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Endocrine system pt 2

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  • 1. The Endocrine System Part 2
    Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  • 2. Thyroid Gland
    • Found at the base of the throat
    • 3. Consists of two lobes and a connecting isthmus
    • 4. Produces two hormones
    • 5. Thyroid hormone
    • 6. Calcitonin
    Slide 9.23a
    Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  • 7. Thyroid Gland
    Figure 9.6
    Slide 9.23b
    Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  • 8. Thyroid Hormone
    • Major metabolic hormone
    • 9. Composed of two active iodine-containing hormones
    • 10. Thyroxine (T4) – secreted by thyroid follicles
    • 11. Triiodothyronine (T3) – conversion of T4 at target tissues
    Slide 9.24
    Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  • 12. Calcitonin
    • Decreases blood calcium levels by causing its deposition on bone
    • 13. Antagonistic to parathyroid hormone
    • 14. Produced by C (parafollicular) cells
    Figure 9.9
    Slide 9.25
    Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  • 15. Parathyroid Glands
    • Tiny masses on the posterior of the thyroid
    • 16. Secrete parathyroid hormone
    • 17. Stimulate osterclasts to remove calcium from bone
    • 18. Stimulate the kidneys and intestine to absorb more calcium
    • 19. Raise calcium levels in the blood
    Slide 9.26
    Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  • 20. Adrenal Glands
    • Two glands
    • 21. Cortex – outer glandular region in three layers
    • 22. Medulla – inner neural tissue region
    • 23. Sits on top of the kidneys
    Slide 9.27
    Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  • 24. Hormones of the Adrenal Cortex
    • Mineralocorticoids (mainly aldosterone)
    • 25. Produced in outer adrenal cortex
    • 26. Regulate mineral content in blood, water, and electrolyte balance
    • 27. Target organ is the kidney
    • 28. Production stimulated by renin and aldosterone
    • 29. Production inhibited by atrial natriuretic peptide
    Slide 9.28a
    Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  • 30. Hormones of the Adrenal Cortex
    Figure 9.10
    Slide 9.28b
    Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  • 31. Hormones of the Adrenal Cortex
    • Glucocorticoids (including cortisone and cortisol)
    • 32. Produced in the middle layer of the adrenal cortex
    • 33. Promote normal cell metabolism
    • 34. Help resist long-term stressors
    • 35. Released in response to increased blood levels of ACTH
    Slide 9.29a
    Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  • 36. Hormones of the Adrenal Cortex
    • Sex hormones
    • 37. Produced in the inner layer of the adrenal cortex
    • 38. Androgens (male) and some estrogen (female)
    Slide 9.29b
    Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  • 39. Hormones of the Adrenal Medulla
    • Produces two similar hormones (catecholamines)
    • 40. Epinephrine
    • 41. Norepinephrine
    • 42. These hormones prepare the body to deal with short-term stress
    Slide 9.30
    Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  • 43. Roles of the Hypothalamus and Adrenal Glands in the Stress Response
    Figure 9.12
    Slide 9.31
    Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  • 44. Pancreatic Islets
    • The pancreas is a mixed gland
    • 45. The islets of the pancreas produce hormones
    • 46. Insulin – allows glucose to cross plasma membranes into cells from beta cells
    • 47. Glucagon – allows glucose to enter the blood from alpha cells
    • 48. These hormones are antagonists that maintain blood sugar homeostasis
    Slide 9.32a
    Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  • 49. Pancreatic Islets
    Figure 9.13
    Slide 9.32b
    Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  • 50. Pancreatic Hormones and Blood Sugar
    Figure 9.14
    Slide 9.33
    Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  • 51. Pineal Gland
    • Found on the third ventricle of the brain
    • 52. Secretes melatonin
    • 53. Helps establish the body’s wake and sleep cycles
    • 54. May have other as-yet-unsubstantiated functions
    Slide 9.34
    Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  • 55. Thymus
    • Located posterior to the sternum
    • 56. Largest in infants and children
    • 57. Produces thymosin
    • 58. Matures some types of white blood cells
    • 59. Important in developing the immune system
    Slide 9.35
    Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  • 60. Hormones of the Ovaries
    • Estrogens
    • 61. Produced by Graafian follicles or the placenta
    • 62. Stimulates the development of secondary female characteristics
    • 63. Matures female reproductive organs
    • 64. Helps prepare the uterus to receive a fertilized egg
    • 65. Helps maintain pregnancy
    • 66. Prepares the breasts to produce milk
    Slide 9.36
    Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  • 67. Hormones of the Ovaries
    • Progesterone
    • 68. Produced by the corpus luteum
    • 69. Acts with estrogen to bring about the menstrual cycle
    • 70. Helps in the implantation of an embryo in the uterus
    Slide 9.37
    Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  • 71. Hormones of the Testes
    • Interstitial cells of testes are hormone-producing
    • 72. Produce several androgens
    • 73. Testosterone is the most important androgen
    • 74. Responsible for adult male secondary sex characteristics
    • 75. Promotes growth and maturation of male reproductive system
    • 76. Required for sperm cell production
    Slide 9.38
    Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  • 77. Other Hormone-Producing Tissues and Organs
    • Parts of the small intestine
    • 78. Parts of the stomach
    • 79. Kidneys
    • 80. Heart
    • 81. Many other areas have scattered endocrine cells
    Slide 9.39
    Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  • 82. Endocrine Function of the Placenta
    • Produces hormones that maintain the pregnancy
    • 83. Some hormones play a part in the delivery of the baby
    • 84. Produces HCG in addition to estrogen, progesterone, and other hormones
    Slide 9.40
    Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  • 85. Developmental Aspects of the Endocrine System
    • Most endocrine organs operate smoothly until old age
    • 86. Menopause is brought about by lack of efficiency of the ovaries
    • 87. Problems associated with reduced estrogen are common
    • 88. Growth hormone production declines with age
    • 89. Many endocrine glands decrease output with age
    Slide 9.41
    Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings