Pronouns 100425004955-phpapp01


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Pronouns 100425004955-phpapp01

  1. 1. PRONOUNS I She He Us We
  2. 2. Definition"Pronoun" is the sentence elementused to replace a noun, or a nounequivalent construction. Thereplaced noun is named the". "antecedent
  4. 4. Syntactically, pronouns have the same functions as nouns do;morphologically, pronouns are used to avoid repetition, and to set/clarify nouns categories of . number, person, and gender
  5. 5. There are eight categories of pronouns, The:categories of pronouns are.Personal Pronouns. 1Possessive Pronouns .. 23. Demonstrative Pronouns. 4. Reflexive and Emphatic Pronouns.5. Interrogative Pronouns.6. Relative Pronouns.7. Reciprocal Pronouns..8. Indefinite Pronouns
  7. 7. Personal pronouns represent specific people or:things. We use them depending on(. number: singular (I) or plural ( weperson: 1st person (I), 2nd person (you) or 3rd(. person(he(. gender: male (he), female (she) or neuter (it.(case: subject (we) or object (us We use personal pronouns in place of the .person or people that we are talking about
  8. 8. :Here are the personal pronouns, followed by some example sentencesExamples (in each case, the first example shows a subject pronoun, the second(:an object pronoun
  9. 9. . I like coffee - .John helped me - ? Do you like coffee- .John loves you - . He runs fast- ?Did Ram beat him - . She is clever- ?Does Mary know her - . We went home- .Anthony drove us - . It doesnt work- ?Can the engineer repair it -? Do you need a table for three-?Did John and Mary beat you at doubles-. They played doubles-John and Mary beat them -
  10. 10. :We often use it to introduce a remark. It is nice to have a holiday sometimes-. It is important to dress well-.We also often use it to talk about the:weather, temperature, time and distance . Its raining- . It will probably be hot tomorrow- ? Is it nine oclock yet- Its 50 kilometers from here to- . Cambridge
  11. 11. PossessivePronouns
  12. 12. We use possessive pronouns to refer to a -specific person/people or thing/things (the"antecedent") belonging to a person/people(and sometimes belonging to an animal/animals.(or thing/things You will never find a possessive- pronoun near a noun, despite the fact it is the genitive of personal pronoun :We use possessive pronouns depending on- ( number: singular (mine) or plural (ours- person: 1st person (mine), 2nd person (yours) or 3rd person- ( (his .( gender: male (his), female (hers-
  13. 13. Below are the possessive pronouns, followed by some:example sentences. Each possessive pronoun can. be subject or object-.refer to a singular or plural antecedent-
  14. 14. :ExamplesLook at these pictures. Mine is the big one.-( (subject = My pictureI like your flowers. Do you like mine? (object = my-(flowersAll the essays were good but his was the best.-( (subject = his essayJohn found his passport but Mary couldnt find hers.-((object = her passport
  15. 15. Singular Plural Used my ourbefore your yournouns his, her, its their Used mine oursalone yours yours his, hers, its theirs
  17. 17. DefinitionsReflexive pronoun is used with an active voice verb in order-to reflect the action of the verb back on the subject--theantecedent.-Emphatic pronoun accompanies its antecedent in order toaccentuate its action/state.-Reflexive and emphatic pronouns take different positions. within the sentence structure
  18. 18. We use a reflexive pronoun when we**want to refer back to the subject of thesentence or clause. Reflexive pronouns end(. in "-self" (singular) or "-selves" (plural: There are eight reflexive pronouns
  19. 19. the underlined words are the SAME person/thingI saw myself in the -. mirrorWhy do you blame -?yourself. John sent himself a copy -
  20. 20. . I made it myself. OR I myself made it-Have you yourself seen it? OR Have you seen it-? yourselfShe spoke to me herself. OR She herself spoke-. to me
  22. 22. Demonstrative pronouns anddemonstrative adjectives haveexactly the same forms. The way todifferentiate them depends on theirposition relative to the.antecedent/determined nouns Demonstrative pronouns .THIS, THESE, THAT, THOSE THE FORMER, THE LATER THE FIRST, THE LAST THE OTHER,THE OTHERS SAME SUCH SO
  23. 23. A demonstrative pronoun represents a thing or:things ( near in distance or time (this, these* (far in distance or time (that, those* near far singular this that plural these those. This tastes good*. These are bad times*. That is beautiful*! Those were the days*
  24. 24. ATTENTIONThe word "that" has four main functions:1. demonstrative pronoun or adjective:That book is good.2. relative pronoun:Anything that you remember could help alot.3. conjunction:He said that he had been there before.4. adverb:.The snow was that high
  25. 25. Do not confuse demonstrative pronouns with-demonstrative adjectives. They are identical, but a, demonstrative pronoun stands alone.while a demonstrative adjective qualifies a noun( That smells. (demonstrative pronoun- (That book is good. (demonstrative adjective + noun- Normally we use demonstrative pronouns for things only. But we can use them for people when the : person is identified. Look at these examples ? This is Josef speaking. Is that Mary- That sounds like John-
  27. 27. We use interrogative pronouns to ask questions. Theinterrogative pronoun represents the thing that we dont(. know (what we are asking the question aboutThere are four main interrogative pronouns: who, whom,. what, which The possessive pronoun whose can- also be an interrogative pronoun (an .(interrogative possessive pronoun
  28. 28. :Examples question answer ? Who told you . John told me subject Whom did you . I told Mary object ? tell Whats An accidents subject ? happened . happened
  29. 29. RelativePronouns
  30. 30. A relative pronoun is a pronoun that introduces-a relative clause. It is called a "relative" pronoun.because it "relates" to the word that it modifies There are five relative pronouns: who, whom, whose, .which, that Who (subject) and whom (object) are generally only for people. Whose is for possession. Which is for things. That can be used for people, and things and as subject and .object in defining relative clauses Relative pronouns can refer to singular or plural, and there is no difference between male and . female
  31. 31. :Examples The person who phoned me last night is- .my teacher. The car which hit me was yellow- The person whom I phoned last- .night is my teacher The car, whose driver jumped out just- before the accident, was completely destroyed
  32. 32. Reciproc alPronouns
  33. 33. We use reciprocal pronouns when-each of two or more subjects isacting in the same way towards the.otherThere are only two reciprocal pronouns,:and they are both two words each other- one another-
  34. 34. :When we use these reciprocal pronouns-there must be two or more people, things or groupsinvolved (so we cannot use reciprocal pronouns with I, you [singular], he/she/it), andthey must be doing the same thing :Examples. John and Mary love each other-The ten prisoners were all blaming-. one another?Why dont you believe each other-
  36. 36. An indefinite pronoun doesnot refer to any specificperson, thing or amount. Itis vague and "not definite".Some typical indefinite:pronouns are
  37. 37. Some Indefinite PronounsAll, any, most, none and some can be singular or plural, depending on the phrase that .follows them
  38. 38. Note that many indefinite pronouns also functionas other parts of speech. Look at "another" in the:following sentencesHe has one job in the day and another at night.-( (pronoun(Id like another drink, please. (adjective-
  39. 39. Most indefinite pronouns are either singular or plural. However, some of them can be singular in one context and .plural in another Notice that : A singular pronoun takes a singular verb AND that any personal pronoun should also (.agree (in number and genderAll is forgiven.-.- All have arrivedWe can start the meeting because everybody-.has arrived.John likes coffee but not tea. I think both are good-
  40. 40. : References. -1-2.www.corollarytheorems.comTaghreed Ahmed Basabrain3091116