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GCSE Media Studies Video Games Revision Pack 2014

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AQA Media Studies GCSE Exam content for Video Games exam for summer 2014.

AQA Media Studies GCSE Exam content for Video Games exam for summer 2014.

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  • 1. AQA GCSE Media Studies Unit 1 Investigating the Media Exam Topic: Promotion and Marketing of Video Games 1
  • 2. Starter Word Bingo History of Console Games http://youtu.be/02uLCLhleHY 2
  • 3. Were there any institutions you recognised? Were there any video games you recognised? Who has played Mario Kart? Who has played Sonic the Hedgehog? Has anyone every played Pong? History of Console Games 3
  • 4. NICS How to identify a film genre Narrative – the story being told Iconography – props and identifiable objects Characters – stereotypes Setting – typical location Video-Game Genres 4
  • 5. Look in a shop and you will notice one key difference between films and games. Films are organised by type of genre: science fiction, romance, comedy, etc. These can be easily identified using NICS. However, video games are organised in a different way. Video-Game Genres 5
  • 6. You won’t see a ‘science fiction’ section featuring Halo 4 (for Xbox 360) and StarCraft (for PC), despite the similar settings and style of these games. Instead, you will find games categorised by platform (e.g. PlayStation, Xbox, PC) and gameplay (racing, first-person shooter, strategy). This can be seen clearly where there are games based on films: The Lord of the Rings is clearly a fantasy film series. However, the numerous games based on it span different gameplay genres, from action-adventure ‘Lego’ games to role-playing and strategy games. Video-Game Genres 6
  • 7.  FPS (First-Person Shooter)  RPG (Role-Playing Game)  Simulation  Strategy  Racing  Puzzle  Platform  Sports  Trivia  Rhythm/Exercise  Music  Education Video-Game Genres Name a game for each of the genres 7
  • 8. Tsyvetan Todorov says that there are five stages to every narrative (story): • Stage 1 – The Equilibrium – Life is just as usual • Stage 2 – The Disruption – A problem happens • Stage 3 – The Recognition – Think about how to resolve the problem • Stage 4 – The Repair – Go ahead and resolve the problem • Stage 5 – The Restoration– Life returns to normal Narrative Theories 8
  • 9. Vladimir Propp says the same types of character appear in all stories: • The Hero – This is the main character whom the audience will recognise as the key person in the story. This character is usually good. • The Helper – The main character usually has a companion who helps the main character, gives advice and supports the main character in the story. • The Villain – This character is the opposite to the Hero and is there to create the disruption (Todorov) in the story. This character is usually bad. • The False Hero – This character pretends to support the main character in the story, and generally the audience will know this. However, the main character does not. Could also be the Villain. Narrative Theories 9
  • 10. • The Donor – This character is similar to the role the Helper plays in a story. The character will give the main character something which helps him repair (Todorov) the problem in the story. • The Dispatcher – This character could be the Princess’ Father (setting the Hero a task) or even a False Hero (sending the Hero on a wild goose chase) • The Princess – This character can be the reward for the Hero (see Princess’ Father) or the person whom the Hero and False Hero are in competition for. • The Princess' Father – This character could be a combination of characters depending on the story being told. Generally this character will set a task for the Hero, with the reward being the Princess. But they could also be the Villain if they didn’t want to give the reward. Narrative Theories 10
  • 11. Levi Strauss (not the jeans!) He believed that we understand some concepts purely by the fact that they have opposites. He referred to this as ‘binary opposites’. E.g. Hero and Villain – it is necessary for a Hero to have someone in opposition (the Villain) to become a Hero! Here are other examples of binary oppositions: – Good and Evil – Sane and Insane – War and Peace – Ugly and Beauty Narrative Theories 11
  • 12. Pac-Man is happily eating and the ghosts are in their cage. The ghosts come out and start to chase Pac-Man round the maze. Pac-Man starts needing to avoid the ghosts and get the food before the ghosts catch him. He avoids the ghosts and eats the special dots that make the ghosts vulnerable, putting them back in their cage. If they catch him, he dies; the narrative ends and equilibrium is not restored. If they don’t, he gets to eat all the food and stay alive (till the next level!). Pac-Man – Narrative 12
  • 13. Pac-Man is happily eating and the ghosts are in their cage. (1) The ghosts come out and start to chase Pac-Man round the maze. (2) Pac-Man starts needing to avoid the ghosts and get the food before the ghosts catch him. (3) He avoids the ghosts and eat the special dots that make the ghosts vulnerable, putting them back in their cage. (4) If they catch him, he dies. The narrative ends and equilibrium is not restored. If they don’t, he gets to eat all the food and stay alive (till the next level!). (5) Pac-Man and Todorov’s Theory 13
  • 14. Do any of the characters in the Pac-Man game match Propp’s theory? Pac-Man and Propp’s Theory 14
  • 15. Can you identify any elements of binary opposition in the Pac-Man game? Pac-Man and Levi Strauss’ Theory 15
  • 16. Task Investigate the narrative structure of your favourite game – does it follow any particular theory? 16
  • 17. Starter Visit the following website and see how many brands you can identify. http://99quiz.com/logo_quiz/british_logo_quiz/ 17
  • 18. What is a Brand? A brand is something that is recognisable as belonging to a particular organisation. i.e. McDonald’s, Adidas, Ugg, New Look 18
  • 19. What is the Purpose of a Brand? A brand is used to persuade people to buy their product and in turn generate income for the organisation. They can attract different audiences. Example: • Heinz Baked Beans – usually considered to be the best and the most expensive. • Supermarket own brand – Sainsbury’s Baked Beans – usually considered to be at least as good as the superior product and targeted at families. • Supermarket cheap brand – Sainsbury’s Basics Baked Beans – usually considered to be the cheapest and targeted at low-income families. 19
  • 20. What is Marketing and Promotion? Organisations will:  Find out who the target audience are and what they want  Create the product or services  Target the audience by persuading them to buy the product or services How are they persuaded?  A marketing and promotion campaign 20
  • 21. Where Might you See Promotional Advertisements for the Following?  A tin of Heinz baked beans  Kerrang! music magazine  A new DVD release  Head and Shoulders shampoo  Specsavers opticians  Grand Theft Auto V video game 21
  • 22. Game Developers and Publishers A game developer – idea for the game is conceived, designed, created and developed. A game publisher – manufactures the game, markets and promotes and releases (publishes) the game. 22
  • 23. Marketing and Promotion Campaign: Heavy Rain Game Developer: Quantic Dream Game Publisher: Sony Computer Entertainment Platform: PS3 only Genre: Interactive drama / action and adventure Year of Release: 2010 Cost: £34 million to make including production, marketing and distribution Sales: No. 1 game in UK on week of release – 95,000 copies sold 2 million copies sold in total Sony earned more than £86 million No. 9 in the Top 10 Games of 2010 Awards: BAFTA – best music, story and technical innovation 23
  • 24. Marketing and Promotion Campaign : Heavy Rain Date Type of Promotion 04/01/2010 Facebook page 15/01/2010 Official website goes live 25/01/2010 Twitter page 26/01/2010 ‘Four Days’ online experience (over four weeks) 22/02/2010 Premiere in Paris 23/02/2010 TV advert released 23/02/2010 Game released (PS3 only) 24/02/2010 YouTube channel 26/02/2010 Special Edition – extra downloadable content 24/03/2010 Heavy Rain 'Four Characters' wallpaper 29/03/2010 Soundtrack released 11/08/2010 Move Edition screenshots 14/09/2010 Move Edition pack shots 14/09/2010 Move Edition demo – PlayStation Store 01/10/2010 The Making of Heavy Rain Move Edition video 08/10/2010 Move Edition released 24
  • 25. Heavy Rain TV trailers This is the website address: http://blog.eu.PlayStation.com/2010/03/ 0 Take a look at the different trailers! 25
  • 26. Cross-Promotion Quantic Dream Heavy Rain page 26
  • 27. Cross-Promotion Heavy Rain official website 27
  • 28. Cross-Promotion PlayStation Heavy Rain page 28
  • 29. Investigate the Promotion Campaign for These Games List five facts about the marketing and promotion campaign of one of these games: Halo 3 Mass Effect 3 Bioshock 2 Grand Theft Auto V Call of Duty: Black Ops Singularity Angry Birds Candy Crush Saga FIFA 14 Minecraft Disney Infinity Batman: Arkham Origins Put your five facts into a PowerPoint Presentation. Be ready to present your findings to the class. 29
  • 30. Analysing Print Adverts Watch this film on analysing print adverts: http://www.bbc.co.uk/learningzone/clips/analysing-printed- adverts/11104.html 30
  • 31. Let’s analyse this advert for Heavy Rain. 31
  • 32. Let’s analyse this advert for Heavy Rain. 32
  • 33. Moving Image Analysis: Heavy Rain Watch the following video-game trailer: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JKPPdgBK3r8
  • 34. Moving Image Analysis: Heavy Rain  Mise en scene – describe how the setting, characters, body language and props support the game genre.  Camera shot types and angles – do the shot types and angles follow the usual conventions?  Editing – what editing techniques are used? E.g. straight cuts, dissolve, wipes.  Sound – Describe the types of sound being heard. Is there voiceover narration, or dialogue?
  • 35. Generating Ideas for a ‘New’ Video Game You may already have an idea for a new game! If you don’t – take a look at this Game Idea Generator website! http://www.streamingcolour.com/blog/game-idea- generator/
  • 36. Design a Print Advert for your ‘New’ Video Game Your advert should contain the following elements: • Image • Tag line • Name of game • Institutions • Age rating
  • 37. Starter Web-page media language games: http://www.classtools.net/mob/quiz_53/Webpage_layout_te rminology_video_games_6q26C.htm 37
  • 38. Web-Page Analysis: Heavy Rain 38
  • 39. Web-Page Analysis: Heavy Rain 39
  • 40. What features can you identify? Still image 40
  • 41. What features can you identify? Actual web page http://www.heavyrainps3.com/#/en_GB/home You should be able to identify 20 features. 41
  • 42. 1. Sound on/off 11. Gallery 2. Flash animation 12. Forum 3. Main focal image 13. Gameplay 4. Name of game 14. Characters 5. Publisher logo 15. Advertisement for special edition 6. Developer logo 16. PEGI age rating 7. Game platform logo 17. Copyright info 8. Navigation bar 18. Terms and conditions 9. Social networking links 19. Privacy policy 10. Videos 20. About Us What features can you identify? Actual web page 42
  • 43. Design a Homepage for the ‘New’ Video Game Idea Don’t forget to include the must-have features:  Navigation bar  Search bar  Terms and conditions  Privacy policy  Name of game  Developer and publisher logo  Age rating  Game platform Anything else is up to you! You should colour it in and annotate it to show the features. 43
  • 44. Regulatory Bodies These are the institutions that regulate video games. PEGI VSC GRA BBFC ASA Who are they and what do they do? 44
  • 45. PEGI Pan-European Game Information Provides parents and caregivers with detailed recommendations regarding the age suitability of game content in the form of age labels and content descriptors on game packages. This system is in place throughout most of Europe. Does not apply to online games! 45
  • 46. The PEGI Age Rating Process Watch this video to learn how PEGI process a video game for its age rating: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=W_Uvf8sq7PU&feature= share&list=UUbXMzRvud_sBGxnhjp1sqXA 46
  • 47. Video Standards Council Based in the UK. The VSC checks the higher age games with 12, 16 and 18 ratings against the PEGI criteria. It was established as a non-profit body to develop and oversee a Code of Practice designed to promote high standards within the video and computer game industries. VSC 47
  • 48. GRA Games Rating Authority The Games Rating Authority are now, since summer 2012, the administrators for the PEGI games rating system, which has been incorporated into UK law. They are part of the Video Standards Council and therefore games fall under the same rules as videos, which fall under the law called The Video Recordings Act brought out in 1984. It is illegal for retailers to sell to people who are not the right age for the game age rating. 48
  • 49. The BBFC British Board of Film Classification The BBFC used to rate games if it was considered they needed a rating. Their role has now diminished and they are only likely to certificate a game if grossly violent or sexual in nature. They will still certificate trailers and featurettes. 49
  • 50. The ASA The Advertising Standards Authority. Regulate the advertising across all media. They have strict Advertising Codes which must be adhered to. They also act on complaints, to make sure that advertisements are not misleading, harmful or offensive. 50
  • 51. The Advertising Codes They include general rules that state advertising must be responsible and must not mislead or offend, and specific rules that cover advertising to children and ads for specific sectors like alcohol, gambling, motoring, health and financial products. http://www.cap.org.uk/Advertising-Codes.aspx 51
  • 52. The ASA Ruling on Complaints Received about the Video Game Hitman: Absolution Read through the complaints. Read through the ASA ruling. http://www.asa.org.uk/Rulings/Adjudications/2012/9/Squar e-Enix-Ltd/SHP_ADJ_197757.aspx Do you agree with the ASA ruling? 52
  • 53. Task http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MZHSQpVyitU Watch the following video on the PEGI age and game classification ratings. Using your memory only! How many can you remember? Write in the back of your exercise book. 53
  • 54. Task Make a list of five games you own, and identify the PEGI ratings, the developer and the publisher. 54
  • 55. Purpose of Video-Game Trailers • Capture your audience’s attention • Entertain your audience • Ensure your audience understands your game WHY? • To persuade the audience to buy your game! • To generate income for the game developer and publisher 55
  • 56. Format of Video-Game Trailers according to videopixie.com • Announcement trailer: 'super short (~30 s), more cutscenes than gameplay, little text (launch date), minimal call to action (follow). Aims to get people excited without revealing too much.' • Launch trailer: 'short (~60 s), more of the gameplay, positive reviews, strong call to action (buy/download). Aims to persuade viewers that they need to try the game “right now”.' • DLC release trailer: 'long (>1 min), focus on gameplay and the new features, content of interest to fans (e.g. developer interviews). Aims to tell the fan base about new features that they can upgrade to.' • https://www.videopixie.com/make-a-game-trailer 56
  • 57. Other Types of Trailer Teaser trailer Gameplay trailer Official trailer Developer’s trailer TV spot trailer 57
  • 58. Disney Infinity 30-second TV spot trailer: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_Wsof8llFxA 60-second TV spot trailer: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PBZTwjzAneU Watch both the TV spot trailers – what are the differences? 58
  • 59. Example : Heavy Rain TV trailer – 30 secs http://youtu.be/4QYKkKKxJUQ Reverse storyboard example showing nine frames follows – 11 secs Reverse Storyboarding 59
  • 60. Shot # Shot Description PS3 logo and ident Action Logo appears with red swirl Duration – 0.5 secs Cut/Edit – fade into Dialogue – None Music – orchestral violins, dramatic Noise/SFX – heavy rain and thunder 1 60
  • 61. Shot # Shot description Wide shot focusing on PS3 console Action Logo has faded into a PS3 console shown in the location setting Duration – 0.5 secs Cut/Edit – fade Dialogue – none Music – orchestral violins, dramatic Noise/SFX – heavy rain and thunder 2 61
  • 62. Shot # Shot description ELS establishing shot Action Setting is shown Duration – 1 sec Cut/Edit – fade Dialogue – voiceover narration 'Start' Music – orchestral violins, dramatic Noise/SFX – heavy rain and thunder 3 62
  • 63. Shot # Shot description Long shot – camera on dolly in reverse Action Features a figure of a man which repeats, following him Duration – 1 sec Cut/Edit – fade Dialogue – voiceover narration 'Start a journey which changes' Music – orchestral violins, dramatic Noise/SFX – heavy rain and thunder 4 63
  • 64. Shot # Shot description Long shot – camera on dolly in reverse Action The figures of men split into different directions Duration – 2 secs Cut/Edit – fade Dialogue – voiceover narration 'with every single decision.' Music – orchestral violins, dramatic, getting louder, choral voices added Noise/SFX – heavy rain and thunder 5 64
  • 65. Shot # Shot description Long shot – camera on dolly in reverse Action The figures of men split into different directions Duration – 1 sec Cut/Edit – fade Dialogue – voiceover narration 'Start searching...' Music – orchestral violins, dramatic, getting louder, choral voices added Noise/SFX – heavy rain and thunder 6 65
  • 66. Shot # Shot description Long shot Action We see the main character by himself ‘searching’ Duration – 1 sec Cut/Edit – fade Dialogue – voiceover narration 'for a son...' Music – orchestral violins, dramatic, getting louder and louder, choral voices added Noise/SFX – heavy rain and thunder 7 66
  • 67. Shot # Shot description Mid shot Action We see the main character by himself walking Duration – 2 secs Cut/Edit – fade Dialogue – voiceover narration 'and being hunted...' Music – orchestral violins, dramatic, getting louder and louder, choral voices added Noise/SFX – heavy rain and thunder 8 67
  • 68. Shot # Shot description Two shot Action Two characters fighting Duration – 2 secs Cut/Edit – fade Dialogue – voiceover narration 'by a killer...' Music – orchestral violins, dramatic, getting louder and louder, choral voices added Noise/SFX – heavy rain and thunder 9 68
  • 69. Creating a Structure for your Video-Game Trailer Beginning – set-up – what the game is about Middle – set-up leads to rising action – suggest the exciting bits End – conclusion – what you have to do to complete the game 69
  • 70. Storyboard your Own ‘New’ Video Game 1. Decide whether you are designing an announcement trailer or a launch trailer. Both are 30 seconds. 2. Plan your structure. 3. Then storyboard the first 10 frames of your trailer. 70
  • 71. Merchandise Take a look at the merchandise available on this website: https://www.gamerabilia.co.uk/ 71
  • 72. Merchandise Producing merchandise is another form of promotion and marketing. Sometimes you get freebies – i.e. given away in shops or with games. Sometimes you buy merchandise so that you are associated with the game. OR you could just be obsessed like this guy! 72
  • 73. Merchandise Brett Martin, 31, of Colorado, has 8,030 pieces of video-game merchandise! Look at the image on this link! • http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article- 2259886/Boy-15-breaks-record-189-0-win-FIFA- gamer-makes-83-000-playing-Call- Duty.html#ixzz2HYthP6ip 73
  • 74. Press Release Once your game is finally developed and you have a publisher, it’s time to let the general public know. This is done by informing the media with a press release. There is a specific way of putting one together to ensure that your press release is going to be read. Read through the guidelines on the following website and condense the information into your exercise book. http://www.gamasutra.com/blogs/MarynaPetrenko/20130502/191653/The_Basics_of _Writing_a_Press_Release_in_the_Video_Game_Industry.php 74
  • 75. Press Release example Headline Subheading First paragraph Second paragraph Last paragraph Assets Contact details 75
  • 76. Write a Press Release Your turn now! Write a press release for your own ‘new’ video game. Follow the format as in the example on the previous slide. 76
  • 77. Merchandise Design Now it’s your chance to design some merchandise for your own ‘new’ video game! Design a T-shirt, key ring and baseball cap. You should include the following:  Name of the game  Developer logo  Publisher logo  Slogan 77
  • 78. Starter Watch this Dragons’ Den pitch by Rachel Lowe. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PGJn3yDzbQs Make a note of any good or bad points in her pitch. 78
  • 79. Pitching your Ideas The ‘Dragons’ did not like Rachel’s pitch, although they thought her idea was good. Why do you think this was? In fact, Rachel did get to promote her game at Hamleys and, as a result, it sold more than Monopoly that year. She became a very successful businesswoman with the game and even made a Hogwarts version. In 2009, however, her business went into liquidation. 79
  • 80. Pitching your Ideas – How NOT to Do It! Watch this guy! http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BuyKYRpl7zE 80
  • 81. Pitching your Ideas People will get bored within 10–15 seconds of listening to your pitch. It is therefore important that you are direct and to the point when presenting. In the USA there is a special gaming exhibition where people get to pitch their game ideas in 45 seconds to a panel of judges from the gaming industry. Watch them! http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=U1-i7180Sz0 81
  • 82. Your Pitch! You are going to put together a 45-second pitch. You can use post-it notes or cards with prompts. You will have time to practise it! Use these bullet points to put together your pitch. State: – Who you are – The game genre and why you have chosen it – The target audience – A brief overview of the storyline – The game’s main characters – The gameplay (how to play) 82
  • 83. Write Up a Formal Pitch There is likely to be a question in the exam which asks you to pitch your idea for a new video game. It is therefore important that you learn how to write in role and make sure you cover everything you need to in the pitch. You will need to pay careful attention to the requirements in the exam question (if it does come up!). 83
  • 84. Write Up a Formal Pitch Using the same criteria as the verbal presentation, but with more explanation and depth, write up your pitch. Remember to write in role! 84
  • 85. Starter What type of gamer are you?  Casual  Mid-core  Hardcore (serious)  Pro  Newbie  Retro gamer Stand next to the poster of the gaming type you think you are. 85
  • 86. Gamer Profiles A casual gamer:  Has limited time or interest  Plays easy games  Is usually female  Plays apps or social networking games 86
  • 87. Gamer Profiles A mid-core gamer: • Plays lots of different types of game • Will buy games but may not finish them • Is more likely to play on handheld devices, such as Wii U, PlayStation Vita or Nintendo DS 87
  • 88. Gamer Profiles A hardcore gamer: • Has a lifestyle that is nothing but gaming • Buys lots of games • Will endeavour to master the game objectives • Takes part in competitions, tournaments or leagues 88
  • 89. Gamer Profiles A pro gamer: • Has a lifestyle which is nothing but gaming • Buys lots of games • Will endeavour to master the game objectives • Takes part in competitions, tournaments or leagues • Plays for money – a salary (sponsored, particularly in Asia or USA) 89
  • 90. Gamer Profiles A newbie gamer: • Is someone new to playing games in general • Is new to playing a particular game 90
  • 91. Gamer Profiles A retro gamer: • Likes to play classic old games on emulators • Has the old types of console – Game Boy, old arcade machines 91
  • 92. Gamer Profiles Have you changed your mind about the gaming profile you chose? Stand next to the gaming profile. Why? 92
  • 93. Audience Statistics: Video Games The link below is to a report which was produced by the ISFE (Interactive Software Federation of Europe) on UK video-gaming statistics for November 2012. Your job is to summarise the information. www.isfe.eu/sites/isfe.eu/files/attachments/great_Britain_- _isfe_consumer_study.pdf Gaming: Who, What and How? Perceptions of Gaming Gaming and the Family Supervision PEGI Rating System 93
  • 94. Uses and Gratifications Theory The Perceptions of Gaming section states that people play games because:  They want to be entertained  They want to have fun  They want to be competitive  They want to escape  They want to immerse themselves 94
  • 95. Uses and Gratifications Theory Jay Blumler and Elihu Katz developed an audience theory that allows us to see what people 'do' with their media rather than what the media does to them. • Entertainment – diversion or escape from day-to-day routines • Relationships – where they use the ‘text’ to form relationships with others, i.e. online communities, discussion with friends • Information – learning about the world, learning new things • Identity – where the ‘text’ helps you to identify with something and to reinforce your own values Remember that ‘text’ can be any type of media, such as a book, image, film, music or a video game. 95
  • 96. Uses and Gratifications Theory Why do you play games? Complete the following activity: Don’t forget the different platforms, i.e. console, handheld, mobile, Internet, social networking. Games I play Platform used What uses and gratifications do I get from the games I play? 96
  • 97. Extension How else could the audience be profiled or segmented? What other kinds of video-game users are there? 97
  • 98. Plenary Have you revised well enough? 1. What was the percentage of the online population who play video games ? 2. There are more female gamers than male gamers – true or false? 98
  • 99. Plenary 3. What is the number one barrier to playing video games? Pick one – Not interested I can’t get to the shop I prefer eating food 99
  • 100. Plenary 4. The most common reason parents play games with their children is to spend more time with them. True or false? 100
  • 101. Plenary Answers 1. 40% 2. False 3. Not interested 4. True 101
  • 102. Essay question: Playing violent video games may be more harmful than violent television and films, because of the interactive nature of the games. Do you agree? 102
  • 103. Video games provide hours of entertainment for their users and, even during a recession, still sell in bulk numbers to make this a very competitive and successful business for all the video-game publishers and their hardware that the games are played on. But there are questions to be asked: Is playing video games bad for us? Are advertising techniques tricking us into buying things we don’t need? As always, there are different theories as to the impact of advertising and playing video games too. Audience 103
  • 104. The Hypodermic Needle Model This theory states that people watch/read media texts and they believe every part of every media message they are told. They consume it like a drug straight into the brain. It is the effect of brainwashing someone. If the Hypodermic Needle model is to be believed, then audiences are passive. Audience Effects Theories 104
  • 105. The Hypodermic Needle Model This theory fits well into the concept of advertising. 'Could this be the world’s greatest fighter game?' 'Hardcore players only!' 'Not for casuals!' 'The best game you will ever play!' If these concepts are reinforced during adverts (print or TV platform) then people will believe they need them and therefore buy the products. Audience Effects Theories 105
  • 106. The Two-Step Flow Model The two-step flow model details that there are opinion leaders in society. Opinion leaders are people who have seen the media text and have been able to make up their own mind about its qualities and messages. These opinion leaders are active; however, except for deciding which opinion leaders to believe, the rest of the audience are passive. Audience Effects Theories 106
  • 107. The Two-Step Flow Model This theory fits the concept of game reviews and game magazines; people who write for these magazines are highly respected for their opinions. They will decide whether a game is worth buying and ‘simplify’ the content and qualities of the game, helping passive people to make a decision about whether or not to buy it. Audience Effects Theories 107
  • 108. Passive or Active? Are you a passive buyer? You buy a game because of a review, advertising or someone recommends it. OR Are you an active buyer? You decide to buy a game of your own choice with no influence whatsoever. Why? 108
  • 109. Passive or Active? Either way, you are still influenced. Even when browsing for a game, there are always ‘teasers’ on the front of the game cover! 'Unlike anything else you will play this year – 9/10’ 109
  • 110. The Effects of Playing Computer Games There are several different arguments put forward into the debate about how playing video games can actually affect us. The three we will look at are: 1. Temperament theory 2. Desensitisation theory 3. Social learning theory 110
  • 111. The Temperament Theory The temperament theory comes from the ancient Greeks. ‘Temperament’ is the part of our personality that is genetically based. Hans Eysenck identified four types of people. He believed that if they experienced the same trauma or event they would all react differently due to their genetic differences – their individual nature. The event/trauma would not change who they are. 111
  • 112. Eysenck’s four types were: Neurotics tend to develop phobias / have panic attacks Extroverts have no fear or real memory of a traumatic experience Introverts are unlikely to put themselves in a similar situation again Psychotics may feel a connection to the negativity and get obsessed about it, perhaps wanting to recreate it again and again 112
  • 113. The Temperament Theory If applied to playing video games, the temperament theory explains that people will not generally be affected or traumatised by violent games unless it is generally in their nature to do so in the first place. PROBLEM: The theory does not take into consideration the ‘nature v nurture’ theory, i.e. you can be born like it or exposed to it when growing up (desensitised). 113
  • 114. The Desensitisation Theory Desensitisation means becoming accustomed to something so that it no longer provokes a reaction. On 14th December 2012, 20-year-old Adam Lanza fatally shot 20 children and six adult staff members in a mass murder at Sandy Hook Elementary School in the village of Sandy Hook in Newtown, Connecticut. Before driving to the school, Lanza shot and killed his mother Nancy at their Newtown home. As first responders arrived, he committed suicide by shooting himself in the head. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sandy_Hook_Elementary_School_shooting. Watch this news report discussing the effect of violent video games: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-7_XDYWs-08 114
  • 115. The Social Learning Theory Albert Bandura believed that we learn new behaviours by copying the values and beliefs of role models. In other words, we learn from watching or following the example of others, i.e. our friends, our parents, our teachers. Bandura theory has three models: Live model in which a person carries out the preferred behaviour. Verbal instruction in which someone describes the preferred behaviour in detail which the person then carries out. Symbolic in which a person will carry out the behaviour shown in the media, by following the behaviour and actions of someone in films, on television, on the Internet, in books, on the radio and even in video games! 115
  • 116. Opinion What do you think about this comment? 'As a gamer myself, I have played loads of violent video games just like thousands of other gamers. Out of these thousands of people, a few commit violent crimes and so video games are said to have "violent effects on children". I have just finished reading Bill Bryson's The Life and Times of the Thunderbolt Kid, when Bryson was younger, comics were blamed for violent acts, so people tried to ban them, the same is happening to video games. It's stupid!' http://www.amazon.co.uk/Violent-Video-Effects-Children- Adolescents/dp/0195309839 116
  • 117. Questions What do you think about these theories? Do you agree with any of them? Can you think of any event that you first watched on TV or in a film which really upset you, but which you now take for granted? However, all theories are difficult to prove. There is a general sense, however, that we believe that media does affect our behaviours, and advertisers justify their fees by working on this assumption. 117
  • 118. Using advertising techniques to target an audience Audience Incentive Incentive Teaser Teaser Teaser Teaser Teaser – mode of address is personal ‘you’ 118
  • 119. Using advertising techniques to target an audience Incentives Features Incentive Incentive Feature Feature Feature 119
  • 120. Team Production Task Read the briefs on the following slides and pick ONE. You should complete all the jobs assigned e.g. drawing the front cover, competitions, games, freebies, ensuring the target audience needs have been met. 120
  • 121. Welcome to Gamer Publications’ first editorial meeting! You are the editorial committee in charge of putting together the first issue of our exciting brand new game publication. On the table in front of you is the title of the magazine that you will be creating and an outline of your target audience. We need to ensure that our new magazine follows all of the conventions of the magazine industry and that the needs of the target audience are met. Most importantly, we need an eye-catching, colourful front page which features interesting and engaging lead and support stories! It is YOUR job to ensure that we produce a magazine that will fly off the shelves! Team Production Task 121
  • 122. Things to discuss: What will the cover price be? What lures will you include? Why? Are you giving away any free gifts? What? What conventional features must you include? What game will be your main image? What will your splash headline be? Why is this game appropriate? What will your support games be? Why? Team Production Task 122
  • 123. Magazine title: GAME POWER! Target audience: young girls and boys aged 9–14. A weekly magazine which aims to meet the needs of young girls and boys. The target audience is of school age and enjoys, in particular, apps and social networking site games. They would not normally have access to much spending money, i.e. 99p apps are perfect! Magazine Title: RETRO GAMZ! Target audience: men (and some women) aged 30–40 years old. A monthly magazine which aims to meet the needs of retro video-game fans. The target audience dislike ‘modern’ games and enjoy meeting up and playing games on old video-game consoles. They spend time on online retro gaming communities and take part in online competitions. They have a disposable income of approximately £50 per month. Team Production Scenarios 123
  • 124. Magazine Title: HARDCORE MORE! Target audience: 15–29-year-old hardcore gaming fans. A fortnightly magazine which aims to meet the needs of young hardcore gaming fans. The target audience like to play FPS or RPG games on games consoles, such as COD or Final Fantasy, and spend most of their spare time playing these multiplayer games with other online players from across the world. They spend £30–£50 per month on games, mostly on DLC (downloadable content) expansion packs for their regular games. Magazine Title: CASUAL GAMER GIRLS Target audience: 13–16-year-old girls who enjoy casual games. A monthly magazine aimed at young teenage girls who like to spend time online chatting with their mates using social networking sites. They like to play games on these sites where they can play against their friends. They like to play games like Sorority Life, Candy Crush Saga and FarmVille. They would spend minimal money to play games, but would enjoy getting freebies of make-up on the magazine. Team Production Scenarios 124
  • 125. Speed Dating – Peer Assessment Half of your group should move over to the next group’s table. Your job is to make sure the group have all the necessary features on their design and that they have followed the brief given. (Approx. 2 mins each table) Move onto the next table. 125
  • 126. Plenary What about the good effects of playing video games? Are there any? You have 5 minutes to list these in your exercise books. 126
  • 127. Plenary Now watch this! http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LNycSARuGcE 127
  • 128. We have now covered all the necessary understanding and learning in preparation for the exam. The next step is to prepare your own case study materials to support your answers for the exam questions. If you prepare well, then you will be able to give well-informed answers. Case Study 1 : Narrative and Genre Case Study 2 : Representation Case Study 3 : Audience Case Study 4 : Institution Case Study 5 : Marketing and Promotion Techniques Preparing for the Exam 128
  • 129. It is important for you to be able to explain how narrative theories and genre conventions can be applied to video games. You should pick two contrasting games, i.e. puzzle and first-person shooter, and stick with these choices for all the case studies. My examples are going to be Roman Realms and Company of Heroes. It is up to you how you present your case study. You may like to produce a mind map or written information. Case Study 1 : Narrative and Genre 129
  • 130. Roman Realms. Case Study 1 : Narrative and Genre Roman Realms 130
  • 131. Game Name: Company of Heroes Genre: Real time – Strategy Narrative Theory: Todorov – can apply all five stages per objective Propp – Hero (Allies), Villain (Axis) Levi Strauss – binary opposites – Hero/Villain Gameplay: Single player / multiplayer online. Take control of map points; collect resources such as manpower, munitions and fuel. Objective to complete mission. Player in control of narrative. Storyline: Set during WWII, command of two military units – Battle of Normandy Platform: Windows PC / Mac OS X Case Study 1 : Narrative and Genre Company of Heroes 131
  • 132. Choose two contrasting games. Create a mind map / written information / other format. Make notes on: Genre Narrative theories (Todorov/Propp) Platform Storyline Gameplay Your Turn 132
  • 133. Compare and contrast the narrative structures and genres of the two games you have chosen for your Case Study. Exam Question 133
  • 134. Plenary The future of product placement advertising within video games. What do you think? http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=A3u17Qvy5C0 134
  • 135. Homework Revise for a quiz next lesson on the things you have learnt over Easter! Logs will be given to those you fail to do well in the quiz followed by a 1 hour DT on the first Friday back. 135