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Mocha for after effects
Mocha for after effects
Mocha for after effects
Mocha for after effects
Mocha for after effects
Mocha for after effects
Mocha for after effects
Mocha for after effects
Mocha for after effects
Mocha for after effects
Mocha for after effects
Mocha for after effects
Mocha for after effects
Mocha for after effects
Mocha for after effects
Mocha for after effects
Mocha for after effects
Mocha for after effects
Mocha for after effects
Mocha for after effects
Mocha for after effects
Mocha for after effects
Mocha for after effects
Mocha for after effects
Mocha for after effects
Mocha for after effects
Mocha for after effects
Mocha for after effects
Mocha for after effects
Mocha for after effects
Mocha for after effects
Mocha for after effects
Mocha for after effects
Mocha for after effects
Mocha for after effects
Mocha for after effects
Mocha for after effects
Mocha for after effects
Mocha for after effects
Mocha for after effects
Mocha for after effects
Mocha for after effects
Mocha for after effects
Mocha for after effects
Mocha for after effects
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Mocha for after effects

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Mocha for after effects tut

Mocha for after effects tut

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  • 1. mocha for After Effects Quick Start | Reference Quick Start | Reference Version 1.2.21
  • 2. mocha for After Effects Quick Start | Reference20080813-01M-MchMan1©2008 Imagineer Systems Ltd.Copyright in this document is vested in Imagineer Systems Limited. Reproduction ordistribution in whole or in part is prohibited except with the prior consent inwriting of the copyright owner.Imagineer Systems LimitedSurrey Technology Centre40 Occam RoadSurrey Research ParkGuildfordSurrey, UKGU2 7YGTel: +44 (0) 1483 685585Fax: +44 (0) 1483 6855862
  • 3. mocha for After Effects Quick Start | ReferenceTable of ContentsWelcome to mocha for After Effects ..................................................... 5mocha for After Effects tracks with splines, not points................................................ 5The Art of Tracking ........................................................................................................ 6Tracking with mocha for After Effects .................................................. 7There Are No Point Trackers .......................................................................................... 8Start a new mocha for After Effects Project ......................................... 8The mocha for After Effects Workspace ....................................................................... 9Start a New Project ...................................................................................................... 10Setting the Project In and Out Points.......................................................................... 12Track anything....................................................................................... 131-point style tracking in mocha for After Effects ....................................................... 14Dealing with Obstructions or Reflective Surfaces ....................................................... 15Adjust the Tracking Parameters .................................................................................. 17Track the Spline ........................................................................................................... 17Check Your Track ......................................................................................................... 182-Point Style Tracking in mocha for After Effects....................................................... 184-Point Style Corner-Pin Tracking in mocha for After Effects .................................... 19IMPORTANT - The Surface and Grid have no keyframes. ............................................ 20IMPORTANT - Keep Your Tracking Layers on Top ...................................................... 22Adjust the Track .................................................................................... 23Adjust Track ................................................................................................................. 23Adjust Track Colors (Red, Yellow and Green) ............................................................. 23Starting the Adjust Track ............................................................................................. 23AdjustTrack with More than Four Reference Points................................................... 25Working Backwards ..................................................................................................... 26About Master Reference Points (the red X) ................................................................ 26Changing the Master Frame for a Reference Point .................................................... 27Selecting Different Reference Points .......................................................................... 28Deleting Reference Points ........................................................................................... 28Nudging Reference Points ........................................................................................... 28Auto Nudge.................................................................................................................. 29Adjust Track View ........................................................................................................ 30Adjust Track Keyframing ............................................................................................. 303
  • 4. mocha for After Effects Quick Start | ReferenceExport the Track to After Effects ......................................................... 31Begin Exporting ........................................................................................................... 31Step-by-Step Approach ................................................................................................ 31Track an object............................................................................................................. 31Export tracking data .................................................................................................... 31After Effects CS4 Corner Pin Data ............................................................................... 32After Effects Transform Data....................................................................................... 32Export tracking window .............................................................................................. 32Importing into After Effects – Corner Pin ................................................................... 32Stabilization with mocha for After Effects ......................................... 35The Curve Editor.................................................................................... 37Navigating the Curve Editor ........................................................................................ 37Selecting and Moving Keys.......................................................................................... 37Changing the Interpolation of Keys ............................................................................ 37Changing the Extrapolation of Keys ........................................................................... 38Clip Management .................................................................................. 39About the clip concept in mocha for After Effects ..................................................... 39Importing Clips into mocha for After Effects.............................................................. 39Removing Clips from the mocha for After Effects Workspace ................................... 41Relinking Clips in the mocha for After Effects Workspace......................................... 41Selecting a Clip to Rotoscope ...................................................................................... 41Configuring Preferences ....................................................................... 42Output Settings ............................................................................................................ 42System .......................................................................................................................... 43Default Clip Settings .................................................................................................... 43Log ................................................................................................................................ 44Help .............................................................................................................................. 44Key Shortcuts ............................................................................................................... 44You’re done! ................................................................................................................ 454
  • 5. mocha for After Effects Quick Start | ReferenceWelcome to mocha for AfterEffectsWelcome to mocha for After Effects, a tracking tool that makes your trackingwork much easier. mocha for After Effects employs Imagineer’s proprietaryPlanar Tracking System to generate accurate corner-pins and track and transformyour roto splines in a powerful way. If you are familiar with Imagineer’s otherproducts, mocha for After Effects takes the Tracking and Adjust Track modules ofmonet and focuses that for an After Effects user.Like any good tool, mocha for After Effects requires some investment up front tolearn and master. Once you have learned to harness the power of the PlanarTracker, you will be able to get spot-on tracks faster and with far fewer keyframesand adjustments than you probably thought possible.mocha for After Effects works by: 1) Tracking planes 2) Adjusting your track 3) Transforming roto splines with this tracking data.mocha for After Effects tracks with splines, not pointsIn mocha for After Effects, splines are used for tracking. You will not findstandard 1-point and multi-point tracking tools in mocha for After Effects.Traditional roto tools require that you locate “points” that remain consistentthroughout the entire shot in order to track movement. While this is itself a difficulttask, especially when tracking an image that was not originally designed to betracked, if you wish to also track rotation, perspective and shear you need evenmore clear and consistent points to track.If you have never used Imagineer’s Planar Tracker, you are in for a real treat. ThePlanar Tracker doesn’t employ user defined point trackers, but attempts to track anobject’s translation, rotation and scaling data based on the movement of a userdefined plane.If you remember your geometry class, a plane is a flat surface having only twodimensions, such as a table top, a wall, or a television screen. Look around you-planes are everywhere. With the Planar Tracker, planes will quickly become yourfriends. Planes provide much more detail to the computer as to an object’stranslation, rotation and scaling than is possible with 1-point and multi-pointtracking tools. Even as an object leaves and enters a frame, there is usually enoughinformation for the Planar Tracker to maintain a rock-solid track of the object,something impossible with traditional tracking techniques.When you begin working in mocha for After Effects, you will need to look forplanes in the clip. More specifically you will need to look for planes that coincidewith movements you need to track. If someone is waving goodbye, you can5
  • 6. mocha for After Effects Quick Start | Referencebasically break their arm into two planes- the upper and lower limbs. Although allof the points on the arm sections don’t actually lie on the same two-dimensionalsurface, the apparent parallax will be minimal.The Art of TrackingIn the past, tight tracks were usually the result of either getting lucky or knowinghow to “prime” a clip for optimum tracking using mattes, color correctors andother image manipulations. If the software tracker didn’t get it right, for examplewhen 2 of your 4-point trackers exit a frame, it was very difficult to extrapolate thetrack and have it not be exact or at least close to it.Imagineer’s Planar Tracker will make difficult tracks a thing of the past. Most shotsneed no prep work - you can take them straight into mocha for After Effects.Motion blur, low contrast, all of the things that typically give point trackersproblems are usually dealt with easily in mocha for After Effects. Old habits havemade users very particular and careful with choosing their tracking points,scrubbing forward and backward, looking for that perfect highlight or high-contrast area that lasts throughout most of the frame. With the Planar Tracker inmocha for After Effects, you do not need to be precise in creating your shape;you do not need a clear point. mocha for After Effects will find the majority ofpoints that move in a certain way and will discard the rest. This isn’t like the precisetracking habits which werelike those necessary with point trackers.6
  • 7. mocha for After Effects Quick Start | Reference Tracking with mocha for After Effects7
  • 8. mocha for After Effects Quick Start | Reference --IMPORTANT CONCEPT--mocha for After Effects’ powerful tracking relies on Imagineer’s Planar Tracking technology. This rock-solid tracker can function as a simple point tracker, which follows only the position of an object. It can function as a 2-point tracker, whichwould also track the rotation and scale. It also functions a 4-point tracker, where position, scale, rotation, shear and perspective are matched and output using traditional corner-pin data.There Are No Point TrackersWhen you first enter mocha for After Effects, you will probably immediatelybegin looking for the familiar Dashed-Box point tracker interface. There are none.mocha for After Effects tracks with splines, even when using them as a 1-pointtracker. Simply draw a small shape around the area you wish to track. The searcharea, or outer box in many tracking applications is set as a parameter.Start a new mocha for After EffectsProjectBe sure and grab the tutorial files for this exercise from the Downloads section atwww.imagineersystems.com.mocha for After Effects features a powerful Planar Tracker. Its proprietary planartracking technology allows an accurate track to be achieved in a very short time.The basic workflow in mocha for After Effects is this: 1) Import your footage. 2) Draw a loose spline inside the shape you want to track. Track the spline. 3) Set the ‘Surface’, or corner pin where you want the inserted image. 4) Adjust track when necessary 5) Export the completed track.8
  • 9. mocha for After Effects Quick Start | ReferenceThe mocha for After Effects WorkspaceTake a few minutes to familiarize yourself with the mocha for After Effectsworkspace. It is a fairly common layout: x A canvas, where most of the work is done. x A toolbar, where commonly used tools are accessed. x A number of dock-able control panels, x A bottom section which contains the parameter control section and a curve editor.Many of the controls functions will probably be obvious to you, such as EdgeProperties, but others like the Layer Controls should be looked at more closely.9
  • 10. mocha for After Effects Quick Start | ReferenceStart a New ProjectWhen you start mocha for After Effects, you are presented with an emptyworkspace. No footage is loaded and most of the controls are consequentlydisabled. To begin working in mocha for After Effects, you must open an existingproject or start a new project.Choose File -> New Project… or select the New Project icon on the toolbar. Astep-by-step wizard will guide you through the process of getting your project setup properly.Import your footageSelect the clip to import by clicking on the Open icon to the right of the top line.This will bring up a file browser, where you can select almost any industry standardfile formats. Image sequences will show up as individual frames. You can select anyone of the frames and mocha for After Effects will automatically sequence theframes as a clip on Import.10
  • 11. mocha for After Effects Quick Start | Referencemocha for After Effects will automatically create a project name for you basedon the Import image filename. You may type in the text field and change it to yourliking.The next window, after you select your clip to open, will allow you to adjust thefirst and last frame and to decide if you wish the clip to be cached into memory ornot.The last window is very important because here you will set the frame rate of yourclip, the separation of fields, if needed, and the color space of your image. Theframe rate is vital because this must match the frame rate of your project in AfterEffects.Also, mocha for After Effects will default to output your work into a directorycalled “Results” which will be created in the same folder as your clip import. This is11
  • 12. mocha for After Effects Quick Start | Referencethe behavior of the Relative Path option. If you choose Absolute Path, you mayspecify a full path name where you would like mocha for After Effects’ output togo by either typing the path name in directly, or selecting the light grey Open icon.mocha for After Effects will store both Project and Cache files here.Setting the Project In and Out PointsYou may set the In and Out points, later on, if you think you may want to work onan isolated section of the shot. Hover over a button and a tooltip will quicklyappear describing the button’s behavior.You may always restore the original In to Out setting by hitting the ZoomTimeline to Full Range Button. Project In to Out points also affect the range ofthe Uberkey button (see below).12
  • 13. mocha for After Effects Quick Start | ReferenceTrack anythingmocha for After Effects’ powerful tracking relies on Imagineer’s Planar Trackertechnology. This rock-solid tracker can function as a simple point tracker, whichfollows only the position of an object. It can function as a 2-point tracker, whichwould also track the rotation and scale. It also functions a 4-point tracker, whereposition, scale, rotation, shear and perspective are matched and output usingtraditional corner-pin data.Most new users to mocha for After Effects are surprised at one thing in particular- that you can be fairly lazy in defining your tracking splines. It doesn’t really matterif your shape is slightly smaller than the tracking area, or even slightly larger.mocha for After Effects is intelligent enough to discard the pixel movement thatdoesn’t coincide with the majority of the shape.mocha for After Effects features two spline technologies:X SplinesBezier SplinesIn general X splines work better for tracking; especially with perspective motion,nevertheless the Bezier Spline is versatile and is the industry spline standard. An X-Spline A Bezier Spline13
  • 14. mocha for After Effects Quick Start | Reference1-point style tracking in mocha for After EffectsMost tracking applications use points or regions for tracking. mocha for AfterEffects uses splines.For example: If you are tracking the position of an element, you can use traditionalmethods of identifying a suitable tracking region by drawing a spline around it.Now the first thing you are going to say is: “that’s not a point! It’s a large area.”That’s OK - this will be an easy thing to get used to. You are trying to get thepositional data of that area, and normally you would have to look for an area ofhigh contrast that was relatively stable to get a good track, or else reposition thetracker to another more desirable area half-way through the track.When you use mocha for After Effects splines, even for a simple 1-point track, itwill lock into the average position of the area you are tracking. Using the iPAQ clip:Use the shape tool to create a shape around the outside edge of the iPAQ.You will notice that the shape is not tight on the edge but actually it has a littlespace to allow for the contrasting edges to show through.14
  • 15. mocha for After Effects Quick Start | ReferenceStart creating your shape by clicking onto the screen. After the third point, theshape will auto-close, but you can continue to add points. After you have added allthe points you need, right-click to close.Before we move on to performing the actual track, we first need to adjust a coupleof settings depending on the movement in the clip.In the Track tab you will notice a section labeled Motion. There you can select theparameters you want mocha for After Effects to track. In this example, keep thedefault motion settings Translation, Rotation+Scale and ShearDealing with Obstructions or Reflective SurfacesIn some cases there are parts of an image that can alter the effectiveness of thePlanar Tracker in mocha for After Effects. To help keep this from being aproblem, you can create an exclusion zone in the area you are tracking.For instance, in the iPAQ example we are using, there are many frames where thereare strong glares on the screen. These glares can make the track jump or skip. Sowhat we need to do is isolate that area and tell mocha for After Effects to notuse it in calculating the track. Here’s how this is done:First select the initial layer you created.15
  • 16. mocha for After Effects Quick Start | ReferenceSecond, select the add/remove shape in order to draw the shape you wish toavoid.Third, draw a shape around the screen.Lastly, using the handles at each point, pull them out till you create a hard-edgedshape.By turning on the Matte button you can see the area mocha for After Effects willtrack.16
  • 17. mocha for After Effects Quick Start | ReferenceAdjust the Tracking ParametersThe Motion, Search Area and Data parameters can be accessed by selecting theParameter-> Track tab.On the left hand side of the UI, you will see two sections: Motion and Search Area,Motion allows you to define the type of motion for which mocha for AfterEffects should be looking. Traditional point-tracking applications have a largerrectangle that defines the region in which it should search for pixel movement. Inmocha for After Effects you define those parameters in the Large | Small |Manual selector.The Search Area tab allows you to specify a smaller or larger search area for atracking match during tracking operations. If the object in your shot is movingsignificantly and you are working on a large 2k-4k image, you may wish tomanually enter some large pixel values.Track the SplineTrack the spline by pressing the Track Forwards button on the right-hand side ofthe Transport control section.17
  • 18. mocha for After Effects Quick Start | ReferenceStop the track and adjust the shape if it doesn’t seem to be tracking properly. Youmay keyframe the spline shape so that it tracks only the planar region of a shape byadjusting the shape and hitting Add Key. Keep in mind that no initial keyframe isset until you first hit Add Key or move a point with Auto-Key turned on.Check Your TrackThe spline should be tracked in addition to the clip being cached to RAM. You canplay it back and get an idea as to how the track went. Feel free to change theplayback mode in the Transport Controls to loop or Ping-Pong your track.Another trick you can do to check your track is hit the Stabilize button in the ViewControls section.Turning on Stabilize will lock the tracked item in place, moving the image tocompensate. Stabilize is just a preview mode and cannot be output in any way.2-Point Style Tracking in mocha for After EffectsIf you’d also like to track the Scale and Rotation, simply check the Motion mode toinclude Rotation + Scale.18
  • 19. mocha for After Effects Quick Start | Reference mocha for After Effects 2-point tracking modeKeep in mind, because this is a Planar Tracker, you do not have to track twoseparate splines. Unless they are on the same plane of movement, this will actuallymake for a poor track. Trust the planar tracker to derive the Rotation and Scalebased on pixel movement within the spline.4-Point Style Corner-Pin Tracking in mocha for After EffectsCorner pin tracking is where mocha for After Effects really begins to shine. Youcan achieve more accurate tracks faster than you would think possible: the resultsare nothing short of amazing. Corner Pin tracking modeThere are two parameters for tracking perspective change in mocha for AfterEffects, these are shear and perspective. You will need to experiment with eachshot to get an idea as to which mode works best. Tip: perspective tracking works best on large objects with severe perspectiveIf you have never used Imagineer’s Planar Tracker, you are in for a real treat. ThePlanar Tracker doesn’t employ user defined point trackers, but attempts to track an19
  • 20. mocha for After Effects Quick Start | Referenceobject’s translation, rotation and scaling data based on the movement of a userdefined plane.If you remember your geometry class, a plane is a flat surface having only twodimensions, such as a table top, a wall, or a television screen. Look around you-planes are everywhere. With the Planar Tracker, planes will quickly become yourfriends. Planes provide much more detail to the computer as to an object’stranslation, rotation and scaling than is possible with 1-point and multi-pointtracking tools. Even as an object leaves and enters a frame, there is usually enoughinformation for the planar tracker to maintain a rock-solid track.You can check the accuracy of your planar track by turning on the Surface andGrid overlay (located in the View Control panel). Drag the corners of the Surfaceoverlay (the dark blue rectangle) to match the perspective of your tracked plane. Ifyou play the clip, you should see the surface and/or grid line up perfectly with theplane that is being tracked - translation, rotation and scaling.IMPORTANT - The Surface and Grid have no keyframes.The Surface and Grid are simply guides that let you check the accuracy of yourtrack. The Surface also allows you to specify where the exported tracking data willput its corner points. Feel free to stand in awe at how easy your first planar track was. You might be thinking, “That sure would be useful to have in a compositing application.” Imagineer has a compositing application called monet that does just that.Next click on the Surface button on the right hand side of the screen.When you turn on the surface you will see the blue box that represents the 4points of the corner-pin. Right now you will see that it is not lined up with thescreen.20
  • 21. mocha for After Effects Quick Start | ReferenceBy selecting each corner one at a time you can adjust the surface area to cover thearea of the screen.The Grid overlay should line up with the plane you’re tracking and move with it asyou cycle through the clip. You may lower the density of the grid by adjusting the Xand Y grid values.21
  • 22. mocha for After Effects Quick Start | ReferenceThe grid overlay can give you a quick representation of the accuracy of the track.The Trace function allows you to see the position of the planar corners over time.Skip allows you to work with only every nth frame, useful on particularly long rotoshots where the movement is predictable.IMPORTANT - Keep Your Tracking Layers on Top When you select a layer to track, mocha for After Effects currently uses themattes from any Active layer above to determine the area for tracking, even if their tracking status has been turned off. To keep your tracking predictable, it isrecommended that you keep your tracking layers on the top of the stack unless you specifically wish to use other layers to obscure parts of the image to track. To monitor what mocha for After Effects “sees” as a tracking area, select the Track Matte button in the view control.22
  • 23. mocha for After Effects Quick Start | ReferenceAdjust the TrackAdjust TrackManual refinements can be made by using the adjust track tool. Adjust track isprimarily used for eradicating drift (this does not apply to the removal of trackingjitter). The concept of adjust track is fairly simplistic; it utilizes the four cornersurface area to generate keyframable data which will compensate for tracking drift.To achieve an adjusted track you would ideally line up the surface area where youwant to place your insert. In situations where you don’t require an insertion youshould place the corners of the surface area in distinctive locations, as you will needto refer to these locations when you add keyframes to correct the drift.Adjust Track Colors (Red, Yellow and Green)When you perform an adjust track and you begin to move a newly createdreference point, you will notice the dashed lines which connect all of the createdpoints. These lines change in color to represent the quality of positioning of the anygiven reference point. For best results keep reference points away from oneanother, the color guides will allow you to achieve this with ease. When adjusting the track try to always get at least a yellow adjust but shoot for green for a more solid adjust track.Starting the Adjust TrackWhen you have the Surface at a satisfactory location and are ready to refine thetrack, flip over into the Adjust Track module by hitting the Adjust Track tab.23
  • 24. mocha for After Effects Quick Start | Reference The Adjust Track TabOnce you select the AdjustTrack tab, a key frame with four reference points iscreated. (Note: Be aware that you should be on your desired master frame beforeselecting the AdjustTrack tab.) The reference points can then be positioned ondistinctive features, where any drift in the track can be easily corrected.As you play though the sequence you will be able to manually adjust the position ofeach point as drift occurs. Reference Points have just been created on top of the Surface. The export from mocha for After Effects will be the corners of the blue Surface overlay. The Reference Points are only for referencing and refining your track.24
  • 25. mocha for After Effects Quick Start | ReferenceThe red lines indicate the new area for the adjust track is a poor selection.The green lines indicate the new area for the adjust track is a good selection.AdjustTrack with More than Four Reference PointsOften there are times where your reference points are either obscured or no longervisible. Adjust track has the ability to create multiple reference points, which willstem from the corner of the surface, but can be positioned in alternate locations.If your track is spot on, these reference points should line up properly throughoutthe shot. If you see a Reference Point drifting, that will indicate the track is drifting.25
  • 26. mocha for After Effects Quick Start | ReferenceMove the Reference Point back to where it started in its Master Frame and mochafor After Effects will adjust the corner-pin Surface track accordingly. Keep in mind you cannot keyframe the Surface in mocha for After Effects- only the Reference Points. The original mocha for After Effects track and any refinements you make in Adjust Track cause the Surface to move as it does.Working BackwardsEvery so often a shot will come along that is easier to track backwards thanforwards. This is fairly simple when running the tracker backwards, but introducessome rather obtuse concepts when keyframing is involved. This is why there are two“New Ref” buttons provided. If you are working backwards and wish to set a newreference point, you will probably want to use the “<-New Ref” button instead ofthe forward-thinking “New Ref ->” button. Working backwards and setting a New Master Reference PointBecause keyframing “thinks” forward, hitting “<-New Ref” will not create newMaster Reference points on the current frame, but will go backwards in time,looking for any existing keyframes and set new Master Reference points on theframe directly after. For example, if you decide to create a new backwardsreference point at frame 20, a new master reference will be created at frame 21.Some people may be more comfortable doing this manually by moving theplayhead themselves and using the traditional “New Ref ->” button. Others who doa lot of tracking and find themselves working backwards often may find thebackwards-thinking New Ref button helpful.About Master Reference Points (the red X)Every Reference Point has one frame in which its initial placement is determinedwithout causing any adjustment to the track. This is called the Master ReferencePoint; if you step forward or backward in time you will notice the red X change to ared dot.26
  • 27. mocha for After Effects Quick Start | Reference A Master Reference PointThe red X indicates that“This particular frame is the starting point for whichadjustments are calculated.” Master Reference Points are moved into place withoutadjusting the track whatsoever and cannot be keyframed.You may be wondering what Master Reference Points are for. AdjustTrack has toprovide a frame in which you can set the Reference Points without actuallyadjusting the track (otherwise they wouldn’t be reference points at all, but rather,they would be identical to the original tracked corner points). This is what theMaster Reference Point, or the Red X indicates. Go ahead and experiment - movethe Reference Point when it is a red X (a Master Reference Point). You will noticethe Surface isn’t adjusted at all. Step forward a frame and move the same point -this time the surface will move because you are not adjusting the Master ReferencePoint, but the actual offset capabilities provided by Adjust Track.Changing the Master Frame for a Reference PointBy default, the frame in which you create a Reference Point is its Master Referenceframe. This Master Reference can occur on a different frame for each referencepoint. You can change the Master Reference frame by selecting a Reference Point,going to the appropriate frame and hitting the “Set Master” button. Setting the Master Reference frameYou may set a new Master Reference Frame for all active points by hitting the SetMaster All button.27
  • 28. mocha for After Effects Quick Start | Reference Set new Master Reference for all Active PointsSelecting Different Reference PointsOne method for selecting different reference points is to hit the “Next” button. Selecting the Next Reference pointThe next button simply cycles through the active reference points for that frame.More granular control of reference points can be obtained through the Nudgecontrol panel, described below.Deleting Reference PointsDeleting Reference Points is done by selecting the point you wish to remove andhitting the delete key. If there are multiple Reference points on a particular corner,the preceding Reference Point will be extended through your time line until a newReference point is encountered.Nudging Reference PointsThe Nudge section allows you to move Reference points in .1 pixel increments,much more fine grained than would be possible by dragging the points manually.You can easily select any active Reference Point by selecting one of the cornerbuttons in the Nudge section.28
  • 29. mocha for After Effects Quick Start | Reference The Nudge section in Adjust TrackAuto NudgeIf you hit the Auto button, mocha for After Effects will attempt to line up theselected Reference Point based on its position in the Master Reference frame. TheSearch Region Size and Maximum Motion parameters can be set in pixels in theAuto Nudge section. The Auto Nudge buttonYou can quickly select any corner by using the Corner selector buttons in the Nudgecontrol panel. In the image below, the user is selecting the upper right corner inpreparation for nudging operations. Selecting the Upper Right Corner29
  • 30. mocha for After Effects Quick Start | ReferenceAdjust Track ViewThe Adjust Track tab has a View section for cleaning up your Adjust Trackworkspace. Deselecting the Inactive Traces button will cause mocha for AfterEffects to display on those Reference Points which are currently active. The Adjust Track View OptionsThis is helpful if you have a corner with numerous Reference Points offsetting it.Deselecting the Unselected Traces button will cause mocha for After Effects notto display any Reference Point that is not selected. Finally, the Search Area buttonwill display the Search Region Size (in Yellow) and the Maximum Motion searcharea (in Pink).Adjust Track KeyframingThe Adjust Track tab has a section for determining the nature of keyframing youradjustments in mocha for After Effects. Keyframing OptionsNormally, you would want to keep your corner adjustments discrete, so thatadjusting one would not automatically set a keyframe on another corner. In thiscase, you would want to keyframe by points. There are some special cases whereyou want to create a keyframe on every active Reference Point when any one ofthem is manipulated. For this case, choose the Corner Pin keyframing method.30
  • 31. mocha for After Effects Quick Start | ReferenceExport the Track to After EffectsBegin ExportingWhen you are satisfied with your track and want to export to Adobe’s After Effects,choose the Export Tracking Data.mocha for After Effects exports your Track as 4 point Corner Pin data.This example illustrates how to export tracking data from mocha for AfterEffects in a format readable by Adobe After Effects, how to import and create acorner pin using this data in After Effects, and how to stabilize a shot using thesame data.Step-by-Step ApproachBefore we start, you should ensure that the following criteria are met: Both mochafor After Effects and After Effects are working on clips of the same length. Bothmocha for After Effects and After Effects are set to the same frame rate,frame size, interlace mode and pulldown.Track an objectTrack an object in mocha for After Effects in the normal way, and useAdjustTrack to correct for any drift if necessary. The exported tracking points will bethe four corner points, so you should position these appropriately.Export tracking dataPress the Export Tracking Data button on either the Track or AdjustTrack tabs.Next, choose either the After Effects Corner Pin Data or the After Effects TransformData. A window appears as shown overleaf.31
  • 32. mocha for After Effects Quick Start | ReferenceAfter Effects CS4 Corner Pin DataThe corner pin data records and exports the 4 point x, y information from either theadjusted track or the raw track.After Effects Transform DataThe transform data exports x and x position data as well as the scale and rotationfor the whole surface.Export tracking windowPress Save. This will display a file browser; you need to select a filename anddirectory for the files to be saved. By default, the files will take the name of thelayer, so for a layer name Track_Layer this export produced a file named:Track_Layer.txtTaking this approach means you have a backup of your tracking data saved to disk.However, you can skip this step by pressing Copy to Clipboard, then skip steps 2 and3 from the next section.Importing into After Effects – Corner PinFollowing these following steps:Step 1: Load the footage you tracked in mocha for After Effects and the footageyou wish to apply the tracking (corner pin data) to. Thus, your timeline will looksomething like this:32
  • 33. mocha for After Effects Quick Start | Reference Timeline in After Effects with the background layer and the insert layer to apply the tracking data to from mocha for After EffectsStep 2: Open the text file you saved with the corner pin data Text file of the corner pin data exported from mocha for After Effects.Step 3: Select the entire body of text and copy it.Step 4: Switch back to your After Effects window and locate the item on the timeline that is the insert object.Step 5: Make sure the layer you wish to apply the tracking data to is selected.Step 6: Paste the data to the selected layer. You can do this by selecting the ‘paste’option in the edit menu or by typing “command-v” (Mac) or “ctrl-v” (Windows).33
  • 34. mocha for After Effects Quick Start | ReferenceWith the layers information expanded you can see the 4-point tracking data now applied to the insert layer.The result is the image being scaled and inserted into the area defined originally inmocha for After Effects.34
  • 35. mocha for After Effects Quick Start | ReferenceStabilization with mocha for AfterEffectsYou can use the tracking data created in mocha for After Effects to stabilize ashot in After Effects. The process is simple.Step 1: Track your footage as normal within mocha for After Effects.Step 2: Turn on the surface button and center the surface box on the area you wishto use as the stabilize center. Notice the surface area around the iPAQ logo.Step 3: Export the tracking data as a transform After Effects format.Step 4: Copy the data from the saved text file.Step 5: Select the layer in After Effects you wish to apply the stabilize data to andpaste it to that layer.Step 6: Delete the position and scale key frames. You can skip this step if you firstdelete this information from the saved text file before copying it to After Effects. Notice that only Anchor and Rotation have keyframes.Step 7: In the rotation box type in the formula (rotation*-1).35
  • 36. mocha for After Effects Quick Start | Reference While you cannot see the whole formula in the box, type out (rotation*-1) and hit Enter.You should now have a stabilized image. Remember, all of the same rules hold truehere just as they do for tracking. Make sure you are starting at the correct frameand that the frame rates match in both mocha for After Effects and in AfterEffects36
  • 37. mocha for After Effects Quick Start | ReferenceThe Curve EditorNavigating the Curve EditorYou may navigate the Curve Editor space by using the Middle Mouse button to Panand the Mouse Wheel to zoom. Alternately, you may pan using the ‘x’ key on thekeyboard and zoom using the ‘z’ key on the keyboard. When zooming with the ‘z’key, mocha for After Effects will zoom in and out horizontally with left/rightmouse movements and will zoom vertically with up/down mouse movements.Selecting and Moving KeysTo select keyframes, you must first select the curve, then the keyframes. Keyframesof unselected curves are not selectable.You may move the keyframes manually by dragging them with the mouse, or youmay type in a “Nudge” value at the top right of the Curve Editor.Entering a negative value in the “Nudge Time” field and hitting the button willmove selected keyframes backwards in time by that amount every time you hit thebutton. Entering a positive value in the “Nudge Value” field and hitting its buttonwill move selected keyframes up in value by that amount every time you hit thebutton.Changing the Interpolation of KeysInterpolation describes the method of how values are calculated betweenkeyframes. mocha for After Effects defaults to linear interpolations betweenkeyframes but you may wish to convert them to Bezier for easing in and out. Or ifyou wish them to hold their position until the next keyframe, you may wish toselect Constant as the mode of interpolation.37
  • 38. mocha for After Effects Quick Start | ReferenceRight click on a selected keyframe and choose Interpolation->Bezier. Beziertangent controls will appear on your keys and you may adjust them for easing inand out.Changing the Extrapolation of KeysIf a keyframe is the first or last keyframe on the curve, its extrapolation can bechosen. Extrapolation describes the method of how values are calculated “off intospace” before the first keyframe or after the last keyframe. mocha for AfterEffects defaults to Constant, which simply holds the value steady.Choose linear extrapolation and mocha for After Effects will continue the valueon its current slope (sometimes called Gradient Extrapolation in other applications).38
  • 39. mocha for After Effects Quick Start | ReferenceClip ManagementAbout the clip concept in mocha for After EffectsIn mocha for After Effects, you can import any number of clips into theworkspace. Much like a compositing application, you can have a multitude of assetsin the application you may wish to work with at any given time. As clips areimported into the mocha for After Effects workspace, they populate Clip listdrop-downs found throughout the application.Above is shown a list of clips that have been loaded into the mocha for AfterEffects workspace.Importing Clips into mocha for After EffectsThe first clip you import into mocha for After Effects happens when you start anew project. Once you import the first clip into mocha for After Effects, the baseresolution for that particular project is established.39
  • 40. mocha for After Effects Quick Start | Reference40
  • 41. mocha for After Effects Quick Start | ReferenceAdditional clips can be imported into mocha for After Effects under the Clip tabat the bottom of the mocha for After Effects interface.The clips must match the base clip resolution set for the project (the resolution ofthe first clip you imported when you started the project).Removing Clips from the mocha for After Effects WorkspaceYou may clean up the mocha for After Effects workspace by deleting clips you nolonger need. Select the clip in the Parameters->Clip drop-down list and hit Delete.That clip will be removed from the mocha for After Effects workspace.Relinking Clips in the mocha for After Effects WorkspaceYou may wish to relink a clip in the mocha for After Effects workspace. Select theclip from the clip drop-down list and hit Relink You will be presented with atraditional file browser and asked to select the clip you wish the original to bereplaced by. Make sure they have the same resolution as the project base clip.Selecting a Clip to RotoscopeMost often, the first clip you imported will be the one you wish to roto. There aretimes when you may get an updated shot with color correction or some otherenhancements to make roto easier. To use this new clip, you must first import itinto the mocha for After Effects workspace as described above.41
  • 42. mocha for After Effects Quick Start | ReferenceTo change the clip you are viewing in the canvas to this new clip, select the clip inthe View Controls drop-down list. You will notice that any clip you’ve importedinto the mocha for After Effects workspace will appear here.Configuring Preferencesmocha for After Effects preferences are accessed through the Preferences optionof the File menu.Output SettingsFile StorageThe Output Directory settings specify the default location of the directory in whichthe project file and rendered clips are stored. There is a choice between:Relative Path: The project directory is a subdirectory of the directory containing theoriginal project clip. By default, the subdirectory is Results. If you often load yourproject clip over a network, it would be best not to choose Relative Path, becausethe performance of project and clip I/O will not be as fast as the local disk.Absolute Path: The project directory as an absolute path. For the best performancechoose a folder on a fast disk, with plenty of disk space available.Disk space availableIf Absolute Path is specified, the available space in the given disk drive.Cache DirectorySpecify here the folder to use for caching image data and storing auto-savedproject files. For the best performance, choose a folder on a fast disk with plenty ofdisk space available. mocha for After Effects will be writing out a lot of data,using approximately three times as much disk space as the original clip. This isbecause the files are stored in a way that they can be read back quickly.The Cache Original Clip box is selected by default. This will cache the original clip tothe File Cache when a project is created or opened for a more efficient playbackand workflow.RAM PlayerThe Use Textures box is selected by default. This will use textures when rendering,so set Amount of Texture RAM to Reserve to the amount of memory that you wantto be reserved for textures. This determines how many frames can be played back inreal-time. A reasonable setting would be ¾ of your graphics card’s memory.Using textures will usually result in faster rendering, but may not work on allgraphics cards.42
  • 43. mocha for After Effects Quick Start | ReferenceSystemAutosaveThe Enable box is selected by default. This will automatically save the project youare working on. Set the interval between saves by increasing or decreasing thevalue in the Interval (minutes) box. The default is 5 minutes. If Save Images EveryFrame is checked, rendered frames are saved to disk as soon as they are created inmemory, otherwise the render to disk only occurs when rendering a sequence offrames.UI ColorThis decides the color of the user interface. You can choose if you prefer mochafor After Effects to be Dark or Light. If you choose to change from Dark to Lightor vice versa, you will need to re-start mocha for After Effects for the change totake place.UI Look and FeelThis decides whether the user interface is displayed Full Screen or within a Window.If you are working with multiple applications, you may wish to set the UI Look toWindow, as you cannot minimize mocha for After Effects with Full Screenselected.By default, the application uses Rotational Controls to change parameter values.You drag with the mouse or pen away from, and then around, the parameter beingchanged. For those users who prefer traditional linear controls, switch to LinearControls, which change the value of a parameter by dragging a handle underneaththe parameter edit box. If Invert Mouse Wheel is checked, dragging the mousewheel down will move up the timeline or reduce the value of a chosen parameter,and vice versa.HistoryThe Maximum Size of the history is the number of user interactions stored in theundo/redo command list. The limit is used to conserve memory.Default Clip SettingsIf you are working on a number of shots that share the same clip attributes (thesame video standard, frame rate and colorspace), it can be useful to set a defaultclip setting. Then you will not have to re-enter the same clip information each timeyou load a clip into mocha for After Effects.FormatThis is the default file format for rendered clips, when the format is not transferredfrom an input clip. This should be a format that supports all internal pixel formatsand types. Currently the choice is between dpx and tiff.ColorspaceSelect Linear if your source clip is stored in linear color space, possibly with gammaapplied. Select Log if your source clip is stored in log color space. Select Panalog if43
  • 44. mocha for After Effects Quick Start | Referenceyour clips originate from a Panavision Genesis camera, and are stored in the nativePanalog format.Convert to FloatConvert to Float causes imported clips to be generated internally as 32-bit float,increasing the precision of compositing operations and using more memory.TimeFPS - Choose a default clip speed in frames per second (FPS) from the pull-downmenu. You can also select here whether to show Frames or Timecode for the framenumbers shown for the in/out points and current frame. Choose Timecode if youusually work with clips with DPX timecode or QuickTime clips containing timecodes.With the Frame Offset you can choose to apply a positive or negative offset valueto each shot that you import should you wish to make the clip you are importingbegin earlier or later by slipping the start point forwards or backwards.InterlacedSelect the Frames button when importing a clip that is frame-based. This will usuallybe a film clip, graphic file sequence or graphic frame. Select the Separate Fieldsbutton if you normally use field-based clips. This will usually consist of a video clipwith options for PAL (upper field first, also used for SECAM) or NTSC (lower fieldfirst) field ordering. Separate Fields will de-interlace the clip and display both fields.When a new clip is processed, mocha for After Effects interlaces the clip backtogether again. There is also a 3:2 Pulldown option if you mainly work with 3:2pulldown material.LogEnable Error LoggingThis is selected by default. The file generated is useful for Imagineer engineers todiagnose error messages and fix any problems. You can view the log by selectingView Log from the Help menu. You can also change the location of the Log Filefrom its default.Error DetectionThis is set to Comprehensive by default. If you are working on a labor-intensiveproject, you can switch to Normal only logs errors as they occur, rather thanconstantly checking. This provides less information in the event of an error, but canmarginally improve performance.HelpHere you find default settings for the: Web Browser, used to access the online tools in the Help menu; PDF file reader, used to open the mocha for After Effects product manual.Key ShortcutsSelect a mocha for After Effects module from the pull-down menu to reveal a listof keyboard shortcuts for that mocha for After Effects module.44
  • 45. mocha for After Effects Quick Start | ReferenceYou’re done!Having configured the preferences, select OK to proceed. If this is the first timemocha for After Effects has been launched on this machine, the application willnow be open and ready for use.45

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