2. Unit OutlineKnowledge and understanding of… (describe and Skills you will need..explain)General Urbanisation Trend (globally) Graph plotting and interpretation.The differences in urban growth of ELDCs and EMDCs Graph interpretation.The distribution of cities (UK and Pakistan) General map skills and relief of the country (coastline, mountainous areas, deserts etc…)Case-Study: Urban change in Glasgow Urban growth, problems andGorbals and Clyde waterfront. solutions cause, effect, solution.Case-Study: Urban change in Karachi, Pakistan. Urban growth, problems andKarachi Katchi-abadis (shanty-town) Orangi Pilot solutions cause, effect, solution.Project (OPP).
3. Global Urbanisation Trend• London was the first city to have several million inhabitants, reaching this size in the second half of the 19th century, reflecting its status as the economic and political centre of the British Empire. By 2005, there were 50 cities with more than 5 million people, including 20 mega-cities with more than 10 million people.• The worlds population is at a historic turning point. In 2008, half the worlds population lived in urban areas. The urban population of 3.3 billion people in 2008 will be larger than the entire global population in 1967, 40 years earlier.• In 2007, developing countries had some 2.4 billion urban dwellers compared with 900 million in industrialized countries. Half of all urban growth in developing countries was attributed to in- migration and other half on high birth-rate.
4. • Prior to 1950 the majority of urbanisation occurred in MEDCs (more economically developed countries). Rapid urbanisation took place during the period of industrialisation that took place in Europe and North America in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Many people moved from rural to urban areas to get jobs in the rapidly expanding industries in many large towns and cities. Since 1950 urbanisation has slowed in most MEDCs, and now some of the biggest cities are losing population as people move away from the city to rural environments. This is known as counter-urbanisation. You can read more about this process on the next slide.• Since 1950 the most rapid growth in urbanisation has occurred in LEDCs (Less Economically Developed Countries) in South America, Africa and Asia. Between 1950 and 1990 the urban population living in LEDCs doubled. In developed countries the increase was less than half.• The three main causes of urbanisation in LEDCs since 1950 are:• 1. Rural to urban migration is happening on a massive scale due to population pressure and lack of resources in rural areas. This are push factors.• 2. People living in rural areas are pulled to the city. Often they believe that the standard of living in urban areas will be much better than in rural areas. They are usually wrong. People also hope for well paid jobs, the greater opportunities to find casual or informal work, better health care and education.• 3. Natural increase caused by a decrease in death rates while birth rates remain high.• The UN predicts that by 2030 60% of the worlds population will live in urban environments.
5. Counter urbanisation• Counter-urbanisation is the movement of people out of cities, to the surrounding areas. Since 1950 this process has been occurring in MEDCs (More Economically Developed Countries). There are four main reasons for counter-urbanisation:• 1. The increase in car ownership over the last 40 years means people are more mobile. This has led to an increase in commuting. Also, the growth in information technology (E-mail, faxes and video conferencing) means more people can work from home.• 2. Urban areas are becoming increasing unpleasant place to live. This is the result of pollution, crime and traffic congestion.• 3. More people tend to move when they retire.• 4. New business parks on the edge of cities (on Greenfield sites) mean people no longer have to travel to the city centre. People now prefer to live on the outskirts of the city to be near where they work.
6. Graphs and data related to Urbanisation andpopulation change be found on the followingwebsite:http://www.un.org/esa/population/
7. SQA 2008• Describe the changes shown in the graph and suggest reasons for the differences between EMDCs and ELDCs rate of urbanisation. (14)
8. Model Answer
9. SQA similar question2007Describe and suggest reasons for the changing distribution of the world’s largest urban areas over the last 50 years. (12)2005With reference to cities you have studies, suggest why the population of cities in the ELDCs are forecast to grow much more rapidly than those of cities in the EMDCs. (12)2003(i)Describe the trends in the urban population shown in the diagram(ii)Referring to cities you have studies, explain the differing growth rates between cities in the Developed and Developing World. (14)
10. Urban Growth in the UKGrowth and distribution of Urban areas
11. Urban Growth in the UK• First towns emerged in the “middle ages” (1154 – 1485)• Slow and steady rate of urbanisation until 1800• Rapid urbanisation during the Industrial Revolution• Rapid growth was between 1800 and 1960• 1960 90% of UK lived in urban areas• Some areas merged together to form conurbations (e.g. Greater- Manchester has ‘enveloped’ surrounding towns and cities)• This trend has been reversed slightly in recent years (counter- urbanisation, suburbanisation)• 95% of land in Scotland is rural. 95% of Scotland’s population live in the other 5%.
12. Reasons for rapid urbanisation in the 19th century• Industrial revolution• People moved to towns and cities in search for work in the heavy industry (iron works, ship building) labour intensive.• Raw material and industrial products were imported and exported ports grew rapidly labour intensive.
13. Rapid urbanisation up to 1960Because…• Industries were still growing and still employing large number of people.But also because….• Tourist resorts Blackpool• Retirement centres Bournemouth, Largs,• Planned new towns East Kilbride.
14. Since 1960...• Basically no major increase in rate of urbanisation.• In recent years people have started to move out from urbanised areas “Counter- urbanisation”
15. SQA 2009Describe and account for the distribution of major cities in Spain or any other EMDC that you have studied. (10)Similar question came up in: 2006, 2003, 2000, 1999,
16. Distribution of Towns and CitiesDESCRIBE:• Where are there a lot/ very few cities• How big are the cities?• Any other features/ patterns e.g. near the coast, by rivers, above 1000m etc.EXPLAIN:• The points you made in description – i.e. WHY they are like that?• By the coast because their primary function is as a port… difficult to build on steep land, too remote for roads etc.
17. Blast from the past!...Remember your populationdistribution and density???
18. Blast from the past!...Remember your population distribution and density???
19. Blast from the past!...Remember your population distribution and density???
20. Density and Distribution???So, what’s the link between SQA 2009 question:“Describe and account for the distribution of major cities in Spain or any other EMDC that you have studied.” (10) ANDWhat you learn in your population unit???
21. Physical Map of UK to show therelief of the country.•Make sure you know where thehilly and mountainous areas are:•Mountainous area = no largeurban settlement.•Also, make sure you know whereelse we have fewer or no largeurban settlement due to itslocation and the relief of the land.
22. Distribution of Urban areas•Many of the UK’s largest cities are situated near or next to the coast, forexample: Glasgow, Edinburgh, London, Liverpool, Sheffield, Leeds, Manchesterand Newcastle. These settlements are on the coast because of trade (port), mildclimate in the south coast, sheltered bays and estuaries which was well suited tobe used as sea-side resorts and retirement centres (Bournemouth and Brighton).•Inland cities such as Birmingham (route centre) are found in the north of theattractiveness of their site (flat land, water, soil natural resources, etc..) and theiraccessible location.•Fewer large settlements are found in the north of Scotland, north Wales andparts of north-west England because of the mountainous nature of the land. Thenorth of Scotland, including the Western Isles, Orkney and Shetland, are alsoquite isolated with long and expensive transport links to the cities.Large cities are also absent from parts of south-west England because of theremoteness of the region and its poor accessibility.
23. Similar SQA questions.2006Describe and account for the distribution of major cities in either Germany or any other EMDC that you have studied. (8)2000Describe and suggest reasons for the distribution of major cities in France or in another Developed Country you have studied. (10)
24. Urban Growth in the PakistanGrowth and distribution of Urban areas
25. Things you need to know this unit…1. The growth of towns in Pakistan2. Reasons for urbanisation in Pakistan3. Distribution of towns in Pakistan (and reasons why)
26. Urban Growth in Pakistan• First town recorded in history of “Pakistan” area was 4000 years ago.• Very slow urbanisation until 1840. (4%)• Slow but steady rate of urbanisation between 1840-1947 (10% increase)• Rapid urbanisation since 1947 (due to migration and high birth-rate)
27. Map skill Instruction•Colour the major rivers inblue•Name the main rivers inPakistan•Name the neighbouringcountries•Name sea/ocean•Mark in Karachi•Give the map a title
28. Know the PhysicalGeography of Pakistan:•Make sure you knowwhere the mountainousareas are (e.g Kashmirregion)•Make sure you knowwhere we have desert.(Thar desert)•Make sure you know whymost urban settlementconcentrates near riverIndus
29. Distribution of Cities in Pakistan• Pakistan region started to urbanise over 2000 years ago fertile farming land of Indus Valley. River good for transport and communication.• North-west (Punjab region) fertile land market town.• South coast Karachi port town / fishing and trading.• Few towns in the north-east very mountainous and remote.• Very few in the east too arid/desert condition no reliable water supply.
30. ReportIn the second half of the 20th 1. 1000 words century, cities in the 2. Word Document developed world undergone 3. Pictures (your own field trip major changes in: housing, pictures), maps, diagrams- industry, shopping and make sure they are labelled transport. – e.g. Fig 1 shows…For Glasgow (with specific 4. Bibliography or a footnote named areas), explain why (internet sources are the redevelopment was welcome) considered necessary, and 5. Due in on Monday 24th describe the changes that October 2011 have taken place and comment on their effectiveness.
31. Things you should know…• Characteristics, cause, effect and solutions to: – Housing changes – Population changes – Industrial changes – Employment changes – Shopping changes – Transport changes – Environmental changes• Effectiveness of the solutions???
32. Things you should know…• The main problems and solutions in different land use zones: – CBD (traffic congestion and Decentralisation of shop and entertainment) – Urban decay in inner-city (field trip stuff) – Urban Sprawl
33. Urban change in inner city Glasgow Gorbals and Clyde Waterfront
34. Background Info• During the mid to late 19th century Glasgow grew into a major industrial city and trading port. Mass shipbuilding along the Clyde began an industrial boom based around coal, iron and steel.• The population outstripped that of Edinburgh, large public and commercial buildings were constructed based on classical and Italianate models and the locals often referred to Glasgow as the second city of Empire.• During the 1860s and 70s, the building of tenements increased by around 600%, with more than 20,000 tenement flats built between 1872 and 1876 to accommodate the citys growing workforce.• By the mid 1940s, Glasgow was famed for having some of the worst housing conditions in the British Isles. To address this and other problems, two reports were published in 1945 (written by Robert Bruce) outlining plans to redevelop Glasgow into a healthier, more modern city.
35. Background• Glasgows rapid growth as an industrial city in the 19th and 20th centuries created a legacy of poor, cramped housing, with frequent bouts of high unemployment.• The social problems were probably at their worst in the Gorbals area, just south of the river Clyde. The Gorbals has long had a reputation as a gritty and rough area.• After the Second World War, attempts were made to re-house those in sub-standard tenement blocks by moving them to new estates on the edge of the city. In the Gorbals, the old buildings were demolished and new high-rise flats arose in their place .The old community spirit of the area was thus largely destroyed.• In recent years, some of the high-rise blocks have been demolished and rows of modern low-rise flats are being built. Hopefully, this second attempt at regenerating the Gorbals will be more successful.
36. Housing changes• During the industrial revolution- low cost housing were built in a grid-iron pattern, often with small narrow streets. By the 1950s these old tenements were suffering from decay. – Over crowding, – Bad hygiene from lack of basic amenities – Pollution from factories – Old and run-down, structurally unsound buildings
37. 1960s• Glasgow Corporations redevelopment program targeting its massive housing problems was ambitious. It earmarked 29 inner city areas across the city as Comprehensive Development Areas (CDAs). Hutchesontown, with part of the Gorbals, was to be the first.• At the same time some people were moved out of Gorbals to out of city estates like Castlemilk and some to new towns like East Kilbride and Cumbernauld.
38. 1960s• Old tenements were demolished and (first generation) of high-rise flats were built.• During the 60s there was a huge rise in the standard of living. Around 20% of Scots moved into a new house and for many it was the first time they had a toilet inside!
40. first generation of high-rise flats were built. Old tenements were demolishedCheap andquick to build More open space New amenities Large housing capacity.. Solving over- crowding
41. Many social problems Not great for…due to high Young mother, small children,unemployment rate Old people and people with mobility problems. Despite the “open areas” there were few safe places to play Gorbals lost the sense of community The building suffered from damp
42. Hangover from 1960s…• Comprehensive redevelopment (New high-rise flats) created more problems for Glasgow.. – Social problems crime and deprivation – 1960s decline of heavy industry higher unemployment rate – High-rise cheaply and poorly built, lots of communal space but little personal space lack of ownership poor state of care. – New towns (East Kilbride) very expensive to build. – Outer-city estates (Castlemilk) poor public transport links, far from jobs and services.
43. Inner-city Outer city estates New Towns Gorbals Castlemilk East Kilbride Govan Easterhouse Cumbernauld Parkhead Drumchapel GlenrothesDennistown Pollok Livingston Maryhill Priesthill Irvine
44. 1980s ~Urban Regeneration (second attempt) Your Gorbals and Clyde water front field-trip knowledge will be useful in this section
45. Housing.• Housing renovation of tenements.• Consultation with the residents housing association. (GHA 2003)• Building more expensive (quality) houses/flats for private ownership e.g. New houses in Gorbals
46. Jobs• Brown field sites modern industrial estates grants and other incentives from the government (Industry Unit) – For example: Dixon’s Blazes (Ironworks)• Job training for local people• The “new deal” on benefits job seekers allowance.
47. Services• More health centres e.g.• More community centres e.g.• Shopping Centres e.g.
48. Environment• Landscaping• Reclamation of old industrial sites (brown field sites)• Fewer heavy industry to pollute the air and the River Clyde.
49. Problems before 1970s• Docks (e.g. Princess Docks), shipyards, warehouses began to close because: – River Clyde was too narrow for the modern ships – Competition from overseas• Clyde water front was derelict wasteland.• Tenements were polluted and lacked amenities.
50. Solution• Derelict dockland was reclaimed (brown-field sites)• leisure and tourist facilities built Science Centre, SECC, Springfield Quay entertainment complex etc..• New offices built BBC, STV, Daily Mail, BT…• New expensive waterfront flats built Lancefield Quay and Glasgow Harbour Development.• New bridges build to improve transport connection to the city. The Millennium bridge, Squinty and Squiggly bridge.
51. Effectivness Positive Not so effective…Brought many new jobs News jobs all require “qualifications” most of the jobs are too “highly skilled” for the original working population of the area.Improved the environment quality of Some of the original residence ofthe area Clyde waterfront can’t afford to buy the new expensive flatsHelped Glasgow become a major Most people who can’t afford the newtourist destination. “City-break” accommodations had to move to thedestination peripheral estates.
52. If you wan to know more about the latest development andprojects on Clyde Waterfront and Gorbals regeneration clickon the interactive map below or go to the following website:http://www.glasgow.gov.uk/riverclydemap/
53. Urban Problems in Glasgow •Traffic congestion •Decentralisation of shop and entertainments•Lack of open space Urban Sprawl
54. CBD Traffic Congestion
55. What causes an increase in traffic congestion?1. Increase in car ownership2. Increase in commuter traffic from rural-urban fringe areas. (rush hour)3. High day-time population work, shopping, entertainment and other services.4. Poor quality of road within inner city area.5. Old narrow road and lanes in the CBD difficult to widen them due to high building density (not enough space) and listed buildings.6. Grid iron pattern too many road intersection more traffic lights7. CBD is central point where many routes meet.8. Inadequate public transport system.9. Not enough investment in transport infrastructure.10. Buses, lorries, pedestrians and street parking all taking up valuable space and slowing down traffic.
56. Effects1. Shops and services (offices) move out from CBD empty premises and less jobs.2. Air and noise pollution3. Accidents and fatalities4. More money on road maintenance road work slows down traffic!5. Waste of time (money) and fuel
57. Solutions EffectivenessOne-way street (grid iron)
58. Decentralisation of shop and entertainment
59. Decentralisation of shop and entertainmentCause?• Declining population in city and inner city. (Urban-rural migration/depopulation/urban-sprawl)• Increase ownership of cars people are mobile people will travel longer distance to obtain cheaper products and services.• CBD land price is very expensive.
60. Out of town shopping centreFor example: Braehead , Silverburn and Glasgow Fort,Causes:• Cheaper land more space for car parking (free)• Good transport system (motorway)• Out of town usually has less traffic• More open space• Indoor shopping space• Attractive environment
61. Effects• Less traffic congestion in CBD• In theory should lead to lower land price in CBD due to less demand• Increased congestion near the new shopping centre• Less variety of shops in CBD less attractive place to shop?• Out of town shopping centre isn’t accessible to everyone people who can’t drive.
62. With reference to a named city in the EMDC:a) What land uses are found at the fringe of the city?b) What are the causes of Urban Sprawl?c) What problems and conflicts are likely to occur?d) What strategies can we use to tackle the conflicts and urban sprawl issues?e) How effective has this been? 15~20 marks
64. Causes (reasons why…)• Increased urban population pressure for outward residential expansion• Land price is much higher in inner-city and in CDB compared to the suburbs (remember your bid-rent theory from “Urban” unit)• Growth of villages in the commuter belt these areas are very popular area to live.• Suburbs and beyond are popular place to live because was lower crime rate, better air quality, space for garden, parking space. (Environmental quality)• Good road links and other transport infrastructure• Need for other development airport expansion• Demand for services more land• Recreational demands for land. (golf)• Location is also popular with new (modern and light) industry, office and science complex.• Pressure for retail and commercial expansion out of town shopping centre• Movement of jobs from inner-city/CBD suburbs. (e.g. Modern Office parks, science parks, modern light industrial complex)• Changes in the CBD need for out of town facilities.• Pressure to find more space for urban waste (landfill sites, sewage works…)
65. Problems and conflicts (effects)• Loss of farmland (often fertile), loss of existing woodlands and school playing fields. Also loss of wildlife habitats.• Conflicting demands for other uses such as recreation, transport, retail, industry, airports… usually any such development is unwanted by existing users of the land (not in my back yard!)• Loss of community feeling in existing villages• Loss of ‘quality of rural life’• As the city grows at the edges, then the city centre loses little of it’s character, shops, services and other facilities…• Pollution increase at the Rural-Urban fringe.
66. Strategies (Solutions)• Planning control/restrictions/zoning creation of green belts. Creation of overall plan for the city.• Encouraging development in other areas through the use of grants and loans. (enterprise zones, new-towns, brown- field sites).• Encouraging improvements within the CBD and the ‘inner- city’ (Gorbals)• Counter-urbanisation strategies to encourage developments within existing city boundaries.
67. Effectiveness• The main problems is that there is a demand for new developments (especially housing) and this is difficult to stop.• People generally want to improve their ‘quality of life’ and the strategies mentioned can really only work with the support of local and national government and with the support from the local people.• The creation of restrictive zones (green belt) has reduced the rate of urban sprawl but not completely stopped it.• Often plans are too ambitious or expensive.• Often the plan ignores the social and human needs of the people. Experience shows that the plans are too rigid, under- resourced and based on incomplete analyses of need.
68. Readinghttp://www.bbc.co.uk/news/magazine-14916238Who would like a printed version?
69. Things you need to know…• site of Karachi• growth of Karachi• functions of Karachi• reasons for rural-urban migration in Pakistan• characteristics and location of: – CBD – industrial areas Also look over your ICT picture activity so you have a mental picture of how – housing areas these places look like. – shanty towns
70. Things you need to know…• causes, effects and solutions to: – shanty towns – employment problems – provision of basic amenities – traffic congestion – poor environmental quality• effectiveness of these solutions.
71. Site of Karachi
72. Site of Karachi• Original site of Karachi was in River Lyari estuary where it is sheltered and very close to the Arabian sea.• Easy to defend (island and sand spits)• Fresh water from the River Lyari.• Woodland near by building and fuel.• Flat farmland near river valley fertile land.
73. Situation, Growth and Function of KarachiEarly history- until 1840 (slow rate of urbanisation)• Sheltered original site perfect spot for harbour fishing port• The original site had a protective wall built for extra protection.
75. • The British empire made Karachi their regional capital which created many jobs.• British built the transport infrastructure railways, bridges, roads became a route centre.• British improved small and old fishing port commercial port (export/import British goods)
76. 1947 onwards Very rapid growth• 1947 year of independence from the British.• Pakistan as a country was born Karachi was the new capital more jobs.• Became a major industrial centre due to?• Became a major immigration centre due to?
77. Reasons for rapid growthPush factor Pull Factor 1. Factory and office jobs in1. Small, uneconomic farms towns2. Unreliable rainfall 2. Nearly all port jobs are in towns3. Farmland degrading 3. Secondary schools, hospitals4. Lack of high schools and etc. hospitals 4. Shopping malls, entertainment etc. ‘Bright Lights’ 5. Better housing – electricity and piped water 6. New capital city - Islamabad
78. SQA 2009
79. Karachi, Pakistan.QB(ii)Methods: Clearing shanties, upgrade shanties,Site and service schemes, self-help schems(Orangi)QB(iii) Effective? Government, NGO
80. Social (housing) Economic EnvironmentalOver crowded condition in the shanty- Not enough employment. (9-5 jobs). Pollution from lack of proper sewagetown because Karachi authorities are People in shanty towns usually work system .not building enough affordable houses. very long hours for little pay. So high Pollution also from lack of proper growth of illegal settlement (shanty unemployment and under-employment rubbish collection system.towns) rate.Shanty town houses are made from Not enough factory jobs MNCs bring Traffic congestion like with any majorpoor materials structurally unsound their own staff and expect good . cities Karachi suffers from Trafficand un-slightly. Mechanisation of factories less congestion. Made worse by narrow manual jobs available. streets and few traffic lights. air and noise pollution.No piped water, proper sewage system Many government jobs have moved to Air pollution from the factories dueor electricity. No rubbish collection the new capital. to lax environmental laws.No proper address Pakistani government and local Polluted water from factories andHigh unemployment authorities do not have enough money sewage wide spread infectious to spend to improve the city. diseases.High level of diseases from poor Most people who live and work insanitation, pollution and poor living shanty town do not pay tax (blackstandards market/informal sector)High crime-rate Karachi attracts many MNCs but some do not follow ethical code of conduct workers are under paid and miss treated.
81. Land Use in Karachi North Karachi LYARI Mohammed RIVER Nagar MALIR Orang i RIVER Liaquat LyariSITEIndustrial ARABIAN Korangi Defence Housing SEA 0 ScaleShanty towns
82. Land-use zones (Characteristics and locations)
83. ICT activityUse google images/flickr:• Find at least 3 pictures, diagrams, for each land use zones in Karachi.• Save it on PowerPoint slides.• Each pictures must have a titles or a caption and• web address (URL) copied on to the slide.
87. How do katchi abadis grow ? Illegal subdivisions •Dallal (middleman) acquires land •Sub lets to slum dwellers •Arranges water supplies •Protects residents from eviction •Once the settlement is big and well established less threat of eviction
91. How do katchi abadis grow ? Organised Invasions •Poorer people cant pay rent •Pick out a site •Occupy it in the evening •Build houses on it at night •Try to prevent demolition
92. Location of shanty towns • Along main roads in outskirts. • Swamp areas near the centre. • Near factories and ports jobs
93. What are the houses like ?Very temporary Temporary ProlongedMade of reeds More wood Concrete bricksAnd wooden poles Semi permanent Permanent Plastered walls Can add extra storey
94. Shanty-town houses (problems)
95. Services in a Katchi-abadis• Water – no piped water. Instead large water tankers are brought in to the settlement and people buy water from entrepreneurs.• Electricity – only by diesel generator for people who can afford it.• Transport – no official bus/transport service. Mini-bus are run by entrepreneurs. (not licenced)• Sewage – people have tried to installed some form of make-shift sewage system but they are not good enough.
96. Solutions to housing problems• Clear the shanty-towns• Upgrade shanty towns• Site & service schemes• Self-help schemes (Orangi case-study)• Build new towns
97. Solutions Success or Failure ? IRP Improvement and Regularisation Programme Survey of all unauthorised katchi abadis to Failure see if they could be improved. Not enough cash Secure land tenure Improvement of public utilities Development of a financial plan
98. Solutions Success or Failure ? OPD Open Plot Development Residents build own houses WORK 80 sq SHOPS YDS HEALTH CENTRE SCHOOL WORK SHOPSPublicutilities WATER SUPPLY Community facilities ELECTRICITY SUPPLY
99. Solutions Success or Failure ? UWD Utility Wall Development Limited success very few built
100. The Orangi Pilot Project (Self-help scheme) You can find a electronic copy of the WaterAid article on the following link: http://www.wateraid.org/documents/lane2city .pdf
101. Questions…• What is a self-help scheme?• Who is involved in the Orangi project?• Describe how the assisted self-help scheme has improved services in Orangi.• Describe how the Orangi scheme operates and how it offers a cheaper and more effective method than other urban improvement projects.
102. Before the project in 1980
103. Early stage construction
104. During construction
105. http://www.oppinstitutions.org/ If you want to see more picture related to the Orangi Pilot Project go to:
106. If you want to know more…This is excellent document for your Karachi case-study. The article investigates the cause, effect, solutions to shanty-town settlement.The article is written by an expert group so it is very academic and it has many facts and figures which you should use to enhance your answer. Follow the link to get the full document: http://www.ucl.ac.uk/dpu- projects/Global_Report/pdfs/Karachi.pdf
107. Some useful facts from the article…• Population – Karachi city 14 million and growing rapidly. – Greater Karachi and New Karachi 18 million.• ½ of Karachi’s population live in “shanty-towns”.• Earliest Katchi Abadis (unplanned non-permanent/slum/shanty-town) was established with the migration of 1947.• 536 listed Katchi-abadis in KarachiHappy reading
108. Use these revision sheets totest your memory on keyideas.Make sure you can nameexamples, facts and figures toenhance your answer.Key:>> means “so” or“therefore”eg means- give example
109. Use these revision sheets totest your memory on keyideas.Make sure you can nameexamples, facts and figures toenhance your answer.Key:>> means “so” or“therefore”eg means- give example
110. Use these revision sheets totest your memory on keyideas.Make sure you can nameexamples, facts and figures toenhance your answer.Key:>> means “so” or“therefore”eg means- give example
111. Use these revision sheets totest your memory on keyideas.Make sure you can nameexamples, facts and figures toenhance your answer.Key:>> means “so” or“therefore”eg means- give example