Industrial Structure The industrial structure of an areas is the proportion of different types of industry found there. The proportion of primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary industries vary from country to country. As a country undergoes economic development, the proportion of people working in the different sectors changes.
Industrial Structure (Labour force) United Kingdom Pakistan SQA: Describe and explain the industrial structure difference between the two countries. (8)
Industry Define- with the aid of appropriate example for each- the terms Primary, Secondary, Tertiary and quaternary industries. (8) Homework: Thursday 12/11/09
Factors affecting manufacturing industry Today
Old Industrial Landscape
New Industrial Landscape
Industry - OS Map Skills
"The Steel City"
Identifying Old Industrial Areas… Inner city and housing nearby Near railway/river/canal High building density and chaotic arrangement Large factory building and possibly chimneys (chy) Named areas eg: work, mills, docks, steel..
Identifying New Industrial Areas Edge/out-of-town location, away from housing. More open space, lower building density, planned building pattern. Near main roads (red) with roundabouts. Near to Motorways (blue). Names like… industrial estate, business park.
Describing an industrial landscape
Case Study Of An Old Industrial Area: West Central Scotland
Introduction Before the 19th century, there were very few “cottage industry” Modern, “factory production” industry started with the Industrial Revolution.
Reasons for growth (19th Century) Coal Early 1800, West Central Scotland was growing as a coal-mining area. This area had thick seams (layers) of coal. High quality coal was found just below the surface cheap to extract and easy to exploit.
Reasons for growth (19th Century) Port Activity Was mainly found along the Firth of Clyde because of its sheltered condition. Parts of River Clyde was narrowed and deepened to allow big ships to reach Glasgow.
Reasons for growth (19th Century) Heavy Industry Along side coal mining and port activity, “Heavy Industry” was also setting up in the West Central Scotland. E.g. Iron and Steels works, shipbuilding and other heavy engineering (making railways, Springburn)
Reasons for growth (19th Century) Light Industry Some “Light Industry” also set up in the area. E.g. Textiles.
Physical Reasons for Industrial Growth Abundant local coal deposits: Factories needed for energy source. Reduced transport cost because they didn’t need to transport the coal for long distance. Abundance of local iron ore: Found between the coal seams Used for making iron and steel Local limestone Use for iron and Steel River Clyde and Firth of Clyde: Cheap transport Flat land West Central Scotland has a lot of flat or gentle sloping land, suitable for building factories and later expanding them.
Human Reasons for Industrial Growth Canals They were built to allow heavy goods to be transported cheaply. Railways cheap transport Local Ports allowed cheap and easy import and export of good. Wealthy people who financed new industries traded in Tabacco Local Inventions first steamship, ironship, blast furnace improvements.
By The End Of 19th Century Central West Scotland Area Had: Over 500 coal-mines Over 100 blast furnace: e.g Dixon’s Blaze (Gorbals) 50 Shipyards made over 50% of world’s ships at this point. Other heavy industry: locomotives (springburn), building bridges: Tay, Forth, Tower Bridge) Cotton Textiles: Paisley
Model Answer West Central Scotland The area of West Central Scotland has large deposits of many raw materials required for heavy industry. The area has large high quality coal deposit close to the surface.
Industrial Decline 1950s~
Effects of Industrial Decline 1930-1990 Friday 20th November 2009
Economic Effects High unemployment, especially in the docks and in mining areas (over 50% in 1930s) Lack of space near the city, inner city. Old industrial sites were unattractive looking for new industry. Poverty and low standard of living. Multiplier effect of high unemployment and poverty on local services.
Social Effects Depopulation from mining villages and smaller towns people moved to the city in search of alternative work. Increased crime rate Poorer health due to poorer environment and poverty Poor health due to harsh working condition in the heavy industry chest infection from coal mining. Family break-down due to pressure arising from unemployment single parents. Lack of male role model
Environmental Effect Factories left derelict and tenements left in poor state of repair. Pollution of: land, water, air and noise. Disused railways lines and canals Vandalism Lack of open space with good environmental quality. Subsidence from old mine workings. Derelict land.
Environmental Impact The legacy of 150 years of heavy industry, and the subsequent de-industrialisation is very evident in the landscape, with derelict buildings, usually along the riverside, and a high frequency of soil heaps and subsidence hollows
New Development since 1980s~ Homework for Monday 23/11/09
New Development since 1980~ Industrial Chang New Industries/ Modern Industry = light industries, such as electronics.
Introduction New industries such as electronics and software development, are becoming more important; industries which are becoming more important are sometimes called sunrise industries.
Identifying New Industrial Areas Edge/out-of-town location, away from housing. More open space, lower building density low population density. planned building pattern. Near main roads (red) with roundabouts. Near to Motorways (blue). Near to Airports Names like… industrial estate, business park. Near Universities, Colleges, Technical Institutions.
Location of New Industries Newer high-technology industries often require large numbers of graduates (highly skilled workers) as well as the use of university research and information services, and are usually build near to universities. A science park has been built next to Stirling University in Central Scotland.
Location of New Industries The American-owned Motorola Cooperation has large electronics factory at East Kilbride where there is a good supply of labour, good transport to international markets and a supply of graduates from Central Scotland’s highly rated universities. The factory is also near the company’s supplies of high-tech components.
Location of New Industries The Government is often able to attract new factories, and the jobs that they bring, to areas of high unemployment. This is achieved by offering generous grants and subsidies to companies willing to build their factories in economically depressed areas. The Government will also improve an area’s infrastructure, and retain its workers, as part of its strategy for attracting factories and jobs.
Location of New Industries Within the European Union a location in the core or centre of the single market is more advantageous than a location on the periphery or edge of the market. Transport costs, for example, are high for factories on the periphery.
Location of New Industries European Union agencies can help to encourage an area’s industrial development by proving funds for infrastructure improvement and for retaining redundant workers.
Location of New Industries National and local planning laws will also influence the location of industry. The planning process takes into account the impact a factory will have on people and the environment. Planning permission is usually refused for factories which would produce fumes, smoke and smells in built-up areas. Permission is also usually refused for factories which wan to build on ‘green-belt’ land.
Interpretation of OS Maps Summary notes page 14-
OS map symbols
SQA 2004 Using map evidence, describe and explain the physical and human factors that encourage industry to locate in Area A. (12) “Area A” is Avonmouth Bristol Make sure you quote 4 and 6 figure grid reference as your map evidence!
Main points… Area of Avonmouth has large areas of flat land Ease of construction Room for expansion Proximity to major docks Opportunities for import raw materials Export opportunities for finished products Access to motorway network (M49), linking M4 and M5 Good transport links for workforce (densely populated areas relatively nearby –Bristol) Proximity to the airport University Research assistance Skilled labour
SQA 2003 Chester (12) Question 7 Study OS map extract number 1326/117: Chester (separate item), and Reference Maps Q7A and Q7B.
The area shown in the OS map extract has a large number of industrial complexes. Explain fully the factors that make the map area attractive for the location of industry. In your answer you should quote map evidence and give examples from the industrial areas shown on Reference map Q7B.