Mister Khan
M. Tech
SLIET, Snagrur
 Introduction
 Layout of Steam Power Plant
 Essential Requirement of SPP
 Selection of Site
 Layout and units of mode...
 A Steam Power Station is a power plant in which the prime
mover is steam driven. Water is heated, turns into steam and s...
 Reliability
 Minimum capital cost
 Minimum operation and maintenance cost
 Capacity to meet peak load effectively
 M...
 Availability of raw material
 Nature of land
 Cost of land
 Availability of water
 Transport facilities
 Ash dispos...
 Coal and ash handling circuit- Coal arrives at the storage yard and after
necessary handling, passes on to the furnaces ...
 Coal Delivery :- From the supply points the coal may be delivered to power
station through rail, road, river or sea.
 U...
 Storage of coal :- Storage of coal gives protection against the in interruption of
coal supplies when there is delay in ...
 Weighing and Measuring:- To weigh the quantity of coal following equipment
are used –
1. Weigh Bridge 2. Belt Scale
3. W...
 Boilers burning pulverized coal generates approx. 80% fly ash and 20% bottom ash.
Bottom ash particles are collected und...
 Mechanical handling system- This system is generally employed for low
capacity coal fired power plant. Hot ash from boil...
 The constituents of fly ash are- SiO2(30-60%), Al2O3(15-30%), unburnt carbon
upto 30%, CaO(1-7%), MgO & SO3 in small amo...
 Air is taken in from atmosphere through the action of a forced or induced draught
fan and passes on the furnace through ...
3.Forced draught:-
A blower or a fan is installed near the base of boiler to forced the air through the cool
bed & other p...
 A boiler is defined as the closed vessel in which steam is produced from water by
combustion of fuel
Classification of b...
1.The working pressure & quality of steam required
2.Steam generation rate
3.Floor area available
4.Accessibility for repa...
 They are the auxiliary plants required for steam boilers for their proper operation
and further increase of their effici...
 It has a function to feed water into the boiler . It is commonly employed for
large capacity high pressure boiler . It i...
 It is a device in which the waste heat of the flue gases is utilized for heating
the feed water. They are of two types
1...
 Its function is to increase the temperature of air before it enters the furnace. It is
generally placed after the econom...
The function is to increase the temperature of the steam above its saturation point.
Superheated steam has following advan...
 Feed water heating with steam at low pressure then boiler pressure usually
raises overall plant efficiency.
 Feed water...
 They are used to give a supply of pure water as a make up feed for the boilers.
Raw water is evaporated by using extract...
 The steam turbine is a prime mover in which the potential energy of the steam is
transformed into kinetic energy and lat...
 According to no. of cylinder –
1. Single cylinder turbine
2. Double cylinder turbine
3. Three cylinder turbine
4. Four c...
 According to steam condition at inlet to turbine –
1. Low pressure turbine (1.2 – 2 ata)
2. Medium pressure (upto 40 ata...
 The turbine generator consists of a series of steam turbines interconnected to each
other and a generator on a common sh...
 The generator, 30 feet (9 m) long and 12 feet (3.7 m) in diameter, contains a
stationary stator and a spinning rotor, ea...
It is a device in which steam condenses and heat released by steam is absorbed by
water. It serves the following purposes:...
 Jet Condensers :- The exhaust steam and water come in direct contact with each
other and temperature of the condensate i...
 The condenser transfer the latent heat of the exhaust steam to water exposed to the
atmosphere. This water is called cir...
 In SPP the hot water from condenser is cooled in cooling tower so that it can be
reused in condenser for condensation of...
 Reciprocating steam engines have been used for mechanical power sources since
the 18th Century, with notable improvement...
Name Location Units Capacity (MW)
Vindhyachal
Super Thermal
Power Station
Madhya Pradesh 6X210, 4X500 3260
Talcher Super
T...
Sr. No. Name of Plant Location Capacity (MW)
1. Sangam power Generation
Power Ltd.
Allahabad, U.P 2 X 660
2. M.P Power Gen...
 NTPC Limited (formerly National Thermal Power Corporation) is the
largest state-owned power generating company in India....
S.No City State Capacity (MW)
1. Singrauli Uttar Pradesh 2,000
2. Korba Chhattisgarh 2,600
3. Ramagundam Andhra Pradesh 2,...
 Rapid response to changing load.
 A portion of steam generated can be used as a process steam in different
industries.
...
 Maintenance and operating costs are high.
 The cost of plant increases with increase in temperature and pressure.
 Lon...
Sector Hydro Thermal Nuclear Total
Central 3455 7574 880 4909
State 5814.7 4933 - 10747.7
Private 550 17038.5 - 17588.5
To...
 Continuous deterioration in performance of thermal power stations had been
observed during early 80's. Therefore, Renova...
 Most of the Electricity Boards or other generating agencies are facing
financial constraints to carry out R&M activities...
A presentation on steam power plant1
A presentation on steam power plant1
A presentation on steam power plant1
A presentation on steam power plant1
A presentation on steam power plant1
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A presentation on steam power plant1

  1. 1. Mister Khan M. Tech SLIET, Snagrur
  2. 2.  Introduction  Layout of Steam Power Plant  Essential Requirement of SPP  Selection of Site  Layout and units of modern SPP  Coal and Ash handling System  Air and gas circuit  Boilers  Accessories used in SPP  Steam Turbine and Steam Turbine Generator  Steam Condensers  Cooling ponds and cooling towers  History of Steam Power plant  Existing and Upcoming thermal power plants in India  Advantages and Disadvantages of SPP  Conclusion
  3. 3.  A Steam Power Station is a power plant in which the prime mover is steam driven. Water is heated, turns into steam and spins a steam turbine which drives an electric generator.  After it passes through the turbine, the steam is condensed in a condenser and recycled to where it was heated; this is known as a Rankine cycle.  Some thermal power plants also deliver heat energy for industrial purposes, for district heating, or for desalination of water as well as delivering electrical power.  A large part of human CO2 emissions comes from fossil fuelled thermal power plants; efforts to reduce these outputs are various and widespread.
  4. 4.  Reliability  Minimum capital cost  Minimum operation and maintenance cost  Capacity to meet peak load effectively  Minimum loss of energy in transmission  Low cost of energy supplied to the consumers  Reserve capacity to meet future demands
  5. 5.  Availability of raw material  Nature of land  Cost of land  Availability of water  Transport facilities  Ash disposal facilities  Availability of labour  Size of plant  Load center  Public problems  Future Extensions
  6. 6.  Coal and ash handling circuit- Coal arrives at the storage yard and after necessary handling, passes on to the furnaces through the fuel feeding device. Ash resulting from combustion of coal collects at the back of the boiler removed through ash handling system.  Air and gas circuit- Air taken from atmosphere by forced induced draught fan and passes on to the furnace through the air preheater heated by flue gases which passes to the chimney via the preheater. Flue gases are then passes through Precipitator, Economizer and air preheater before being exhausted to the atmosphere.  Feed water and steam flow circuit- Condensate leaving the condenser is first heated in a closed feed water heater through extracted steam from the lowest pressure extraction point of the turbine. It then passes through the deaerator and a few more water heaters before going in to the boiler through economizer.  Cooling water circuit- To keep maintain the low pressure in condenser. It may be taken from natural gas, lake or sea of may be some water circulate over again.
  7. 7.  Coal Delivery :- From the supply points the coal may be delivered to power station through rail, road, river or sea.  Unloading:- Coal delivered by truck directly may dump the coal to outdoor storage. If transported by sea unloading equipment like portable conveyors, coal accelerators etc. are used.  Preparation:- if coal delivered in form of lumps the coal preparation carried by: 1. breakers 4. dryers 2. crushers 5. magnetic separators 3. sizers  Transfer:- Transfer means handling of coal between the unloading point and the final storage point from where it discharge to the firing equipment. Belt Conveyor is very suitable means of transporting large quantities of coal over large distance. 1.Inclination at which coal can be elevated- 20˚ 2. Average Speed of Belt Conveyor – 60 – 100 meter per minute 3.Load carrying capacity – 50 –100 tonnes/hour and it can easily transfer through 400m. It is used in medium and large power plants.
  8. 8.  Storage of coal :- Storage of coal gives protection against the in interruption of coal supplies when there is delay in transportation of coal. There should be no standing water in storage area, Fire fighting equipment should be available, it should be protected against wind erosion.  Inplant Handling:- it refer to coal handling between final storage and the firing equipment . It includes the equipment such as belt conveyors, screw conveyors, Bucket elevators to transfer the coal. Weigh lorries, hoopers and automatic scales used to record the quantity of coal delivered to furnace.
  9. 9.  Weighing and Measuring:- To weigh the quantity of coal following equipment are used – 1. Weigh Bridge 2. Belt Scale 3. Weigh Lorry 4. Automatic Scale  Furnace Firing:- Since the source of heat is the combustion of fuel, a working unit must have equipment necessary to receive the fuel and air in proportion as per the boiler steam demand, mix, ignite, and perform other combustion duties such as distillation of volatile from coal prior to ignition. * Method of furnace firing depends upon the type of fuels and in SPP mainly the Bituminous Coal is used as fuel because it is one of the best coal type contains no moisture, easy to crack and ash contents are very low. Volatile matter on dry ash free basis range from between 10% and 14% to 40% and over. Calorific Value of Bituminous coal is 6000 kcal/kg. * Furnace Firing with coal as fuel is done by three methods: 1. Stroker firing- A Stroker is a power operated fuel feeding mechanism. 2. Pulverized Fuel Firing- In this coal is reduced into fine powder with the help of grinding mill and then projected into combustion chamber with the help of hot air current .
  10. 10.  Boilers burning pulverized coal generates approx. 80% fly ash and 20% bottom ash. Bottom ash particles are collected under the furnace in a water-filled ash hooper. Fly ash is collected in dust collector with either electrostatic precipitator or a baghouse.  Handling of ash includes:- 1. its removal from the furnace. 2. loading on the conveyors and delivery to the fill or dump where it can b disposed of by sale or otherwise.  Three major factors should be considered for ash disposal as it is very dangerous for living organism as well as environment :- 1. Plant Site 2. Fuel Source 3. Environmental Regulation
  11. 11.  Mechanical handling system- This system is generally employed for low capacity coal fired power plant. Hot ash from boiler furnace is made to fall over belt conveyor after cooling through water then transported to an ash bunker through the belt conveyor.  Hydraulic System- In this system ash is carried with the flow of water with high velocity through a channel and finally dumped in the sump.  Pneumatic System- This system can handle abrasive ash as well as fine dusty material such as fly ash and soot. The exhauster at the discharge creates a high velocity stream which picks up ash and dust and then these are carried in the conveyor pipe.  Steam Jet System- In this case steam at sufficiently high velocity is passed through a pipe carrying dry solid materials of considerable size. A jet of high Pressure steam is passed in the direction of ash travel through a conveying pipe in which the ash from the boiler ash Hooper is fed. The ash is disposed into the ash Hooper
  12. 12.  The constituents of fly ash are- SiO2(30-60%), Al2O3(15-30%), unburnt carbon upto 30%, CaO(1-7%), MgO & SO3 in small amounts. In fly ash the carbon content should be small & silicon content should be high as possible.  Disposal :- It is disposed in two ways 1. Dry System- Fly ash is transferred into a bunker pneumatically. 2. Wet System- Fly ash is mixed with water and sluiced to the settling ponds or dumping area near the plant.  Applications:- 1. It is used in concrete as an add mixture or in-part replacement of cement, fine aggregate. 2. Fly ash and binder in the form of lime are mixed by auto claving and blocks are form which are light in weight. These blocks have low thermal conductivity and stable against temperature.
  13. 13.  Air is taken in from atmosphere through the action of a forced or induced draught fan and passes on the furnace through the air preheater, where it has been heated by the heat of flue gases which pass to the chimney via the pre heater  It consist mainly of chimney draught & steam jet draught  Chimney draught:- The small pressure difference which causes flow of gases to take place is termed as draught Draught may be classified as 1.Natural or chimney draught:- The chimney is a boiler installation that produces a draught where by the air & gas are forced through the fuel bed. It carries the products of combustion to such a hide before discharging them that they will not injurious to surroundings 2.Artificial draught:- Artificial draughts are used to produced total static draught varrying from 30-350 mm of water column. It may be a mechanical or steam jet draught
  14. 14. 3.Forced draught:- A blower or a fan is installed near the base of boiler to forced the air through the cool bed & other passages through the furnace, economiser etc. It is a possitive pressure draught 4.Induced draught:- This draught is usually used when the economiser and air preheater are incorporated in the system. It is similar to natural draught 5.Balanced draught:- It is a combination of forced & induced draught system. The forced draught overcomes the resistance in the air preheater & chain grate stoker while the induced draught fan overcome draught losses through boiler economiser 6.Steam jet draught:- Steam jet is directed into the smoke box near the stack, the air is induced through the fuels, the grate & ash pit to the smoke box
  15. 15.  A boiler is defined as the closed vessel in which steam is produced from water by combustion of fuel Classification of boilers:- 1.Horizontal, vertical or inclined 2.Fire tube & water tube 3.Externally fired & internally fired 4.Forced circulation & natural circulation 5.High pressure & low pressure boiler 6.Stationary & portable
  16. 16. 1.The working pressure & quality of steam required 2.Steam generation rate 3.Floor area available 4.Accessibility for repair and inspection 5.Comparative initial cost 6.Erection facility 7.The fuel & water available 8.Operating & maintainance cost
  17. 17.  They are the auxiliary plants required for steam boilers for their proper operation and further increase of their efficiency Feed Pumps It is a pump which is used to deliver feed water to the boiler. They are of two types : 1. Reciprocating pumps 2. Rotary pumps It is desirable that the quantity of water supplied should be atleast equal to that evaporated and supplied to the engine.
  18. 18.  It has a function to feed water into the boiler . It is commonly employed for large capacity high pressure boiler . It is used where the space is not available for the installation of a feed pump.  In an injector the water is delivered to the boiler by steam pressure. The kinetic energy of steam is used to increase the pressure and velocity of feed water.
  19. 19.  It is a device in which the waste heat of the flue gases is utilized for heating the feed water. They are of two types 1. Independent type:- It is installed in chamber apart from the boiler setting. The chamber is situated at the passage of the flow of the flue gases from the boiler . 2. Integral type :- It is the part of boiler heating surface and is installed within the boiler setting.
  20. 20.  Its function is to increase the temperature of air before it enters the furnace. It is generally placed after the economizer so the flue gases pass through the economizer and then to the air pre heater . Pre heated air accelerates the combustion and facilitate burning of coal. There are three types of air preheater :  Tubular types  Plate type  Storage type
  21. 21. The function is to increase the temperature of the steam above its saturation point. Superheated steam has following advantages:  Steam consumption is reduced  Losses due to condensation are reduced  Erosion of turbine blade is eliminated  Efficiency of SPP is increased They are of two types:-  Convective Superheater  Radiant Superheater
  22. 22.  Feed water heating with steam at low pressure then boiler pressure usually raises overall plant efficiency.  Feed water heater may be classified as follows :- 1. Open or Contact heaters- - Tray Type - Jet Type 2. Closed or surface heater
  23. 23.  They are used to give a supply of pure water as a make up feed for the boilers. Raw water is evaporated by using extracted steam and the condensed to give distilled and pure feed water. They are of two types: 1. Film type evaporator 2. Submerged type evaporator
  24. 24.  The steam turbine is a prime mover in which the potential energy of the steam is transformed into kinetic energy and latter in its turn is transformed into the mechanical energy of rotation of the turbine shaft. Classification of steam turbines:-  According to action of steam – 1. Impulse 2. Reaction 3. Combination of impulse and reaction  According to no. of pressure stages – 1. Single stage turbine 2. Multistage impulse and reaction turbines  According to direction of steam flow- 1. Axial turbine 2. Radial turbine
  25. 25.  According to no. of cylinder – 1. Single cylinder turbine 2. Double cylinder turbine 3. Three cylinder turbine 4. Four cylinder turbine  According to the method of governing- 1. Turbine with throttle governing 2. Turbine with nozzle governing 3. Turbine with bypass governing  According to heat drop process- 1. Condensing turbine with generator 2. Back pressure turbine 3. Low pressure turbines 4. Topping turbines
  26. 26.  According to steam condition at inlet to turbine – 1. Low pressure turbine (1.2 – 2 ata) 2. Medium pressure (upto 40 ata) 3. High Pressure (above 40ata) 4. Turbines of supercritical pressure (above 225 ata)  According to their usage in industry – 1. Stationary turbines with constant speed of rotation 2. Stationary steam turbine 3. Non Stationary turbines with variable speed
  27. 27.  The turbine generator consists of a series of steam turbines interconnected to each other and a generator on a common shaft. There is a high pressure turbine at one end, followed by an intermediate pressure turbine, two low pressure turbines, and the generator.  As steam moves through the system and loses pressure and thermal energy it expands in volume, requiring increasing diameter and longer blades at each succeeding stage to extract the remaining energy.  Superheated steam from the boiler is delivered through 14–16-inch (360–410 mm) diameter piping to the high pressure turbine where it falls in pressure to 600 psi (4.1 MPa) and to 600 °F (320 °C) in temperature through the stage. It exits via 24–26-inch (610–660 mm) diameter cold reheat lines and passes back into the boiler where the steam is reheated in special reheat pendant tubes back to 1,000 °F (500 °C).  The hot reheat steam is conducted to the intermediate pressure turbine where it falls in both temperature and pressure and exits directly to the long-bladed low pressure turbines and finally exits to the condenser.
  28. 28.  The generator, 30 feet (9 m) long and 12 feet (3.7 m) in diameter, contains a stationary stator and a spinning rotor, each containing miles of heavy copper conductor—no permanent magnets here. In operation it generates up to 21,000 amperes at 24,000 volts AC (504 MWe) as it spins at either 3,000 or 3,600 rpm, synchronized to the power grid. The rotor spins in a sealed chamber cooled with hydrogen gas, selected because it has the highest known heat transfer coefficient of any gas and for its low viscosity which reduces windage losses.  This system requires special handling during start up, with air in the chamber first displaced by carbon dioxide before filling with hydrogen. This ensures that the highly explosive hydrogen–oxygen environment is not created.  The power grid frequency is 60 Hz across North America and 50 Hz in Europe, Oceania, Asia (Korea and parts of Japan are notable exceptions) and parts of Africa.  The electricity flows to a distribution yard where transformers step the voltage up to 115, 230, 500 or 765 kV AC as needed for transmission to its destination.
  29. 29. It is a device in which steam condenses and heat released by steam is absorbed by water. It serves the following purposes:  It maintains a very low back pressure on the exhaust side of the piston of the steam engine or turbine. The steam expands to a greater extend resulting in increase in available heat energy.  It supplies to the boiler pure and hot feed water.
  30. 30.  Jet Condensers :- The exhaust steam and water come in direct contact with each other and temperature of the condensate is same as that of cooling water leaving the condenser. These condensers are of three types: 1. Parallel Flow Type 2. Counter Flow Type 3. Ejector Type.  Surface Condensers:- The exhaust steam and water do not come in to direct contact. The steam passes over the outer surface of tubes through which a supply of cooling water is maintained. They may b single pass or double pass. Surface condensers are classified on the direction of flow of condensate . 1. Down Flow Type 2. Central Flow Type 3. Inverted Flow Type 4. Regenerative Type 5. Evaporative Type
  31. 31.  The condenser transfer the latent heat of the exhaust steam to water exposed to the atmosphere. This water is called circulating or cooling water . The requirement of cooling water is large as 5-8kg/kWh. This means a 1000 MW station will require about 100 thousand tonnes of circulating water per day even with the use og cooling tower  The cooling water supply is made by following types: 1.River or sea 2.Cooling ponds 3.Spray ponds 4.Cooling towers
  32. 32.  In SPP the hot water from condenser is cooled in cooling tower so that it can be reused in condenser for condensation of steam. In cooling tower water is made to trickle down drop by drop so that it comes in contact with the air moving in the opposite direction. As a result of this some water is evaporated and is taken away with air. In evaporation the heat is taken away from the bulk of water, which is thus cooled. Classification of cooling tower  Natural Draught Cooling Tower :- The hot water from the condensers is pumped to the nozzle situated near the bottom. The air enters the Cooling Tower from the air openings provided near the base, rises upward and takes up the heat of the falling water.  Mechanical Draught Cooling Tower :- In these towers the draught of air for cooling the tower is produced mechanically by means of propeller fans. They are of two types- 1. Forced Draught 2. Induced Draught
  33. 33.  Reciprocating steam engines have been used for mechanical power sources since the 18th Century, with notable improvements being made by James Watt.  The very first commercial central electrical generating stations in the Pearl Street Station, New York and the Holborn Viaduct power station, London, in 1882, also used reciprocating steam engines. The development of the steam turbine allowed larger and more efficient central generating stations to be built.  By 1892 it was considered as an alternative to reciprocating engines. Turbines offered higher speeds, more compact machinery, and stable speed regulation allowing for parallel synchronous operation of generators on a common bus.  Turbines entirely replaced reciprocating engines in large central stations after about 1905. The largest reciprocating engine-generator sets ever built were completed in 1901 for the Manhattan Elevated Railway. Each of seventeen units weighed about 500 tons and was rated 6000 kilowatts; a contemporary turbine-set of similar rating would have weighed about 20% as much.
  34. 34. Name Location Units Capacity (MW) Vindhyachal Super Thermal Power Station Madhya Pradesh 6X210, 4X500 3260 Talcher Super Thermal Power Station Orissa 6 X 500 3000 Amravati Thermal Power Plant Maharashtra 10 X 270 2700 NTPC Ramagundam Andhra Pradesh 3X200, 4X500 2600 Chandrapur Super Thermal Power Station Maharashtra 4 X 210, 3X500 2340
  35. 35. Sr. No. Name of Plant Location Capacity (MW) 1. Sangam power Generation Power Ltd. Allahabad, U.P 2 X 660 2. M.P Power Generation Co Ltd Satpura, M.P 2 X 250 3. V. S Lignite Power Ltd. Bikaner, Rajasthan 1 X 35 4. Hindalco Industries Ltd. U.P 999.7 5. Durgapur Projects Ltd. West Bengal 2 X 250
  36. 36.  NTPC Limited (formerly National Thermal Power Corporation) is the largest state-owned power generating company in India. Forbes Global 2000 for 2010 ranked it 341th in the world.  It is an Indian public sector company listed on the Bombay Stock Exchange although at present the Government of India holds 84.5% (after divestment the stake by Indian government on 19th October, 2009) of its equity. With a current generating capacity of 34894 MW, NTPC has embarked on plans to become a 75,000 MW company by 2017.  It was founded on November 7, 1975.  The total installed capacity of the company is 34894 MW (including JVs) with 15 coal based and 7 gas based stations, located across the country.  Although the company has 18.79% of the total national capacity it contributes 28.60% of total power generation due to its focus on high efficiency.
  37. 37. S.No City State Capacity (MW) 1. Singrauli Uttar Pradesh 2,000 2. Korba Chhattisgarh 2,600 3. Ramagundam Andhra Pradesh 2,600 4. Farakka West Bengal 2,100 5. Vindhyachal Madhya Pradesh 3,260 6. Rihand Uttar Pradesh 2,000 7. Kahalgaon Bihar 2,340 8. Dadri Uttar Pradesh 2,310 9. Talcher Orissa 3,000 10. Unchahar Uttar Pradesh 1,050 11. Talcher Thermal Orissa 460 12. Simhadri Andhra Pradesh 1,500 13. Tanda Uttar Pradesh 440 14. Badarpur Delhi 705 15. Sipat Chhattisgarh 1660 Total 25,815
  38. 38.  Rapid response to changing load.  A portion of steam generated can be used as a process steam in different industries.  Can be located conveniently near the load center, hence transmission cost are reduced .  Steam engines and turbines can work under 25% of overload continuously.  Fuel used is cheaper and easily available.  Less space required in comparison to HPP.  Cheap Production and cheap initial cost as compare to diesel power station.
  39. 39.  Maintenance and operating costs are high.  The cost of plant increases with increase in temperature and pressure.  Long time required for erection and putting into action.  A large quantity of water is required.  Great difficulty experienced in coal handling.  The plant efficiency decreases rapidly below 75% load.  Presence of troubles due to smoke and heat in the plant.  Pollution problems.
  40. 40. Sector Hydro Thermal Nuclear Total Central 3455 7574 880 4909 State 5814.7 4933 - 10747.7 Private 550 17038.5 - 17588.5 Total 9819.7 29545.5 880 40245.2
  41. 41.  Continuous deterioration in performance of thermal power stations had been observed during early 80's. Therefore, Renovation and Modernisation Schemes(R&M Schemes) were drawn and executed for improving the performance of existing thermal power stations.  Pollution control measures in these power stations being a capital-intensive activity, it accounted for major portion-around 40% of Rs. 12 Billion kept for R&M schemes under phase-I.  During phase-I, 163 units of 34 thermal power stations were covered. As a result of R&M schemes these achieved 10,000 million units of additional generation per annum against the target of 7000 million units.  Encouraged by the results achieved, R&M phase-II programme is presently under progress. Total estimated cost of these works is Rs. 24 Billion.
  42. 42.  Most of the Electricity Boards or other generating agencies are facing financial constraints to carry out R&M activities. Therefore, this area has to be taken on priority to arrange financial assistance.  Several organizations have carried out Energy audits of thermal power plants with a view to suggest measures to improve their operational efficiency and to identify areas having wasteful use of energy.  Steps have been suggested to reduce energy losses and their implementation is being monitored vigorously.
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