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Seguridad Laboral

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  • Falls are not an accepted part of the job. Falls can be prevented. This employee is exposed to a fall from this scaffold while working without adequate fall protection. Scaffold platforms should always should always be fully planked and at least 18 inches wide. Fall protection should always be provided for employees working on scaffolds at heights greater than 10 feet.
  • These are areas in construction where fall protection is required.
  • Many people think that fall protection consist of only a harness and lanyard but that is not true. There are several types of fall protection . Fall protection systems consist of guardrails, safety nets, personal fall arrest, warning lines, controlled access zones, safety monitoring , covers and fall protection plan. 1926.501(b)(10) states that employees engaged in roofing activities on low slope roofs with unprotected sides shall be protected from falling by guardrail systems, safety net systems, personal fall arrest systems or a combination of warning line system and a guardrail system, warning line system and safety net system, or warning line system and personal fall arrest system or warning line system and safety monitoring system. Or on roofs 50-feet or less in width the use of a safety monitoring system alone is permitted.
  • Guardrail system is a barrier erected to prevent employees from falling to lower levels. There are specific requirements for guardrails. The top edge height of top rail shall be 42 inches (1.1 m) plus or minus 3 inches above the walking/working level and it must be capable of withstanding, without failure, a force of at least 200 pounds. REF: 1926.502(b)
  • Safety nets shall be installed as close as practicable under the walking/working surface on which employees are working, but in no case more than 30 feet (9.1 m) below such level. When installed under bridges the potential fall area from the walking/working surface to the net shall be unobstructed. REF: 1926.502(c)
  • A personal fall arrest system is a system used to arrest an employee in a fall from a working level. It consists of an anchorage, connectors, body harness and may include a lanyard, deceleration device, lifeline or a suitable combination. Dee-rings and snaphooks shall have a minimum tensile strength of 5,000 pounds. Lanyards and vertical lifelines shall have a minimum breaking strength of 5,000 pounds. REF: 1926.502(d)
  • A body belt is a positioning device that allows an employee to be supported on an elevated vertical surface, such as a wall with both hands free while leaning. Positioning devices are only allowed when an employee is performing work on the face of formwork or reinforcing steel. These workers must be protected from falling 6 feet or more to lower levels by personal fall arrest systems, safety nets or positioning device systems, REF: 1926.501(b)(5). A positioning device shall be designed such that ban employee cannot free fall more than 2 feet. REF: 1926.502(e)
  • A warning line system is a barrier erected on a roof to warn employees that they are approaching an unprotected roof side or edge. Warning lines shall consist of ropes, wires, or chains and supporting stanchions. REF: 1926.502(f)
  • The employer shall designate a c ompetent person to monitor employees. This person must be able to recognize fall hazards and positioned on the same walking/working surface as those being monitored. He must be within a visual sighting distance of those employees. He must be close enough to communicate orally with employees. The safety monitor should not be assigned duties that could distract his attention from his monitoring duties. Only those employees engaged in roofing work (low- slope) or covered by a fall protection plan shall be allowed in an area where an employee is being protected by a safety monitoring system.., REF: 1926.502(h). Safety monitoring systems may be used on low-slope roofing, REF: 1926.501(10), and where no other alternative measure has been implemented, REF:1926.502(k).
  • There are many things not right on construction sites.
  • Floor and roof holes are a common fall hazard found on construction sites. 1926.502(i) requires these to be covered. Employees shall be protected from falls through holes in floors, roofs and other walking/working surfaces. All covers are required to be color coded or marked with the word “HOLE” or “COVER” as a warning. This hazard can be easily corrected by placing a cover over the hole and placing an adequate warning. Remember the cover must support without failure at least twice the weight of employees, equipment and materials that may be imposed on the cover at any one time.
  • Here again a cover should be placed over these roof openings or guardrails around them. The cover must be secured and not able to be displaced by wind, equipment or employees.
  • Fall protection is required for walking/working surfaces with an unprotected side or edge 6 feet or more above a lower level. REF: 1926.501(b)(1). This area maybe protected by use of a guardrail system, safety net system or the use of personal fall arrest system. The ladder is to short. It does not extend at least 3 feet above the landing, REF: 1926.1053(b)(1).
  • Is the platform attached to the forklift? Is the platform being used as scaffold? The ladder can not be used on top of a scaffold. The employee should be provided fall protection either through guardrails or a personal fall arrest system, REF:1926.451(g)(1). The ladder attached to the platform is being used to gain access to another height. Ladders shall not be used to increase the working height of employees, REF: 1926.451(f)(15).
  • 1926.451(c)(iv) - The equipment in this photo is being used to support a scaffold platform. Has this equipment been specifically designed by the manufacture for this use? The employee is not provided any fall protection such as a guardrail system or a personal fall arrest system, REF: 1926.451(g)(1).
  • These workers are definitely in danger of falling more than 10 feet to a lower level. They should be provided a personal fall arrest system, REF: 1926.451(g)(1). Forklifts should not be used to support a scaffold platform unless the entire platform is attached to the fork and the forklift does not move horizontally while the platform is occupied, REF:1926.451©(2)(v). The employees are standing on a compressor or other device to increase their working height. REF: 1926.451(f)(14).
  • This employee is exposed to a fall greater than 10 feet. The platform is not secured to the forks. The platform should be secured to the forks and fall protection provided as a guardrail system or personal fall arrest system, REF: 1926.451©(2)(v) and 451(g)(1).
  • Employees are exposed to falls from unprotected sides and edges. These employees should be provided a guardrail system, safety net system or personal fall arrest system, REF: 1926.501(b)(1).
  • Some things are just so obvious. This employee is also at risk of falling from an unprotected side. This employee should also be provided a guardrail system, safety net system or personal fall arrest system, REF: 1926.501(b)(1).
  • Again we have an employee at risk of falling to a lower level in excess of 6 feet. This employee should be provided a guardrail system, safety net system or personal fall arrest system, REF: 1926.501(b)(1). This work could also be conducted from a scaffold that complies with 1926.451.
  • Employees should never perform work while standing on the top step of a ladder, REF: 1926.1053(b)(13).
  • Employees are at risk of falling to the outside or inside of this structure while installing roof sheathing. They should be provided fall protection such as a guardrail system, safety net system of personal fall arrest system, REF: 1926.501(b)(1).
  • Don’t get caught in the drop zone because falls do kill. This employee could fall while installing roof trusses. Conventional fall protection should be provided, such as a personal fall arrest system, ladder or scaffold, REF: 1926.501 (b)(13) or the alternative fall protection should be provided according to STD3-0.1A, Group 1.
  • Because of their size and shape, church structures often present several fall hazards. Full body harnesses with lanyards and/or a catch platform would be suitable means of fall protection. Additionally, guardrails must be installed on the ladder-jack scaffold or have the employee use a personal fall arrest system. Reference 29 CFR 1926.501(b)(11) roof 1926.451(g)(1) & 1926.452(k) scaffold
  • There are no side rails on the scaffold platform, REF: 1926.451(g)(1). The side rails of this ladder probably aren’t strong enough to support a load, REF: 1926.451(a)(1).
  • There are no guardrails on this scaffold per 1926.451 The platforms extends over its support more than 12 inches REF: 1926.451(b)(5)(i) and .451(g)(1).
  • You can become a statistic if you work from scaffolds like this one. Employees working on this scaffold are exposed to falls from missing guardrails and planks not fully planked, REF: 1926.451(b)(1) and (g)(1). How do you guess they accessed the scaffold? There are no ladders and the ends of the planks extent to far over the supports, REF: 1926.451(e)(1) and .451(b)(5)(ii) .
  • One of the top ten violations found by OSHA on construction sites is failure to wear hard hats, REF: 1926.100(a). There are missing guardrails in some places and missing midrails in others, REF: 1926.451(g)(1) and 451 If safe access was provided employees would not have to climb the frame, REF: 1926 451(e)(1). The scaffold is not fully planked, REF: 1926.451(b)(1).
  • The frame of this scaffold is bent and the scaffold is sitting on concrete blocks. This condition makes for a pretty shaky structure, REF: 1926.451(c)(2). Scaffolds should always be erected under the supervision and direction of a competent person, REF: 1926.451(f)(7).
  • Apparently this scaffold was not assembled under the supervision and direction of a competent person, REF: 1926.451(f)(7). The frame on this scaffold is bent, has a missing crossbar, mud sills and base plates, REF: 1926.451(f)(4), ©(2) and
  • PPE is required in construction also. Employees pouring concrete should wear gloves, eye protection and other PPE to protect them from getting concrete on their bodies, REF: 1926.95(a). The ladder used by employees to access another level should be in compliance with 1926.1 053. When employees are working over water at heights of 6 feet or more they should be provided fall protection such as guardrail systems, safety net systems or personal fall arrest systems., REF: 1926.501(b)(15). U.S. Coast Guard approved life jackets or buoyant work vest shall be provided to these employees if they are working over water, REF: 1926.106(a).
  • Fall protection should be provided for employees working on this scaffold. Guardrail systems or personal fall arrest systems should be used, REF: 1926.451(g)(1). The planks are not 18” wide and they are being used as a walkway, REF: 1926.451(b)(2) and 451.(e)(5).
  • Cross braces should not be used as a means of access, REF: 1926.451 (e)(1).
  • Employees should not be allowed to climb the frame of the scaffold. Safe access should be provided such as scaffold ladders, REF: 1926.452(e)(1).
  • Employees working more than 30 feet should be provided fall protection but this employee’s harness is not attached to a lanyard, REF:1926.760 (c). Employers must make sure that all components of the personal fall arrest system are used. Employees must be trained in the recognition and identification of fall hazards and the proper use of personal fall arrest systems.
  • Employees are erecting a metal building. These employees are performing a bolting operation. They must be provided protection against falls while working between15 and 30 feet above a lower level. REF:1926.760 (b) (3). They must be provided with a personal fall arrest systems, positioning device systems or fall restraints systems, and wear the equipment necessary to be able to be tied off. Training should be provided by a qualified person. Employees must be trained on the recognition and identification of hazards of falls in their work area; use fall protection systems and the requirements of 1926.760.
  • Both of these employees are at risk of falling. Employees exposed to falls over 15 above a lower deck must be protected from fall hazards by guardrail systems, safety net systems, personal fall arrest systems, positioning device systems or fall restraints systems, REF:1926.760 (a)(1).
  • There are many things that are done right on construction sites.
  • Great scaffolding. Guardrails in place to protect employees from falls. Ladders are provided for safe access to employees.
  • This scaffold was designed by a qualified person. The scaffold is being erected under the supervision and direction of a competent person. Planks are being moved from the lower level where employees are no longer working. Guardrails in place, REF: 1926.451(g)(1). Platform fully planked, REF: 1926.451(b)(1). Ladders provided for safe access, REF: 1926.451(e)(1). Cross bracing installed, REF: 1926.451
  • Fall protection can be provided for employees working on roofs.

Transcript

  • 1. SEGURIDAD LABORAL
  • 2. LAS CAÍDAS SON PREVENIBLES
  • 3. ¿Dónde se requiere protección? (1) “Lados y bordes abiertos." (2) “Bordes progresivos." (3) “Areas de izar." (4) "Huecos." (5) “Instalación de formaletas y acero." (6) "Rampas, tablados y otras estructuras elevadas." (7) "Excavaciones." (8) “Escaleras y plataformas de trabajo.” (9) “En trabajo sobre el agua.” (10) “Instalación de bloques y trabajos relacionados." (11) “Techados." (12) “Trabajos en techos." (13) “Erección de concreto pre-armado." (14) “Construción residencial." (15) “Aberturas en paredess." (16) “Cualquier superficie elevada." (17) “Andamios.” (18) “Estructuras de acero.”
  • 4. SISTEMAS DE PROTECCIÓN CONTRA CAÍDAS
  • 5. Sistema de arnés Barandas Mallas MÉTODOS DE PROTECCIÓN TALES COMO SISTEMAS DE ARNÉS, BARANDAS Y MALLAS
  • 6.
    • SISTEMAS DE BARANDAS
      • La altura al tope debe ser de 42 pulgadas (1.1 m) más ó menos sobre el nivel de trabajo.
      • Deberá resistir una fuerza lateral de unas 200 libras
  • 7.
    • SISTEMAS DE MALLAS
      • Deberán instalarse tan cerca bajo el nivel de trabajo donde están los trabajadores como sea posible, pero nunca a más de 30 pies (9.1 m) bajo dicho nivel.
  • 8. Sistema de supresión de caídas (PFAS)
  • 9. SISTEMAS DE INMOVILIZACIÓN Previenen el acceso a las áreas de peligro limitando el movimiento del trabajador
  • 10. SISTEMAS DE LÍNEAS DE ADVERTENCIA
  • 11. Sistemas de supervisión – No son recomendables y requieren un plan
    • La persona competente supervisa los trabajadores y tiene que: Reconocer riesgos de caídas; Estár en el mismo nivel de trabajo; Tener contacto visual continuo; Estar cercano y ser capaz de comunicarse; Limitar el hacer tareas que limiten su atención para su responsabilidad de supervisión y
    • Los trabajadores tienen que estar capacitados.
  • 12. ¿Qué está mal?
  • 13. Díganme los riesgos, son muchos
  • 14. ¿Qué se debe hacer aquí?
  • 15. ¿Qué sucede con la escalera? ¿Qué pasa en los pisos en ambos niveles?
  • 16. ¿AQUÍ CUANTAS COSAS MALAS? ¡Puede que sea obvio!
  • 17. Se está jugando la vida, pero el supervisor dice que lo está supervisando…
  • 18. Solo se puede trabajar mientras se pare firme en el piso de la plataforma y solo usando protección contra caídas.
  • 19. Nuevamente díganme lo malo
  • 20. Condiciones críticas
  • 21. Pero comunes
  • 22. Trabajo en acero
  • 23. Nunca use los últimos dos peldaños en una escalera
  • 24. Riesgos de caídas tanto al exterior como al interior de la estructura. ¿Qué tal el viento?
  • 25. Uno de los payasos del circo hace jornada parcial en construcción
  • 26. El que pierda el balance, no se podrá salvar, excepto por intervención divina
  • 27. Una escalera no se pueden usar como plataforma de andamio Los andamios de palanca requieren barandas en alturas de más de 10 pies(3.3m).
  • 28. No hay barandas en ningún lugar Largo de tablones excesivo
  • 29. No solo es un riesgo de caída sino que también de…
  • 30. Plataforma incompleta Requiere acceso seguro No hay barandas Almacenaje de bloques incorrecto y sin capacete
  • 31. ¿Qué está mal? Componentes defectuosos aumentan el riesgo .
  • 32. Bases impropias, componente doblado, ausencia de refuerzo, base deficiente… Pero el trabajador tiene que usarlo o pierde su trabajo
  • 33. Escalera defectuosa No hay protección contra caídas No hay barandas
  • 34. No hay ninguna protección . Tablones en uso para conectar dos secciones de andamios
  • 35. Este no es el método correcto de subir al andamio
  • 36. El mismo problema que se debe resolver con una escalera
  • 37. Steel Erection Un trabajador protegido pero el otro no
  • 38. Jugándose sus vidas
  • 39. Riesgos eléctricos también
  • 40. También hay cosas buenas
  • 41.  
  • 42. Escalera Refuerzos Barandas Plataforma completa
  • 43. Proteción para trabajadores en techos.
  • 44. Preguntas y comentarios
  • 45. Gracias por su atención