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  • 2. The moving image is merely a series of photographs joined together - imagine a flip book! A film maker can encode messages by using camera shots, camera angles and camera movement.
  • 3. Establishing Shot An establishing shot helps to develop the setting of the shot. It tells us where we are and it is also where the action/storyline begins. This shot tells us that we are in London (Big Ben). This is done by iconography. However, not all establishing shots include iconography. For example, the vast amount of trees represent a forest and the sandy landscape represents a desert.
  • 4. Extreme Long Shot An extreme shot (sometimes called as wide shots) is almost like an establishing shot, but it can also help to make an object or person seem vulnerable to its surrounding. This shot helps to establish the character in the setting.
  • 5. Long Shot A long shot is a shot that films a person from their head to their toe (their whole figure). It can also show a large section of the location. In this shot, we are able to see their whole figure, yet it also shows the background in which it helps us to understand where they are. Other examples of a long shot can be seen in photography - models and footballers.
  • 6. Mid Shot A mid shot only films the top half of a person (from head to waist). It also shows the location of where they are. A mid shot is a good choice for shot/reverse shot (where the shot alternates between 2 people - this helps to develop a conversation). Shot/reverse shot - helps to develop a conversation between two people. Note how the camera keeps the shot as a mid shot, even though it alternates between the two.
  • 7. Medium Close Up only the head and shoulders A medium close up shot shows of a person. It helps to portray 2 people being more intimate. This shot is also useful for doing shot/reverse shots. Sometimes medium close up shots help to portray a characters emotion.
  • 8. Over the Shoulder Shot An over the shoulder shot is when you film over a persons shoulder. This helps to develop what the person is seeing - so that you as the audience can see it too. This type of shot could possibly be the beginning of a shot/reverse shot - if it alternates between the two.
  • 9. Close Up A close up shot only shows the face of a person. It helps to portray emotions and reactions clearer - it enhances the shot. For example, if it was in HD, the sweat of someone is portrayed better. It doesn’t necessarily have to be a person, it can be certain elements of mise en scene everything we see: props, lighting, music…
  • 10. Extreme Close Up An extreme close up shot only focuses on a specific part of an object or person. For example: an eye, telephone… An extreme close up shot helps to focus on a specific part of an object/person. It helps to portray an emotion/feeling also.
  • 11. Point of View (POV) Shot A point of view shot is a type of cut away (sudden cuts from and to different things) that shows what a character is seeing. This type of shot helps to make sense of what is happening to the audience. This is a POV shot, because as the audience, you are made to pretend that you are the character itself looking amongst these other characters. You can also get gun point filters as a POV shot - you as the audience are seeing what the gun is pointing at.
  • 12. Deep Focus A deep focus shot involves a large depth of field where every plane is in focus. The whole image is in focus. Background Background Mid-ground Foreground Mid-ground All planes of these shots are in focus. Foreground
  • 13. Shallow Focus A shallow focus shot is when one object/person is in focus to its surroundings. For example: if the foreground is in focus, the background will not and likewise. These 2 shots show that the foreground is in focus to its background.
  • 14. Racking Focus A racking focus shot is when the shallow focus alternates between what it focuses on. So, if an object was in focus in the foreground with the background not in focus, it will then change so that the background is in focus to the foreground. An example of a racking focus shot would be when the focus of either the foreground or background alternates. So the background is currently in focus whilst she is speaking. To make this a racking focus, the foreground would then be in focus for when he is speaking.
  • 15. Zoom Shot A zoom shot is when you change the focal length from wider to close up. For example, someone sees something and the camera zooms in on him because a story is about to start - imagine someone telling a child a story and the camera zooms in on their eye to go back into the time of the event. Zooming in.
  • 16. Low Angle Shot A low angle shot is when you film from under the object or person. It helps to portray superiority and power. Shows that they have authority. Shows that the tower bridge is big and majestic.
  • 17. High Angle Shot A high angle shot is when the camera is filmed from a higher angle/above the object/person. It helps to portray vulnerability by making the object/person seem small to its surroundings.
  • 18. Dutch Tilt A Dutch tilt shot is when the camera frame is canted on an angle. This type of shot helps to represent a sense of unease. This type of shot are mainly used in horror/thrillers. It helps to portray a sense on unease and tension.
  • 19. Bilateral Symmetry A bilateral symmetry shot is when the camera is positioned so that it is the same on both sides (left and right) of the frame.