ProbationThe Role in Criminal Justice By: Marquita Jones
What is Probation? Employment Probation:
A trial period during which your character and abilities are tested to see whether you are suitable for work.
A trial period in which he or she is given time to try to redeem failing grades or conduct.
Criminal Justice Probation:
A trial period in which an offender has time to redeem themselves, a way of dealing with offenders without imprisoning them, or it may just be the status of a person on probation. Another definition of probation is the act of suspending the sentence of a person convicted of a criminal offense and granting that person provisional freedom on the promise of good behavior.
History of Probation
John Augustus, a Boston boot maker, is credited as the “Father of Probation.”
Started in 1841, when Augustus persuaded a judge in the Boston Police Court to release a convicted offender into his custody for a brief period to help the man to appear rehabilitated by the time of sentencing rather than sending him to prison.
Augustus, the first unofficial probation officer, did not perform his altruistic duties without controversy. His efforts actually were resisted by police, court clerks, and turnkeys who were paid only when offenders were incarcerated.
Began as a humanitarian effort to allow first-time and minor offenders a second chance.
Early probationers were expected not only to obey the law but also to behave in a morally acceptable fashion.
Sought to provide moral leadership to help shape probationers’ attitudes and behavior.
Aimed to ensure early probationers were given the opportunity to prove themselves and possibly even reduce their sentence.
Probation Officer Roles of Today
Supervise case loads
Work with offenders or clients
Conduct pre-sentence investigations
Conduct reports on convicted criminals
Recommendations regarding rehabilitation.
Conduct drug tests
Types of Probation Informal Probation:
Court probation or unsupervised probation assigned to
low-risk offenders. a.) Pay court costs b.) Pay fees c.) Agrees to commit no more violations. Unsupervised Probation:
Does not involve direct supervision by an officer.
a.) Complete any conditions of the order b.) Refrain unlawful behavior. Supervised Probation:
Intense form of probation
a.) Report to probation officer on a regular basis b.) Stricter requirements c.) Abide by other conditions
Types of Probation (cont.) Community Control:
Strictest form of probation
a.) Monitored at all times b.) Abide by other conditions
Very closely monitored
a.) Violent Criminals b.) High-ranking Gang Members c.) Habitual Offenders d.) Sex Offenders
a.) Home b.) Workplace
a.) Electronic monitoring b.) Satellite tracking.
Types of Probation Violations Failure to Appear or Report:
Adefendant/offender is does not come as scheduled to a court hearing or misses an appointment with an officer.
Failure to Pay or Comply:
A defendant does not pay fines, fees, or restitution to the victim(s).
Violating Rules of Probation:
Possessing illegal weapons
Under the influence of illegal drugs
Around people or at certain locations that are prohibited
Arrested while on probation
Consequences of Violating Probation
Expansion of probation
Revocation of probation
Admission into a rehabilitation program
Conclusion By providing essential information about the roles as a probation officer and offenders in the Criminal Justice system, it should enhance the knowledge someone may need if they are on probation, want to know about probation, or who would like to know in order to be in the criminal justice field.
“History of Probation: Meet John Augustus.” New York State. Dept of Criminal Justice Services. New York State, n.d. Web. 9 Feb. 2011
“How Many People Were On Probation in the 2000’s?” Answers Encyclopedia.HighBeamResearch, Inc. 2011. Web.
“Probation.” The Free Dictionary by Farlex. 2011. Web