women tend to be less conservative than men </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ideological variation by religion too </li></ul></ul></ul>
  20. 20. What Americans Value: Political Ideologies
  21. 21. What Americans Value: Political Ideologies <ul><li>Do People Think in Ideological Terms? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ideologues: think in ideological terms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Group Benefits voters: view politics through party or group label </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nature of the Times: view of politics based on whether times are good or bad </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No issue content: vote routinely for party or personality </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. How Americans Participate in Politics <ul><li>Political Participation: all the activities used by citizens to influence the selection of political leaders or the policies they pursue </li></ul><ul><li>Conventional Participation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Voting in elections </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Working in campaigns or running for office </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contacting elected officials </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. How Americans Participate in Politics <ul><li>Protest as Participation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Protest: a form of political participation designed to achieve policy changes through dramatic and unconventional tactics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Civil disobedience: a form of political participation that reflects a conscious decision to break a law believed to be immoral and to suffer the consequences </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. How Americans Participate in Politics <ul><li>Class, Inequality, and Participation </li></ul>
  25. 25. Understanding Public Opinion and Political Action <ul><li>Public Attitudes Toward the Scope of Government </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Many people have no opinion about scope of government. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Public opinion is inconsistent, which may lead to policy gridlock. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Democracy, Public Opinion, and Political Action </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Americans select leaders, but do they do so wisely? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If people know little about candidates’ issues, how can they? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>People vote more for performance than policy. </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Summary <ul><li>American society is ethnically diverse and changing. </li></ul><ul><li>Knowing public opinion is important to a democracy, just as polling has costs and benefits. </li></ul><ul><li>Americans know little about politics. </li></ul><ul><li>Political participation is generally low. </li></ul>

×