Premenstrual Syndrome


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Cause to Care about Premenstral Syndrome,Premenstral Tension

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Premenstrual Syndrome

  1. 1. PREMENSTRUAL SYNDROME Ozgul Muneyyirci-Delale
  2. 2. Premenstrual Syndrome Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS) is defined as “the cyclic recurrence in the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle of a combination of distressing physical, psychological, and/or behavioral changes of sufficient severity to result in deterioration of interpersonal relationships and/or interference with normal activities. Nearly 200 symptoms have been associated with this definition and it is the clustering of these signs and symptoms that is the hallmark of PMS.
  3. 3. Catamenial The term “catamenial” is derived from the Greek and signifies around menses. In general an instance where a single recognized medical condition presented in the premenstruum was referred to as a catamenial disorder while a cluster of symptoms was referred to as PMS.
  4. 4. Premenstrual Magnification Many patients with psychiatric disorders also complain of worsening of their symptoms around the premenstrual phase, called “premenstrual magnification” (PMM).
  5. 5. PMS Milder symptoms are believed to occur in about 30% to 80% of reproductive-age women, while severe symptoms are estimated to occur in 3% to 5% of menstruating women.
  6. 6. Concordance Rate The concordance rate (if both twins have PMS) was found to be significantly higher in monozygous twins (93%) than dizygous twins (44%) and in non-twin control women (31%).
  7. 7. Common Symptoms of PMS Women with PMS Symptom Showing Symptoms (%) Behavioral Fatigue 92 Irritability 91 Labile mood with alternating sadness and anger 81 Depression 80 Oversensitivity 69 Crying spells 65 Social withdrawal 65 Forgetfulness 56 Difficulty concentrating 47
  8. 8. Common Symptoms of PMS (Continued) Physical Abdominal bloating 90 Breast tenderness 85 Acne 71 Appetite changes and food cravings 70 Swelling of the extremities 67 Headache 60 Gastrointestinal upset 48
  9. 9. Differences Between PMS and PMDD D ia g n o stic criteria T en th R evisio n o f D ia g n o stic a n d th e In tern a tio n a l S ta tistica l M a n u al C la ssifica tio n o f o f M en tal th D isea se (IC D -1 0 ) D iso rd ers, 4 ed . (D S M -IV ) P ro v id ers u sin g O b stetrician /g y n ec P sy ch iatrists, o th er th ese criteria o lo g ists, p rim ary m en tal h ealth care care p h y sicians p ro v id ers N u m b er o f O ne 5 o f 1 1 sy m p tom s sy m p to m s req u ired
  10. 10. Differences Between PMS and PMDD (Continued) F u n ction al N ot required Interference w ith im p airm en t social or role functioning required P rosp ective N ot required P rospective ch artin g of daily charting of sym p tom s sym ptom s required for tw o cycles
  11. 11. Patterns of PMS  Premenstrual symptoms can begin at ovulation with gradual worsening of symptoms during the luteal phase (pattern 1).  PMS can begin during the second week of the luteal phase (pattern 2).
  12. 12. Patterns of PMS (Continued)  Some women experience a brief, time-limited episode of symptoms at ovulation, followed by symptom-free days and a recurrence of premenstrual symptoms late in the luteal phase (pattern 3).  The most severely affected women have symptoms that at ovulation worsen across the luteal phase and remit only after menses cease (pattern 4). These women describe having only one week a month that is symptom-free.
  13. 13. Differential Diagnosis Psychiatric disorders Medical disorders  Anemia  Major depression  Autoimmune disorders  Dysthymia  Hypothyroidism  Generalized anxiety  Diabetes  Panic disorder  Seizure disorders  Bipolar illness (mood  Endometriosis irritability)  Chronic fatigue syndrome  Other  Collagen vascular disease
  14. 14. Differential Diagnosis (Continued) Premenstrual Psychosocial exacerbation spectrum  Of psychiatric  Past history of sexual disorders abuse  Of seizure disorders  Past, present, or  Of endocrine disorders current domestic  Of cancer violence  Of systemic lupus erythematosus  Of anemia  Of endometriosis
  15. 15. Diagnosis of PMS PMS C. Presence of one or more A. Does not meet DSM-IV of the following criteria but does meet symptoms ICD-10 criteria for PMS  Mild psychological discomfort  Bloating and weight gain B. Symptoms occur only in the luteal phase, peak  Breast tenderness shortly before menses,  Swelling of hands and and cease with feet menstrual flow or soon  Aches and pains after  Poor concentration  Sleep disturbance  Change in appetite
  16. 16. PMDD (DMS-IV Criteria) A. At least five of the symptoms below, with at least one being a core symptom, are present a week before menses and remit a few days after onset of menses:  Depressed mood or dysphoria (core symptom)  Anxiety or tension (core symptom)  Affective lability (core symptom)  Irritability (core symptom)  Decreased interest in usual activities
  17. 17. PMDD (DMS-IV Criteria) (Continued)  Concentration difficulties  Marked lack of energy  Marked change in appetite, overeating, or food cravings  Hypersomnia or insomnia  Feeling overwhelmed  Other physical symptoms (e.g., breast tenderness, bloating, headache, joint or muscle pain)
  18. 18. PMDD (DMS-IV Criteria) (Continued) B. Symptoms must interfere with work, school, usual activities, or relationships C. Symptoms must not merely be an exacerbation of D. Criteria A, B and C must be confirmed by prospective daily ratings for at least two cycles
  19. 19. See Attached Menstrual Symptom Diary
  20. 20. Treatment of PMS  Oral contraceptives  Vitamin B6  Bromocriptine  Monoamine oxidase inhibitors  Synthetic progestational agents  Spironolactone  Massage therapy  Chiropractic therapy  Calcium
  21. 21. Treatment of PMS (Continued)  Primrose oil  Prostaglandin synthesis inhibitors  Medical and surgical oophorectomy  Alprazolam (Xanax)  Naltrexone: opiate antagonist  Fluxetine (Prozac)
  22. 22. With a placebo response rate in patients with PMS ranging between 20% and 50%, it is essential that double-blind, randomized trials be conducted to assess therapeutic effectiveness.