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Matter

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Matter

Matter

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  • 1. The arrangement and movement of paricles in the three states manner Changes in the states of matter Evapor liquid solid n ezi Fre State Sublimation ing Melt Conde n Sublimation g Solid ation • Particles are arranged closely, packed orderly and fixed position • Little empty spaces between molecule • Particles are not arranged orderly • There are empty spaces between particles • Most particles still contact with one another • Particles are not arranged orderly but are separated from one another • Particles are not free to move and only vibrate at fixed position • Particles are move randomly and slowly and collide each other • Particles are move randomly and rapidly in all Forces of attraction between particles • Very strong • Medium direction • The particles collide against each other • Very weak Energy content of particles • Very low • Medium • Very high The structure of the atom 12 C 6 Atoms Protons Neutrons Proton number Movement of particles Electron arrangement Uses of isotops Medicine Agriculture Nuclear power stations Archaeology Industry Electrons Nucleon Number Valence electrons HEATING OF NAPTHALENE COOLING OF NAPTHALENE Meltin • When a solid g heated, the particles in is Temperature (oC) Condensation Temperature (oC) the solid gain kinetic energy and vibrate more vigorously. • The particles vibrate more faster until the energy they gain able to overcome •When a gas is cooled, the particles in the gas lose energy and move slower. • As the temperature drop, the particles loss energy and move slowly. • At this point, the movement of the particles become slow enough for the gas to change into a liquid. • This change occurs at the boiling point of substance the forces that hold them at their fixed position • At this point,the solid become liquid.s . •The melting point is the temperature at which a solid changes to into liquid at constant temperature G G L&G G&L L Freezing •When a liquid is cooled, the particles in the liquid lose energy and move slower. • As the temperature drop, the particles S loss energy until they do not have enough energy to move freely. • At this point, the liquid changes into solid. • The temperature at which happens is Time (s) called the freezing point • Freezing point is the temperature at which a liquid changes into a solid L S&L L&S S t1 t2 t3 t4 t1 t2 HEATING OF NAPTHALENE Boiling point COOLING OF NAPTHALENE Temperature constant due to heat is absorbed to overcome force attraction between particles (molecules) and the release of molecules called latent heat vapourisation Temperature constant due to heat is absorbed to overcome force attraction between particles (molecules) called latent heat of fusion L&G Temperature (oC) Boiling point G Temperature constant because the heat lost to the surrounding is equal to the heat released when the molecules attract one another to form solid napthalene. This is called latent heat or vapourisation G G&L Particles absorbed heat, kinetic energy increase and particles vibrate faster. Temperature increase S&L L&S Particles lose energy. The kinetic energy decreases and the particles move slower . The temperature continues decrease Freezing point S Particles absorbed heat, kinetic energy increase and particles vibrate faster. Temperature increase Napthalene starts to melt t1 t1 Napthalene melts completely and become liquid t2 Temperature constant because the heat released during the formation of the force of attraction between molecule is equal to the heat lost to the sorrounding. This is called latent heat of fusion L L Melting point t4 t3 Boilin g • When a liquid is heated, the liquid particles of the liquid gain the kinetic energy and move faster as the temperature increases. • When the particles have enough energy, this energy can break the forces holding them together • The particles can move freely and far apart • A gas is formed. The temperature at which this happen is called the boiling point • Boiling point is the temperature at which a liquid changes into a gas at constant temperature Time (s) Temperature (oC) Gas Gas sation Matter 13 Isotops C 6 Liquid Arrangement of particles t3 Liquid napthalene starts to boild t4 t2 t3 t4 Time (s) Time (s) Napthalene boil completely and become vapor Liquid Napthalene solidify completely Napthalene gas starts to condesate Napthalene gas completely condesate to form liquid Liquid Napthalene starts to solidify
  • 2. CHANGES IN THE STATES OF MATTER Sublimation g eltin M liquid Evapor ation Sublimation Conde nsatio n solid zi n ree F g Matter Gas The structure of the atom 13 12 Isotops C C 6 6 Atoms Protons Proton number Neutrons • Electrons • • Nucleon Number • • Electron arrangement Uses of isotops Medicine Agriculture Nuclear power stations Valence electrons Archaeology Industry
  • 3. The structure of the atom 13 12 Isotops C C 6 6 Atoms Protons Proton number Neutrons Electrons Nucleon Number • • • • • Electron arrangement Uses of isotops Medicine Agriculture Nuclear power stations Valence electrons Archaeology Industry
  • 4. Atomic structure • Subatomic particles are protons, neutrons and electrons Subatomic particles Symbol Relative mass First shell : max 2 electrons Relative charge Second shell :max 8 electrons Third shell :max 8 electrons Proton p 1 +1 Neutron n 1 0 Nucleus Electron number of an element is the number of protons e 1/1837 -1 • Proton in its atom • Nucleon number is the total number of protons and neutron in its atom Electron arrangement for sodium atom Nucleon number 23 Na Proton number e e e e e e e e 11 Explain the atomic structure for sodium atom e + + + + ++ + + + ++ + + + + Symbol of element e e • The nucleus contains 11 proton and 13 neutron or the number of proton for the atom is 11 and the number of neutron is 12 • The nucleus is located at the center of the atom • The nucleus is negatively charge • The electron move around the nucleus • The nucleon number is 23. • The electronic arrangement is 2.8.1 • The valence electron for the atom is 1 • The atom contains 3 shell • The atom contain 11 electrons
  • 5. Atomic structure • Subatomic particles are protons, neutrons and electrons Subatomic particles Symbol Relative mass First shell : max 2 electrons Relative charge Second shell :max 8 electrons Third shell :max 8 electrons Proton p 1 +1 Neutron n 1 0 Nucleus Electron number of an element is the number of protons e 1/1837 -1 • Proton in its atom • Nucleon number is the total number of protons and neutron in its atom Electron arrangement for sodium atom Nucleon number 23 Na Proton number e e e e e e e e 11 Explain the atomic structure for sodium atom e + + + + ++ + + + ++ + + + + Symbol of element e e • The nucleus contains 11 proton and 13 neutron or the number of proton for the atom is 11 and the number of neutron is 12 • The nucleus is located at the center of the atom • The nucleus is negatively charge • The electron move around the nucleus • The nucleon number is 23. • The electronic arrangement is 2.8.1 • The valence electron for the atom is 1 • The atom contains 3 shell • The atom contain 11 electrons

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