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Liquid Dosage Forms• Liquid form of a dose of a chemical compound used as a drug or medication intended for administration or consumption.• May be administered systematically by mouth or injected, by using different techniques, into the skin, muscles, or veins.
Liquid Dosage Forms• Advantages: • Disadvantages:• Better for patients who ▫ Shorter life before have trouble swallowing expiration than other• Faster absorption than dosage forms. solids ▫ More difficult to• More flexibility in administer achieving the proper ▫ Harder to measure dosage of the accurately medication. ▫ May have special storage requirements
Otic Preparations• Are products that are applied to or in the ear to treat conditions of the external and middle ear.• These products are used to treat dermatitis of the ear, cerumen build up and ear infection.
Nasal Preparations• Are liquid, semi-solid or solid preparations intended for administration to the nasal cavities to obtain a systemic or local effect.• Are as far as possible non-irritating and do not adversely affect the functions of the mucosa and its cilia.• Supplied in multi-dose or single-dose containers• With a suitable administration device.
Nasal Drops• A liquid preparation intended for intranasal administration with a medicine dropper.• Most frequently used for decongestion of the nasal passages but can be used for any other appropriate indication.
• The aim is to get the liquid to spread over all the inside surface of the nose - including the upper surface.
Nasal Spray• used for the nasal delivery of a drug or drugs, either locally to generally alleviate cold or allergy.Advantages:• Localized effect• Convenient• Fast effect• “Mist” ▫ Decongestant – shrinks swollen tissues in the nose ▫ Salt-water solutions (saline) – loosen mucus, relieves mild congestion
Sodium Chloride (NasoClear)• Dosage Strength: 0.65% Saline Solution• Tutorial on Proper Use of Nasal Spray
Syrups• Are concentrated aqueous preparations of a sugar or sugar substitute with or without flavoring agents and medicinal substances.• High sugar content ▫ Non medicated or flavored vehicles – syrups containing flavoring agents but not medicinal substances ▫ Flavored Syrups - often used as vehicles for unpleasant tasting medications; the result is medicated syrup
Advantages of Syrups• Ability to disguise bad taste of medication• Thick character of syrup has soothing effect on irritated tissues of throat• Contain little or no alcohol• Easy to adjust the dose for a child’s weight
Elixir• Clear, sweetened hydro alcoholic solution• Intended for oral use and are usually flavored to enhance palatability.• Usually less sweet than syrups and less viscous ▫ Non medicated elixirs – vehicles ▫ Medicated elixir – used for therapeutic effects
Advantages of Elixirs• Better able to maintain both water-soluble and alcohol-soluble components in solution• Has stable characteristics• Easily prepared by simple solutionDisadvantages of Elixirs• Less effective than syrups in masking taste of medicated substances.• Contains alcohol, accentuates saline taste of bromides
Description An alcoholic or hydro-alcoholic solution prepared fromanimal and vegetable sources or from chemical substances - (USP) A liquid preparation produced by macerating preparedplant material in a mixture of alcohol and water at roomtemperature over a prescribed period of time, which is thenpressed and filtered to yield a fluid into which activeconstituents of the herb have dissolved ( www.theherbarium.com)
(cont…) Made by soaking plant/animal material in alcohol for 72 hrs or so Commonly used solvent is ethanol Other solvent includes: (Non-alcoholic prep) * Vinegar * Glycerine * Distilled water Used by both complementary and traditional health care providers to relieve the discomfort and pain of the symptoms associated with outbreaks of cold sores or fever blisters
(cont…) Can be antibacterial, antimicrobial or antiviral It is a topically acting drug May also be ingested - in support of the immune system Can also be an antiseptic - disinfect skin surfaces oncontact killing or reducing populations of harmful bacteriaor viruses
Examples: - Test tube evidence shows that it can inhibit the production of the virus causing cold sores• Ex. Astragalus - an herb use to stimulate the immune system
(cont….) - laboratory studies have shown that the extract can inhibit the ability of the herpes simplex virus to infect cells by limiting the amount of virus during cold sore outbreaks • Ex. Lemon balm
Description A liquid preparation of a vegetable drug containing alcohol as asolvent and preservative that contains therapeutic constituents and astandard drug (USP) Fluid extracts are alcoholic extracts with a weight: volume ratio of 1:1 Wherein, concentrated alcohol solution of a vegetable drug of suchstrength that each mL contains the equivalent of 1Gm of the dry form ofthe drug ( www.theherbarium.com)
Samples• Ex.1 commercial fluid extract from celery • Ex.2 Commercial Fluid extract from Oats
Definition Douche = to wash or to soak A liquid preparation intended for the irrigative cleansing of vagina ( Ansel’s) Douches are devices made up of certain douching supplies, typically a bag and thin syringe that is placed inside the vagina Douching is washing or cleaning out the vagina (birth canal) with water or other mixtures of fluids
• Fig1. Vaginal doucheVideo: How to use vaginal douche
Vaginal Douche Solution Powders - used to prepare solution for vaginal douche - may be prepared and packaged in bulk and or aunit packages Unit Packages : designed to contain the appropriate quantity of powder to prepare the specified volume of douche solution Bulk powders : used by the teaspoonful or tablespoonful in preparation of desired solution * Douche powders are used for their hygienic effects and specific therapeutic , anti-infective agents
Natural Douche Uses natural ingredients like water with baking soda,vinegar, tea tree oil, yogurt and other naturalsubstances Using a natural approach might be safer , butirritation and infection will still occur Douching with a natural solution will cleanse thevagina of discharge, menstrual blood, and unpleasantodor
Description Is the procedure of introducing liquids intothe rectum and colon via anusTwo types of Enema Retention Enema Evacuation Enema
Retention Enemas means injecting a solution into the rectum andholding for a specific period of time so the colon canabsorb most of the solution and uses only enoughliquid to fill the rectum and the sigmoid colon small amounts of enema solution are used to makeit easier for the patient to hold the solution asdirected; solution is usually warmed for comfort Microenema – term used to describe thesesmall-volume preparation
(cont…) Vehicle for retention microenemas have been formulated withsmall quantities of ethanol , propylene, and glycol Drugs such as Valproic acid, indomethacin, and metronidazolehave been formulated as microenemas for the purpose ofabsorption Corticosteroids is administered as retention enemas orcontinuous drip as adjunctive treatment of patients withulcerative colitis
Evacuation Enemas The injection of liquid into the rectum through theanus for cleansing Stimulates bowel evacuation Sodium chloride, sodium bicarbonate, sodiummonohydrogen phosphate, sodium dihydogenphosphate, glycerin, docusate potassium and lightmineral oil are used in enemas to evacuate bowel It is usually given at a body temperature inquantities of 1 to 2 pt injected slowly with a syringe
Liniment• also known as embrocation, is a medicated topical preparation for application to the skin. Preparations of this type are also called balm.• are of a similar viscosity to lotions (being significantly less viscous than an ointment or cream) but unlike a lotion a liniment is applied with friction; that is, a liniment is always rubbed in. In John Steinbecks Of Mice and Men, the Negro stable buck, Crooks, rubs it on his crooked spine to ease the pain. In Terry Pratchetts The Wee Free Men, local witch Granny Aching is known, among other things, for the liberal application of her home brewed Special Sheep Liniment. In Lucy Maud Montgomerys Anne of Green Gables, Anne accidentally bakes a cake with liniment as an ingredient.
• Liniments are typically sold to relieve pain and stiffness, such as from sore muscles or from arthritis.• These liniments typically are formulated from alcohol, acetone, or similar quickly evaporating solvents and contain counterirritant aromatic chemical compounds such as methyl salicilate, benzoin resin, or capsaicin. In John Steinbecks Of Mice and Men, the Negro stable buck, Crooks, rubs it on his crooked spine to ease the pain. In Terry Pratchetts The Wee Free Men, local witch Granny Aching is known, among other things, for the liberal application of her home brewed Special Sheep Liniment. In Lucy Maud Montgomerys Anne of Green Gables, Anne accidentally bakes a cake with liniment as an ingredient.
Aromatic Water• are saturated solutions (unless otherwise specified) of volatile oils or other aromatic or volatile substances in distilled water.• They are clear and free from solid impurities.• They possess an odor similar to the plant or volatile substance from which they are made, and are free from empyreumatic or foreign odors.• should be protected from strong light and preferably stored in containers which are stoppered with purified cotton to allow access of some air but to exclude dust.• it is used as a flavoring agent, solvent or as a perfumed vehicle.
Spirit/Essences• sometimes known as essences, are alcoholic or hydro alcoholic solutions of volatile substances.• maybe solid, liquid, or gas• used pharmaceutically as flavoring agents and medicinally for the therapeutic value of the aromatic solute.Remington: The Science And Practice Of Pharmacy 21st edition
Mouthwash• a medicated liquid used for cleaning the oral cavity and treating mucous membranes of the mouth.• Possess cleansing, germicidal and palliative properties• For some it can mask the symptoms of oral health disease.• Only some are approved by the ADA for treatment of gingivitis.• More of a “cosmetic”, but some are therapeutic.
Cosmetic Rinses• Are sold as over-the-counter products• Help remove oral debris before or after brushing• Temporarily suppress bad breath• Diminish bacteria in the mouth• Refresh the mouth with a pleasant taste• Most dentists are skeptical about the value of over-the-counter plaque-fighting mouth rinse products. Studies have shown that they minimally reduce plaque.
Therapeutic Rinses• May be prescribed by your dentist• Help remove oral debris before or after brushing• Temporarily suppress bad breath• Diminish bacteria in the mouth• Refresh the mouth with a pleasant taste• Contain an added active ingredient that helps protect against some oral diseases
Gargle• a medicated solution used for gargling and rinsing the mouth• Has more medicated substances than mouthrinses/mouthwash• Mostly prescribed by dentists• Also called oral antiseptics
Advantages of Gargles• Effective in combating oral health diseases.• Localized effect• Has medicated substances Povidone-Iodine (Betadine Oral Antiseptic) 1% m/v 0.1% m/v/100mLVideo: Gargles
Astringent• From the latin word “adstringere” or to bind fast• Substance which causes biological tissue to contract or draw together.• In cosmetics, astringents are used to firm and tone the skin, constricting the pores and creating a protective layer of firm tissue between the under layers of skin and the elements.• Can also act to reduce unwanted discharge• Applying excessively can dry the skin (especially alcohol based astringents)
Antibacterial topical solution• Antibacterial medications that are applied to body surfaces• Many are epicutaneous, but others are also applied to surface of tissues other than the skin• Are of low viscosity and often use water or alcohol as base.