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Biosphere Revision
 

Biosphere Revision

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Hastily made revision PowerPoint for Biosphere unit.

Hastily made revision PowerPoint for Biosphere unit.

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    Biosphere Revision Biosphere Revision Presentation Transcript

    • Biosphere Revision Material for Miss T’s class
    • Make sure you revise from the summary notes and from your jotter… if you revise just from this PowerPoint you won’t pass!
      End of unit test is on Thursday 3/09/2009
      Good luck!
    • Basically, you need to know…
      Vegetation Succession – Pioneer  climax vegetation.
      Soil Characteristics and Processes- what is soil made from and what elements (things) shape, change the soil over time.
      Sand Dune succession.
      Soil Profiles (Podzol, Brown-earth and Gley soil)- make sure you can draw/label them!
      Soil Catena.
    • Vegetation succession
      Succession is the steady change of plants over time, e.g. moss, lichens, weed, small plants, shrubs and then trees.
    • You need to know what happens to a piece of land that has been destroyed by forest fire or volcanic activity .. Brand new piece of land that just formed due to under water volcanic activity (Iceland is a real life example).
      You need to be able to answer exam question like:
      Describe the main events that takes place at each stage of vegetation succession. (12)
      Use page 2 of the summary notes to help you!
    • Succession stages
      There are three succession stage you need to be aware of: 1, Pioneer 2, Secondary succession stage, and finally 3, Climax vegetation. At each stage different things happen to the land and soil but four things I have listed below happen at all stages.
      The improved soil attracts other larger and more complex species.
      All plants are competing for light, nutrients and water. Survival of the fittest.
      New species change the environment. They continue to improve the soil – attracting more new species to settle.
      As this process of succession continues the number of species and it’s size (height) increase.
    • What is soil???
      Soil is the thin layer of loose material which covers much of the Earth’s land surface. Soil is mostly broken-down rock fragments and rotting organic matter.
      It takes up to 400 years for 1cm of soil to form, and between 3000 and 12000 years to produce sufficient depth for farming.
    • Composition of a typical soil(Characteristics)
      For more information see summary notes page 4
    • Composition of a typical soil (Characteristics)
      Mineral matter – from the physical and chemical composition of the parent material.
      Water occupies the “void”- the gaps between soil particles. Too little water has a negative effect on biota and rates of decomposition
      Air fills the space between the particles. Air is needed for biotas. Amount of in air depends on the type of material found in soil.
      Organic matter/humus. Essential for soil fertility, boosts soil nutrient level.
      Biota- living animal and plants. Help decomposition of organic matter. They mix and bind the soil together.
    • Soil Processes- read summary notes page 5-6
      Time
      Climate and rainfall
      Soil Formation Factors
      Relief
      Living organisms
      Parent material
    • Sand Dune Succession
      (remember Troon/Ayretrip?)
    • An aerial view of a sand dune system
      youngest dunes
      oldest dunes
    • Vegetation Successions in Coastal Dune Belts
      (Psammoseres)
      page 165-167
    • Strandline/Embryo Dune
      Along the line next to the sea plants have to cope with difficult conditions including the drying effect of the wind and high levels of salt from the sea.
      There is also very little humus in the soil.
    • Sea rocket
    • Fore-dune
      At the fore-dune the salt content begins to decrease and some humus develops from the decay of the sea couch grass.
      Marram grass begins to grow.
    • Marram grass
    • The leaves of the marram grass can curl up to reduce moisture loss.
      The marram grass, which has long tap roots to find water, can survive being buried by wind-blown sand.
    • Yellow dune and grey dune
      At the main dune the marram grass thrives and form a thin layer of humus which allows other plants such as dandelions and sea spurges to grow.
      With time the soil becomes damper and richer to enable mosses, lichens and flowering plants to grow.
    • Oldest dune
      The climax vegetation is on the oldest dunes which lie farthest from the sea where salt level are lower and there is more humus in the soil.
      The climax vegetation can take many forms including grasses, heathers and pine trees. The type of vegetation depends on the amount of calcium carbonate in the soil.
    • Dune slack
      Water sometimes collects behind the back of dunes. These damp hollows are called dune slacks.
      Marsh plants and small willow trees sometimes grow in the slacks.
    • Heather
    • Study diagram “vegetation succession on coastal dune area”.
      Describe and explain the changes in the type of plants to be found across the sand dune transect.
      12 marks
    • Psammosere: summary of stages
    • Soil type 1: Podzol
    • Podzol Soil Profile
    • Podzol Notes
      Podzol soils are ________soils which are found in ________latitudes under ________forests. Cones and _______from the coniferous trees help to form a very ________ humus.
    • Podzol Notes
      Podzol soils are infertile soils which are found in northern latitudes under coniferous forests. Cones and needles from the coniferous trees help to form a very acidic humus.
    • Melting snow in _______ releases water which causes heavy leaching- _________ are removed from the ______ leaving a very sterile soil. The leaching of ____ and aluminium oxides results in the formation of an iron or ________ at the top of the B-Horizon. This can impede drainage and result in __________ in the A-Horizon.
    • Melting snow in Spring releases water which causes heavy leaching- nutrients are removed from the topsoil leaving a very sterile soil. The leaching of iron and aluminium oxides results in the formation of an iron or hard pan at the top of the B-Horizon. This can impede drainage and result in water-logging in the A-Horizon.
    • _____ rainfall and low _________ restrict the action of soil organisms such as ______ which, if present, will help to _____ down the soil and improve its ____________.
    • Low rainfall and low temperature restrict the action of soil organisms such as worms which, if present, will help to break down the soil and improve its composition.
    • Fertility of the soil can be improved by _______ and adding lime (to make it less____) but podzols are of limited value for _______and only the hardiest of crops, such as potatoes and ____, can be grown.
    • Fertility of the soil can be improved by drainage and adding lime (to make it less acidic) but podzols are of limited value for farming and only the hardiest of crops, such as potatoes and oats, can be grown.
      Calcium hydroxide
      Ca(OH)2
    • Characteristics of Brown Earths
      Free draining
      Brown/reddish brown
      Deciduous woodland
      Litter rich in nutrients
      Intense biological activity e.g. earthworms
      Mull humus
    • Brown Earth Profile
      A-topsoil dark coloured enriched with mull humus, variable depth
      B - subsoil with distinctive brown/red brown colours
      Lightening in colour as organic matter/iron content decreases with depth
    • Brown Earth: Soil forming factors
      • Variable soil texture
      • Parent material
      • Relatively warm, dry
      • Climate
      • Vegetation/organisms
      • Broadleaf woodland, mull humus, indistinct horizons
      • Rapid decomposition
      • Often earthworms and other mixers
      • Generally low lying
      • Topography
      • Since end of last ice age c10,000 years
      • Time
    • Organisms in Brown Earths
      False colour SEM of mixture of soil fungi and bacteria
      Help create a good and well aggregated, aerated and fertile crumb structured soil
      Thin section of soil showing enchytraeid faecal material
      Earthworm activity is important in soil mixing
    • Uses of Brown Earths
      Amongst the most fertile soils in Scotland
      Used extensively for agriculture e.g. winter vegetables
      Fertilisers required to maintain nutrient levels under agriculture
      Occurring on gently undulating terrain - used extensively for settlement and industry
      Sheltered sites suit growth of trees
    • Test yourself: Brown Earths
      Write down 3 characteristics of a brown earth
      Draw a sketch profile of a brown earth labelling the different horizons with the correct letters
    • Gley Soil Profile
    • Gley
      Gley-from the Russian word;
      glei= compact bluish grey
    • Characteristics of Gley soils
      Poorly drained
      Periodic or permanent waterlogging
      • Lack of oxygen in pore space = anaerobic conditions
      Chemical reduction occurs prior to translocation
      Grey or bluish grey colour to subsoil
      Where gleying is intermittent, orange/yellow coloured mottling can occur
      Horizons generally rich in organic matter intergrading into peat deposits - peaty gley to peat
    • Gley profile
      O - organic layer
      Bg - B horizon with evidence of gleying
      Cg - C horizon with evidence of gleying
      Orange/yellow mottles
    • Gley: Soil forming factors
      • Variable - coastal sand to glacial till
      • Parent material
      • Climate
      • Relatively warm
      • Precipitation greater than evaporation - leaching
      • Anaerobic organisms found
      • Vegetation/organisms
      • Where groundwater high/ impermeable layer below
      • Topography
      • Since end of last ice age 10,000 years ago
      • Time
    • Anaerobic organisms in gleys
    • Uses of Gleys
      In their natural state they support wet plant species and are used for rough grazing and forestry
      When drained, the better gley soils can be used for agriculture; usually productive grassland for dairy or beef cattle
    • Mottling
    • Test yourself: Gley
      What does “anaerobic” mean?
      Where in a landscape would you find a gley?
    • Soil revision ideas
      Draw out each of the 3 soil profiles with and without labels e.g. on a separate index card for each soil
      Shade/highlight the soil characteristics in one colour and soil processes in another
      Make photocopies of the profile without labels and practice labelling it when revising
      Write out some one word answer questions such as those on the following slides
      Test yourself using past paper questions
    • Test yourself - 10 questionsone word answers
      Name of the zone that material moves out of in a podzol
      Type of humus found in brown earths
      The term used for a downward movement of minerals in a soil caused by precipitation being greater than evaporation
      F refers to ….. in a soil profile
      The h in Ah refers to ...
    • Test yourself - 10 questionscontinued
      The type of vegetation found above a podzol
      Typical colour of the sub soil in a Gley
      In Brown Earths the horizons are often indistinct due to the activity of ….
      The acidic humus found in a podzol is known as …..
      The iron pan in a podzol is a zone of ...
    • SQA past questions2006
      Question 6: Biosphere
      BROWN EARTH
      PODZOL
      Reference Diagram Q6 (Selected soil profiles)
      • Describe the different properties (horizons, colour, texture, drainage) of the two soils shown.
      • Explain the differences in their formation.
      Study Reference Diagram Q6 which shows soil profiles for a podzol and a brown earth
      Marks 14
    • SQA past questions2007
      Question 6: Biosphere
      PODZOL
      GLEY
      Study Reference Diagram Q6A which shows two soil profiles.
      Describe the characteristics of the soil, including horizons, colour, texture and drainage.
      Reference Diagram Q6A (Selected soil profiles)
      Marks 6