CONSUMER MOTIVATION AFFECT, & VALUESMotivation: reason for behaviorEmotion: feelingsValues: underlying belief systems
Purchasing a golden retriever puppy?What are the various motives that people might have for purchasing this product?How do motives differ if the consumer is:1) Father or mother of a family of two children, both under 6 years of age2) A 20 year old single man or woman who is very independent and outdoor oriented3) An older couple, retired, with children or grandchildren living near them
Explore Your Motivation??What motivates your consumption behavior?Think about 2 or 3 products/services you consumed this past weekend – what and why did you purchase/consume?
Consumer MotivationMotivation: It is the reason for behavior!• an unobservable inner force that stimulates andcompels a behavioral response and providesspecific direction to that response. Goal: consumer’s desired end state Drive: degree of consumer arousal Want: manifestation of consumer need
Three Types of Motivational Conflicts • Two desirable alternatives • Cognitive dissonance • Positive & negative aspects of desired product • Guilt of desire occurs • Facing a choice with two undesirable alternatives
Classifying Consumer Needs: Types of NeedsSummary of Psychological Motives Relevant to Marketing:Opponent-Process TheoryOptimum Stimulation LevelsHedonic ExperiencesRisk: Seek or AvoidAttribute Causality
Opponent Process Theory• A stimulus eliciting an immediate positive or negative emotion is followed by a feeling opposite to that initial emotion
Optimum Stimulation Theory• Desire to maintain an optimal level of stimulation motivates action
Hedonic Experiences• Consumption of products/services designed to create fantasies, enhance sensory stimulation, or elicit emotional reactions• Related to optimum stimulation levels
Maintain Behavioral FreedomMotivation to Maintain Behavioral Freedom• People want to maintain a sense of freedomPsychological Reactance• negative motivational state that results when a person’s behavioral freedom has been threatenedTwo types of threats can lead to reactance:a) Social threats involving external pressure from other people to induce a consumer to do something – Scarcity appeals: “limited time offer, limited supply – Pushy salespeopleb) Impersonal threats are barriers that restrict the ability to buy a particular product or service – Shortage of a product due to the possibility that someone else will buy it – Potential rise in the price of a product causes a desire to buy now
Avoid or Seek RiskPerceived Risk – consumer’s perception of the overall negativity of a course of action - consists of negative outcomes and probability of these outcomes occurringRisks include:- financial - social- physical - time- performance - opportunity- psychological
Motivation to Attribute CausalityPeople seek out reasons to explain why things turn out as they doNegative Product or Service Experiences Was the cause internal or external? Your fault or the company’s?BIRGing and CORFing- Attributions towards sports teams
Motivation Theory and Marketing StrategyConsumers do not buy products; instead they buy motivesatisfaction or problem solutions. solutionsManagers must discover the motives that their product andbrands can satisfy and develop marketing mixes aroundthese motives.Who purchases these products and what are the motivesfor purchasing: - Imported Beer: Beck’s, Heineken - Spaghetti Sauce: Classico, Newman’s Own
Motivation Theory and Marketing Strategy Consumed by confident, upscale, professional men Desire for status Desire for individuality Consumed by upscale, sophisticated adultsMotivated by indulgence Motivated by ambition and and romance individuality
Motivation Theory and Marketing Strategy Discovering Purchase MotivesManifest motives are motives that areknown and freely admitted.Consumers don’t always readily admit theirmotivesLatent motives are either unknown to theconsumer or are such that he/she isreluctant to admit them.
Motivation Theory and Marketing StrategyManifest motives?Latent motives? Manifest motives? Latent motives?
Motivation, Emotion & Marketing ResearchThe Selling of Science• What do you think of the emotion research techniques used at the beginning of the video?• Motivational research using projective techniques? – Credible and valid results?• How does Clotaire Rapaille feel about manifest motives?• What does Clotaire Rapaille refer to as latent motives?• Identify manifest and latent motives
Consumer InvolvementWhat are some examples of products that you are attached to? Not at all attached to?Involvement: perceived relevance of an object based on one’s needs, values, and interestsLevel of Involvement: – Inertia: consumption at the low end of involvement to – Cult product: command fierce consumer loyalty, devotion, and even worship by consumers who are highly involvedProduct vs. Situational Involvement
Identify emotionsList all the emotions you can think ofIf you’re a marketer, think about where is your emotional starting point? – How do consumers currently feel about your product? Brand? – How do you want them to feel?
What are Emotions? How are they related to Consumer Behavior?Definition:• Emotion is the identifiable specific feeling, and affect is the liking/disliking aspect of the specific feeling.• Emotions are strong, relatively uncontrolled feelings that affect our behaviorEmotion is sometimes the prime determinant of behaviorEmotion influences: 1. The experiential nature of consumption 2. Attitude formation 3. Information processing 4. Postpurchase processes 5. Communication processes
Emotions and Consumer BehaviorWhat is your emotional reaction to the following products and brands?
Emotion and Decision Making• Do consumers always make decisions based on rational facts? – Traditional consumer behavior research has emphasized a problem-solving approach • Emphasis is on cognitive reasoning, attribute expectations and goals• Consumers’ affective reactions to information (product attributes, sales pitch, ads) impacts their judgments, decisions, and purchase choices
Affect as Information• Information becomes “marked” with affective meaning What do you see when you look at … – positive feelings draws us toward the option (approach behavior) – negative feelings draws us away from an option (avoidance behavior)• Affect Heuristic: The immediate affective reaction one experiences in response to an object, person or idea – Affect serves as a cue for many important judgments
Affect as Common Currency: Comparing apples to oranges Should we remodel the kitchen … or, should we go to …
Emotion and Marketing StrategyMarketers have always used emotions to guidethe following on an intuitive level: • product positioning • sales presentations, and • advertisingHowever, deliberate, systematic study of therelevance of emotions in marketing strategy isrelatively new.
Pop Quiz #11. First and Last name2. Name the topics in the two current event presentations today.3. What do BIRGing and CORFing stand for?4. Explain the code on cheese in America.5. What 3 emotions are you currently feeling?
Emotions and AdvertisingLet’s go back to perception for a minute… Emotional content in ads can enhance attention, attraction, and maintenance capabilities. Emotional messages may be processed more thoroughly due to their enhanced level of arousal. Emotional ads may enhance liking of the ad itself. Repeated exposure to positive-emotion-eliciting ads may increase brand preference through classical conditioning.
Emotions and BrandingWhat is the motivation behind consumer attachment to brands?Why is emotional branding so important?What constitutes a great brand concept today?• Examples?
Emotions and BrandingA great brand concept can change a companies entire future.Biggest misconception in branding is the belief that branding is about market share when it is really about “mind and emotions share”What constitutes a great brand concept today? Engages consumers on the level of senses and emotions Comes to life for people and forges a deeper, lasting connectionUnderstanding people’s emotional needs and desires is key to success.
Values• Value: a belief that some condition is preferable to its opposite (e.g., youth)• Core values: values shared within a culture – e.g., honesty, cleanliness, independence, politeness, ambitious, helpful, respect, etc.What do you think are the three to five core values that best describe Americans today?
Summary of American Core Values Value General Features Relevance to CB Achievement/Success Hard work is good, Acts as justification of success flows from it acquisition of goods Efficiency/Practicality Keeping busy is healthy Stimulates interest in and natural products that are time- savers and enhance leisure time Material Comfort “The Good Life” Fosters acceptance of luxury products that make life more comfortable and enjoyable Individualism Being oneself Stimulates acceptance of customized product that enable consumers to express their personality Freedom Freedom of choice Fosters interest in wide product lines and differentiated products
Summary of American Core Values Value General Features Relevance to CB External Conformity Uniformity of observable Interest in products that behavior are used or owned by others in the same social group Humanitarianism Caring for others, Patronage of firms that particularly the underdog compete with market leaders Youthfulness A state of mind that Acceptance of products stresses being “young at that provide the illusion heart” and having a of maintaining or youthful appearance fostering youthfulness Fitness and Health Caring about one’s body, Acceptance of food, including the desire to be products, activities, and physically fit and healthy equipment perceived to maintain or increase physical fitness
Sustainability: New Core Value?• Conscientious consumerism: consumer’s focus on personal health merging with a growing interest in global health• Consumers who: – Worry about the environment – Want products to be produced in a sustainable way – Spend money to advance what they see as their personal development and potential
Materialism• Materialism: the importance people attach to worldly possessions• “The good life”...“He who dies with the most toys, wins”• Materialists: value possessions for their own status and appearance• Non-materialists: value possessions that connect them to other people or provide them with pleasure in using them