The Development of Productive
Vocabulary in Knowledge
Building: A Longitudinal Study
Bodong Chen, Leanne Ma, Yoshiaki Mats...
LANGUAGE AND
DEVELOPMENT
Sociocultural Theory
(Vygotsky, 1978)
• Child development extends across
social, conceptual, linguistic, and
cultural comp...
Language and Learning
• Word knowledge is critical for:
– Verbal and listening skills
– Reading comprehension
– Learning n...
Instructional Approaches
(Brown, Collins, & Duguid, 1989)
Direct Instruction Whole-Language
Mechanical approach
Focus on c...
In Knowledge Building it is not enough
that students incorporate new words into
their speech and writing, they need to
inc...
• Collective goal is to create and refine
community knowledge
• Principle-based pedagogy
– Idea diversity
– Continual idea...
Knowledge Forum
CURRENT STUDY
Objectives
• To explore students’ productive
vocabulary growth over elementary
years within a Knowledge Building
context
•...
Methods
• Longitudinal cohort study of KB class
– 22 students in Toronto, Canada
• Data sources
– KF notes
– KF activity l...
Question 1
How did students’ productive vocabulary
change over the span of six years?
– Lexical proficiency
– Rate of voca...
Lexical Proficiency
• Lexical richness
– Total tokens and types
• Lexical frequency profile
– First 1000 words (Laufer & N...
Vocabulary Growth
• Appearance of new words each year
– First 1000 words (Laufer & Nation, 2000)
– Second 1000 words (Lauf...
Question 2
How are Knowledge Building behaviours
related to changes in students’ productive
vocabulary?
– Reading
– Writin...
FINDINGS
Overview of KF Activity
Grade Created Read Revised
1 15.1 63.10 12.33
2 18.43 73.95 9.33
3 19.71 182.00 14.76
4 21.74 235....
Question 1
How did students’ productive vocabulary
change over the span of six years?
– Lexical proficiency (i.e., lexical...
Lexical Richness
Grade Tokens Types
1 208.10 98.90
2 159.48 72.38
3 114.48 65.10
4 176.53 85.21
5 498.38 146.69
6 366.23 1...
Overview of Vocabulary
• First 1000 words 1091
• Second 1000 words 331
• Academic words 105
• Other words 635
Lexical Frequency Profile
Grade 1st K 2nd K Acad Other
1 89.2 4.21 2.31 4.28
2 87.1 6.43 0.54 5.96
3 80.6 6.76 4.50 8.14
4...
Question 1
How did students’ productive vocabulary
change over the span of six years?
– Rate of vocabulary growth
Vocabulary Growth
Question 2
How are Knowledge Building behaviours
related to changes in students’ productive
vocabulary?
– Reading
– Writin...
*p <.05
** p <.01
*** p <.001
KB & Lexical Proficiency
Create Read Revise
Token .15 .07 .23**
Type .29*** .17* .42***
Voca...
KB Discourse: Definition
What is claymore? My theory is that it
is a type of [pottery] wheel.
I think a claymore was a typ...
KB Discourse: Context
How does gravity work? Is it a force in the
ground that pulls you down or something
in the air that ...
KB Discourse: Context
How does gravity work in the
middle of the earth?
Gravity is: the downward pull of
the earths gravit...
SUMMARY
Question 1
How did students’ productive vocabulary
change over the span of six years?
– Tendency to produce more tokens, m...
Question 2
How are Knowledge Building behaviours
related to changes in students’ productive
vocabulary?
– All behaviours w...
Future Directions
• Comparison groups (e.g., demographics)
• Classroom context
– Role of teacher
– Face-to-face interactio...
We ought to assume that there is
potential for a collective zone of
proximal development in any
classroom, and that within...
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CSCL 2015 | The Development of Productive Vocabulary in Knowledge Building: A Longitudinal Study

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We report a longitudinal study on the development of 22 students’ productive vocabulary in knowledge building from Grade 1 to 6. Vocabulary growth was assessed based on the student discourse in Knowledge Forum, an online community space designed to support Knowledge Building. Analysis of lexical proficiency based on Lexical Frequency Profile and P_Lex indicated significant growth in productive written vocabulary, especially for words beyond the first two 1,000 word lists. By tracing the growth of vocabulary extracted from specific word lists, we found that the growth rate for different types of words varied across each year but correlated with each other. Correlation analyses between these lexical measures and Knowledge Building behavioral indicators revealed that note revisions are the strongest predictor of vocabulary growth rate, whereas note reading is related with lexical proficiency measures.

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  • Consistent growth for first k
    Acad and other words grew more rapidly in 5 and 6
  • CSCL 2015 | The Development of Productive Vocabulary in Knowledge Building: A Longitudinal Study

    1. 1. The Development of Productive Vocabulary in Knowledge Building: A Longitudinal Study Bodong Chen, Leanne Ma, Yoshiaki Matsuzawa, and Marlene Scardamalia Institute for Knowledge Innovation and Technology CSCL • June 9, 2015 • Gothenburg
    2. 2. LANGUAGE AND DEVELOPMENT
    3. 3. Sociocultural Theory (Vygotsky, 1978) • Child development extends across social, conceptual, linguistic, and cultural competencies – Learning is a sociocultural process – Learning is mediated by tools, symbols, and language
    4. 4. Language and Learning • Word knowledge is critical for: – Verbal and listening skills – Reading comprehension – Learning new concepts (e.g., Biemiller, 2005; Cunningham & Stanovich, 1997; Steahr, 2009) • The more words a student knows, the easier it is for them to access new resources and learn more (Stahl, 1991)
    5. 5. Instructional Approaches (Brown, Collins, & Duguid, 1989) Direct Instruction Whole-Language Mechanical approach Focus on components Memorize/apply rules Structured, linear process Authentic, situated approach Focus on function Preserve meaning Dynamic, emergent process • Language is a sociocultural artifact
    6. 6. In Knowledge Building it is not enough that students incorporate new words into their speech and writing, they need to incorporate new word meanings into their thinking and into their contributions to collective knowledge spaces, where these terms can be further discussed and elaborated. (Resendes et. al., 2013) Knowledge Building
    7. 7. • Collective goal is to create and refine community knowledge • Principle-based pedagogy – Idea diversity – Continual idea improvement – Collective cognitive responsibility Knowledge Building (Scardamalia, 2002)
    8. 8. Knowledge Forum
    9. 9. CURRENT STUDY
    10. 10. Objectives • To explore students’ productive vocabulary growth over elementary years within a Knowledge Building context • To expand CSCL literature with longitudinal study
    11. 11. Methods • Longitudinal cohort study of KB class – 22 students in Toronto, Canada • Data sources – KF notes – KF activity logs
    12. 12. Question 1 How did students’ productive vocabulary change over the span of six years? – Lexical proficiency – Rate of vocabulary growth
    13. 13. Lexical Proficiency • Lexical richness – Total tokens and types • Lexical frequency profile – First 1000 words (Laufer & Nation, 2000) – Second 1000 words (Laufer & Nation, 2000) – Academic words (Coxhead, 2000) – Other words
    14. 14. Vocabulary Growth • Appearance of new words each year – First 1000 words (Laufer & Nation, 2000) – Second 1000 words (Laufer & Nation, 2000) – Academic words (Coxhead, 2000) – Other words
    15. 15. Question 2 How are Knowledge Building behaviours related to changes in students’ productive vocabulary? – Reading – Writing – Revising
    16. 16. FINDINGS
    17. 17. Overview of KF Activity Grade Created Read Revised 1 15.1 63.10 12.33 2 18.43 73.95 9.33 3 19.71 182.00 14.76 4 21.74 235.63 18.89 5 12.85 67.38 8.38 6 10.17 48.17 8.25
    18. 18. Question 1 How did students’ productive vocabulary change over the span of six years? – Lexical proficiency (i.e., lexical richness, lexical frequency profile)
    19. 19. Lexical Richness Grade Tokens Types 1 208.10 98.90 2 159.48 72.38 3 114.48 65.10 4 176.53 85.21 5 498.38 146.69 6 366.23 122.85
    20. 20. Overview of Vocabulary • First 1000 words 1091 • Second 1000 words 331 • Academic words 105 • Other words 635
    21. 21. Lexical Frequency Profile Grade 1st K 2nd K Acad Other 1 89.2 4.21 2.31 4.28 2 87.1 6.43 0.54 5.96 3 80.6 6.76 4.50 8.14 4 82.2 6.82 2.80 8.23 5 82.4 4.47 1.35 2.72 6 86.1 1.53 11.8 6.77
    22. 22. Question 1 How did students’ productive vocabulary change over the span of six years? – Rate of vocabulary growth
    23. 23. Vocabulary Growth
    24. 24. Question 2 How are Knowledge Building behaviours related to changes in students’ productive vocabulary? – Reading – Writing – Revising
    25. 25. *p <.05 ** p <.01 *** p <.001 KB & Lexical Proficiency Create Read Revise Token .15 .07 .23** Type .29*** .17* .42*** Vocabulary size .81*** .55** .77*** Vocabulary Growth .23*** .07 .35***
    26. 26. KB Discourse: Definition What is claymore? My theory is that it is a type of [pottery] wheel. I think a claymore was a type of big expensive sword that only the richest nobles or or "earls" owned. C D My theory [is] its a very big Scottish [sword]. E
    27. 27. KB Discourse: Context How does gravity work? Is it a force in the ground that pulls you down or something in the air that pushes you down? I think gravity comes from the core of the Earth or the core of other planets. The gravitational pull pulls us down towards the core, making us go down and stay down. Just like the way the sun's gravitational pull pulls all of the other planets around it in a circle or oval. F G
    28. 28. KB Discourse: Context How does gravity work in the middle of the earth? Gravity is: the downward pull of the earths gravitational field. The more gravity pulling an object the more the mass of the object is. H I
    29. 29. SUMMARY
    30. 30. Question 1 How did students’ productive vocabulary change over the span of six years? – Tendency to produce more tokens, more unique word types over the years – Growth rate for different types of words varied across each year but correlated with each other
    31. 31. Question 2 How are Knowledge Building behaviours related to changes in students’ productive vocabulary? – All behaviours were related to lexical proficiency measures to varying extents – Note revising is the strongest predictor of vocabulary growth rate
    32. 32. Future Directions • Comparison groups (e.g., demographics) • Classroom context – Role of teacher – Face-to-face interactions – Social network analysis • Embedded, transformative assessment – Individual and group-level analytics – Lexical indicators of conceptual development and KB advances
    33. 33. We ought to assume that there is potential for a collective zone of proximal development in any classroom, and that within it there is at least some potential for the students to move toward higher levels of agency. (Scardamalia & Bereiter, 1991)

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