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Power point 2 history of india


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History of India …

History of India
2500 BCE to present

Published in: Technology, Spiritual

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    • 1. India: A Journey Through Time
    • 2. In theBeginning…• Homo sapiens as long as 75,000 years ago; Homo erectus from about 500,000 years ago• Civilization developed along the Indus River around 2500 BCE.• Historically, the subcontinent of India includes Pakistan and Bangladesh
    • 3. The Indus Valley Civilization  Straddled modern day Pakistan and India  Highly civilized and orderly  Farmers grew wheat, barley, and peas; cattle, goats, and sheep  Lived in towns and traded with other cultures (modern-day Iraq) Picture writing (undeciphered) Highly developed engineering (ex: drainage systems) Began to decline around 1700 BCE In 1920s, archaeologists uncovered ruins of two main cities (Mohenjo-Daro & Harapppa)
    • 4. Aryan Invasion (1700-1300 BCE)  Invaders came from Europe (Indo-European language)  Ruled India for hundreds of years  Set up small kingdoms (rulers called rajas)  Created modern Hinduism from Dravidian religious traditions combined with their own cultural beliefs  Established India’s caste system
    • 5. Vedic Age (1500-500 BCE)  Rigveda written in Sanskrit (India’s literary language)  10 books  Hymns and invocations to the gods Mahabharata & Ramayana  Mixture of historical and legendary  Later converted into sacred literature
    • 6. Alexander the Great (327-326 BCE) Macedonian (Greek) who led conquering forces across northern India Ruled briefly Greeks forced out of India after Alexander’s death
    • 7. Maurya Empire (322-185 BCE) Dynasty begun by Chandragupta Maurya Asoka (grandson) took over from 273-232 BCE Ruled all of India Converted to Budhism Religious tolerance, generosity, and wisdom Spread Buddhism – Burma, Ceylon, Siam, Tibet War and disunity after his death
    • 8. Gupta Dynasty (320-467 CE)  Northern India reunited  Trade  With West  Burma, Indochina, Java, Sumatra  Buddhism and Hinduism spread out – Cultural Diffusion Maurya and Gupta Empires – Interactive Map eractive_map_quiz.html
    • 9. Mughal Empire (1526-1858)12th century – Muslim invasion1500 – Central Asians, led by Mugals, established a kingdom in northern IndiaAkbar (1556-1605)  Conquest of central India  Efficient and strong government  Religious tolerance  Business and commerce encouragedArchitecture  Forts, mosques, palaces, and tombs  Taj Mahal – Agra, India – tomb built for a Mughal emperor’s favorite wife
    • 10. End of the Mughal Empire  17th Century – empire crumbled Fighting between smaller kingdoms English, French, and Portuguese traders gained influence  Seven Year’s War Fight in North America known as the French and Indian War English (British East India company) won control of India from the French …The British are coming!
    • 11. Colonial India…The British East India Company obtains trading rights from theMughal Empire
    • 12. Conquering India ...How?• When the Mughal Empire fell, India was divided by different cultures and languages• This made it difficult for Indians to unite• The British had superior weapons• The British played the princes against one another
    • 13. British Policy in India
    • 14. British Policy in India • Introducing the western education system • Introducing the British legal system • Converting Indians to Christianity • Working to end the caste system• Resented British interference in their society• Felt discriminated against- not able to hold government jobs
    • 15. Rebellion• The Sepoy Rebellion• Unequal British colonial policy• A clash of cultures• Growing nationalism in the 1800s• The Indian National Congress (1885)• The Muslim League
    • 16. Hindu and Muslim Resistance • Mohandas Gandhi’s main tactic in his fight against the British was what he called Satyagraha - “Soul-Force” • Civil disobedience, nonviolence, tolerance • Greatly influenced Martin Luther King, Jr. and the Civil Rights Movement in America• Muhammad Ali Jinah was a lawyer, politician and statesman, and the founder of Pakistan• Gandhi held talks 14 times with Jinnah in Bombay in 1944 about a united Hindu-Muslim front, which failed• Believed Indian Muslims should have their own state
    • 17. Indian Independence and a Separate Muslim State The British begin to give in Independence in 1947 Hindu – Muslim violence Kashmir Independence for Pakistan
    • 18. India Divided
    • 19. Kashmir Northern India was claimed by both Pakistan and India (Muslims and Hindus lived there). It was divided.
    • 20. Kashmir Today“By 2012, after decades of war, Kashmir was blooming again. Hotels werebursting, roads were being fixed and offices rebuilt . . . . Tensions still liejust below the surface. In June 2012, a fire gutted one of the most reveredSufi Muslim shrines in Srinagar, Kashmir’s capital, sparking clashesbetween police and angry Muslim protesters.” -The New York Times – June 26, 2012
    • 21. Resources: 516/history-of- India indian-history.html Pages/09.02.History-of-India-Outline.htm http://highered.mcgraw- quiz.html s/kashmir/index.html