Group Members: Nor Shahila (Leader) Ong Shi Hui Nurul Amelina Nor Khalish Group 4, 2L06
Carbon tetrachloride is a manufactured chemical that does not occur naturally. Clear liquid with a sweet aroma that can be detected at low levels. Layman Term: Carbon Chloride. Most often found in the air as a colourless gas as well. It is not flammable and does not dissolve in water very easily. 3 0 0
How are you exposed to CCl 4 ? <ul><li>Breathing contaminated air near manufacturing plants or waste sites. </li></ul><ul><li>Breathing workplace air when it is used. </li></ul><ul><li>Drinking contaminated water near manufacturing plants and waste sites. </li></ul><ul><li>Breathing contaminated air </li></ul><ul><li>Skin contact with contaminated water source </li></ul><ul><li>Happens to consume contaminated soil’s vegetation </li></ul>
How can families reduce the risks of exposure to CCl 4 ? <ul><li>Discard any product that contains CCl 4 that you may have at home and may have used in the past. </li></ul><ul><li>Household chemicals should be stored out of the reach of children in their original containers. </li></ul>Specified Limit to Exposure of Chemical - Applicable to shop- floor / workplace The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) set a (PEL) limit of 10 ppm for carbon tetrachloride in workplace air for an 40-hour workweek .
<ul><li>Production of refrigeration fluid </li></ul><ul><li>Propellants for aerosol cans </li></ul><ul><li>Pesticide </li></ul><ul><li>Cleaning fluid </li></ul><ul><li>Degreasing agent </li></ul><ul><li>Composition of fire extinguishers </li></ul><ul><li>Composition of spot removers. </li></ul><ul><li>Because of its harmful effects, these uses are now banned and it is only used in some industrial applications. </li></ul>
EYE EFFECTS: Contact with product may cause mild irritation. SKIN EFFECTS: Mild irritation. Prolonged contact causes contact dermatitis. INGESTION EFFECTS: Similar to effects from inhalation. INHALATION EFFECTS: Short term exposure causes headache, dizziness and irritation to the respiratory system.
Chronic exposure to this material may result in toxicity in liver . Suspect carcinogen and reproductive toxin in rats and maybe in humans . Research done by lab technicians: LD50 = 2350 mg/kg (Species: Rat) CCl 4 is a central nervous system depressant and may cause loss of consciousness at high concentrations.
<ul><li>Non-flammable but… vapour is! </li></ul><ul><li>Decomposes into phosgene and hydrogen chloride under fire conditions. </li></ul><ul><li>Explosive reaction with particulates of metal </li></ul><ul><li>E.g. Aluminum, barium, potassium, sodium </li></ul><ul><li>Forms explosive mixtures with the following chemical substances: </li></ul><ul><li>Chlorine trifluoride </li></ul><ul><li>Calcium hypochlorite </li></ul><ul><li>Calcium disilicide </li></ul><ul><li>Triethyldialuminum trichloride </li></ul><ul><li>Decaborane </li></ul><ul><li>Dinitrogen tetraoxide </li></ul><ul><li>Reacts violently with chemicals like: </li></ul><ul><li>Fluorine, Boranes, Allyl alcohol </li></ul>
Should Carbon Tetrachloride come in contact with… Eyes : Flush eyes with water immediately for about 15 minutes . See a doctor promptly. Skin : Remove contaminated clothing and flush the affected areas with water. Seek medical help immediately! Ingestion : Contact Local Poison Control Centre or Civil Defence . If conscious, induce vomiting and continue till vomit is clear.
<ul><li>Should Carbon Tetrachloride come in contact with… </li></ul><ul><li>Inhalation : </li></ul><ul><li>PROMPT MEDICAL ATTENTION IS NEEDED. </li></ul><ul><li>RESCUE PERSONNEL SHOULD BE EQUIPPED WITH… </li></ul><ul><li> PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT. </li></ul><ul><li>Any conscious persons should be assisted to uncontaminated ( warm ) zone and inhale fresh air. </li></ul><ul><li>Prompt evacuation from contaminated area is important. </li></ul><ul><li>Unconscious persons should be evacuated and given cardiopulmonary resuscitation. </li></ul><ul><li>Seek for emergency medical help immediately! Further treatment should be followed up. </li></ul>
Proper Storage/ Handling of CCl 4 <ul><li>Note that: </li></ul><ul><li>Carbon Tetrachloride… </li></ul><ul><li>is incompatible with aluminium and zinc, therefore they should NOT be stored together. </li></ul><ul><li>Cylinder movement is only to be used with a suitable hand truck. </li></ul><ul><li>Preferably stored in: </li></ul><ul><li>Cool </li></ul><ul><li>Dry </li></ul><ul><li>Well-ventilated area </li></ul><ul><li>Away from all the heavily trafficked areas and emergency exits. </li></ul>
Temperature at which the cylinders are stored… should not exceed 54 Degree Celsius. Stored cylinders upright and firmly secured to prevent being knocked over and falling. No open flames are allowed to come in contact with the vapour. Proper Storage/ Handling of CCl 4
Handling of chemical spillage of CCl 4 ENGINEERING CONTROLS: Use local exhaust to prevent accumulation above the exposure limit. PPE! EYE/FACE PROTECTION: Safety goggles or glasses SKIN PROTECTION: Protective Gloves: Nitrile or Viton. RESPIRATORY PROTECTION: Positive pressure air line with full-face mask and self-contained breathing apparatus should be available for emergency use. OTHER/GENERAL PROTECTION: Safety shoes, safety shower, eyewash "fountain.” *SQUEAK*My PPE!
In Year 2000, Congress proposed transforming Rocky Flats to a wildlife refuge , setting aside 25 km after cleanup and closure from the previous leakage problems from the plant. A modified agreement was reached for an area clean- up. Due to fires in 1957 due to protests and other “lack of attention” releases (waste storage area prone to air borne), the site is contaminated with plutonium. The other major contaminant is carbon tetrachloride . Both of these substances affected areas adjacent to the site.
Actions taken by the DOE & The Jury: After the clear- up, about 4.0 km² of the new wildlife refuge (the former Industrial Area) will remain under DOE control to protect the ongoing environmental monitoring and remedy. After a 16-year legal battle... A lawsuit brought by 12,000 property owners living downwind from Rocky Flats was filed against Dow Chemical and Rockwell International.
CCl 4 can get really dreadful !!! Research done by ATSDR: What happens to carbon tetrachloride when it enters the environment? Swiftly, it is gone with the wind. So, most of it is in the air! What if the public inhales huge volumes of it? Only a small amount sticks to soil particles; the rest evaporates or moves into the groundwater . It can be broken down or transformed in soil and water within several days. When it does break down, it forms chemicals that can destroy ozone in the upper atmosphere. It does not build up in animals but we do not know if it build up in plants. Note: Swallowing or breathing carbon tetrachloride for years caused liver tumours in animals!!!
Another follow – up research done by ATSDR: Mice that breathed in carbon tetrachloride also developed tumours of the adrenal gland. The Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) has determined that carbon tetrachloride may reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has determined that carbon tetrachloride is possibly ... carcinogenic to humans . OH NO ! OH NO! AHHHHHS!
So, the Outcome of the Lawsuit: $110 million in punitive damages against Dow Chemical $89 million against Rockwell International $177 million against each company in actual damages Note: There were different companies owning the site over the long decades and leakage cases.
The End. Thank you! References : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rocky_Flats http://www.eurochlor.org/carbontetrachloride http://www.eco-usa.net/toxics/ccl4.shtml http://dhfs.wisconsin.gov/eh/ChemFS/fs/carbontet.htm http://images.google.com.sg/imgres?imgurl=http://www.keystone.org/spp/images/rockyflats_250.jpg&imgrefurl=http://www.keystone.org/spp/env-hazardouswaste.html&h=164&w=250&sz=18&hl=en&start=152&um=1&tbnid=4WQAyOWZ3mrbXM:&tbnh=73&tbnw=111&prev=/images%3Fq%3Drocky%2Bflats%26start%3D140%26ndsp%3D20%26um%3D1%26hl%3Den%26sa%3DN & certain MSDS data in PDF format surfed from the Internet. http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/toxfaq.html www.yahoo.com www.google.com