P P T Fossils 9

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  • On the last slide, the picture covers the information. Is that on purpose or is that an accident??
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  • Excellent resource for year 10. All what they need to know.
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P P T Fossils 9

  1. 1. FOSSILS Chapter 9, Section 1
  2. 2. Think About It . . . <ul><li>Can you name any dinosaurs? </li></ul><ul><li>Do you know what they looked like or how they moved? </li></ul><ul><li>Scientists have been able to tell us many things about organisms (such as dinosaurs) that lived millions of years ago. </li></ul><ul><li>How do scientists learn about these organisms if they’ve never seen them? </li></ul>
  3. 3. Fossils! <ul><li>Fossils = the remains or imprints of an organism that lived long ago. </li></ul><ul><li>Fossils can be formed in five different ways. . . </li></ul>
  4. 4. 1) Fossils in Rocks <ul><li>Usually when an organism dies, it begins to decay right away. </li></ul><ul><li>But sometimes organisms are buried by sediment when they die. </li></ul><ul><li>Sediment can preserve the organism. </li></ul><ul><li>Hard parts (shells, teeth, bones) are preserved more often than soft parts (skin, organs). </li></ul><ul><li>These parts become fossils when the sediment hardens to form a sedimentary rock. </li></ul>
  5. 5. 2) Fossils in Amber <ul><li>Sometimes organisms (such as insects, frogs, and lizards) are caught in sticky tree sap. </li></ul><ul><li>If the sap hardens around the insect, a fossil is created. </li></ul><ul><li>Hardened tree sap is called “amber.” </li></ul>
  6. 6. 3) Frozen Fossils <ul><li>Ice and cold temperatures slow down decay. </li></ul><ul><li>Fossils can be preserved in blocks of ice. </li></ul><ul><li>Fossils of woolly mammoths, relatives of elephants that went extinct 10,000 years ago, have been found in ice. </li></ul>
  7. 7. 4) Petrification <ul><li>Minerals can replace tissues (organs, muscles, skin) </li></ul><ul><li>In animals, minerals fill the tiny spaces in the hard tissues (like bone) </li></ul><ul><li>In trees, minerals replace the wood, so the wood becomes rock. </li></ul>
  8. 8. 5) Fossils in Asphalt/Tar <ul><li>In some places, asphalt can bubble and form sticky pools of tar. </li></ul><ul><li>The La Brea Tar Pits in L.A. are at least 38,000 years old. </li></ul><ul><li>These pools have trapped and preserved many different organisms, like the saber-toothed cats & dire wolves. </li></ul><ul><li>From these fossils scientists have learned about what California was like 10,000 to 40,000 years ago. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Trace Fossils <ul><li>Organisms can leave behind clues about their lives that are also fossils. </li></ul><ul><li>These clues were made by an organism, but they do not include parts of the organism’s body. </li></ul><ul><li>This is called a trace fossil. </li></ul><ul><li>For example, fossils of footprints / tracks tell scientists how big the animals was and how fast it moved. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Other Examples of Trace Fossils <ul><li>Burrows (shelters made by animals that bury themselves in the sediment) may be filled with sediment and preserved. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Caprolites” = dung (“poop”) that is fossilized. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Molds & Casts <ul><li>Mold = the print/impression left in sediment/rock where the plant/animal was buried. </li></ul><ul><li>Cast = forms when sediment fills a mold and becomes rock. </li></ul><ul><li>Both can show what the inside or outside of an organism looked like. </li></ul>
  12. 12. What Can Fossils Tell Us? <ul><li>Fossils can show scientists 3 main things: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The kind of organism that lived in the past </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How the environment has changed (ex: forest fossils found in Antarctica show the climate was much warmer in the past) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How organisms have changed </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. How Old Is It? <ul><li>To understand the history of the Earth, scientists have put fossils in order based on their ages. </li></ul><ul><li>They use relative dating and absolute dating methods </li></ul>
  14. 14. Index Fossils <ul><li>Fossils of certain types of organisms can be found all over the world. </li></ul><ul><li>But these fossils are found only in rock layers of a certain age. </li></ul><ul><li>These are called index fossils. </li></ul><ul><li>When scientists see a specific index fossil, they know right away how old it is </li></ul><ul><li>Ex: When scientists find Phacops in a rock layer, they know the rock layer is 400 million yrs old. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Pop Quiz <ul><li>What is a fossil? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The remains or imprints of an organism that lived long ago. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What are 5 different ways fossils can form? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In rock, amber, ice, asphalt, or by petrification </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What 3 things can fossils tell us? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The kind of organism that lived in the past </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How the environment has changed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How organisms have changed </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Who loves fossilized poop (caprolites)? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>We all do! </li></ul></ul>

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