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PowerPoint 4.3: The Organization of Living Things

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  • 1. The Organization of Living Things Chapter 4 Section 3
  • 2. Key Concept
    • As multicellular organisms develop, their cells differentiate (change & separate) and form levels of organization
    • Why it Matters : so Humans (we are multicellular) can have different kinds of cells, tissues, organs, and organ systems
  • 3. Unicellular Organisms
    • “ uni-” = one
    • Prokaryotes are unicellular organisms
    • Some algae, some protists , and some eukaryotes (yeasts), are unicellular
    • Can still do everything they need to stay alive
    • Benefits over multicellular organisms:
      • Need fewer resources
      • Can live in harsher conditions
  • 4. Multicellular Organisms
    • “ multi-” = more than one
    • Plants, animals , some protists, and most fungi are multicellular
    • Start as a single cell  many cells  cells differentiate (change) into different types of cells  cells group together
  • 5. Multicellular Characteristics
    • Larger size = have less predators and have more options of things to eat
    • Longer life – organism will continue to live even if a single cell dies
    • Specialization – each type of cell has a specific job, making the organism more efficient
  • 6. Levels of Organization
    • 1 st Level: Cells
    • 2 nd Level: Tissues
    • 3 rd Level: Organs
    • 4 th Level: Organ Systems
    • Cells  Tissues  Organs  Organ Systems
  • 7. Level 1 : Cells
    • Cells can be specialized (have a certain function)
    • Function = job
    • Function is related to the cell structure
    • Structure = how parts of the cell are put together
      • Shape
      • Material it’s made from
    • Structure of a brain cell is different from muscle cell
  • 8. Level 2: Tissues
    • Tissue = group of cells that work together to do a specific job
    • Ex: Heart muscle tissue is made of heart muscle cells
    • Animals have 4 types of tissue: nerve, muscle, connective, protective
    • Plants have 3 types of tissue : transport, protective, ground
  • 9. Level 3: Organs
    • Organ = structure that is made up of 2 or more tissues working together to get a specific job done
    • Ex: Stomach – muscle tissue moves food, special tissues make chemicals to digest food, connective tissue holds stomach together, nervous tissue sends messages back and forth between the stomach and brain
  • 10. Level 4: Organ Systems
    • Organ system = group of organs working together to perform a specific function
    • Each organ system has a specific job
    • Ex: Digestive system is made of several organs including the stomach and intestines
  • 11. Structure of Animals Cells -basic unit of an animal’s structure -become specialized _______________________________ Tissues -made of cells that work together to perform a specific function __________________________________________ Organs - made of different types of tissues that work together to perform a specific function ____________________________________________________ Organ Systems -made of organs that work together to perform a specific function _____________________________________________________________ Organisms