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Cycle 3 (describing matter) powerpoint

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Transcript

  • 1. Cycle 3: Describing Matter Howard/Tuskegee
  • 2. Videos on Matter … • What is Matter (Discovery Channel) (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xYFAj50c7xM) • States of Matter Rap (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cBBmdqti_Kg)
  • 3. What is Matter? 1. Matter – Anything that has mass AND volume (occupies space) Examples of things that are matter: Anything that can be expressed with a chemical formula from the elements on the periodic table (e.g. Water = H2O, Table Salt = NaCl, Nicotine = C10H14N2) Examples of things that are NOT matter: Energy (e.g. sound, heat, light, etc.), rainbows, information, (mirror) reflections, emotions
  • 4. Properties of Matter 2. Physical Property – a characteristic of a pure substance that can be observed without changing it into another substance -Intensive Physical Property – a physical property which does not depend on the amount of matter Examples: color, density, electrical conductivity, hardness, luster, texture, magnetism, melting point, boiling point -Extensive Physical Property – a physical property which depends on the amount of matter being measured Examples: length, mass, volume, weight, # of particles
  • 5. Properties of Matter (cont.) 3. Chemical Property – a characteristic of a pure substance that describes its ability to change into a different substance Examples: Reactivity with other chemicals, toxicity, flammability (combustibility), chemical stability, types of chemical bonds that can form
  • 6. Physical Property vs. Chemical Property 4. A physical property can be observed/measured without changing the original matter. 5. A chemical property can only be observed by changing the chemical identity of the original matter. • Properties of Matter – Physical & Chemical Properties (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oF0lN0jZYx0)
  • 7. Specific Physical Properties Definitions 6. Temperature – a measure of the average kinetic energy (energy of motion) in the particles of a substance • SI unit for temperature is Celsius (⁰C) or Kelvin (K) 7. Mass – a measure of how much matter is in an object • SI unit for mass is grams 8. Volume – the amount of space matter takes up • SI unit for volume is cubic meters (m3) or liters; 1 cubic meter = 1000 liters 9. Density – the ratio of the mass of a substance to its volume (i.e., Mass/Volume); density of water = 1 g/mL or 1 g/cm3 • SI unit for density is kg/m3
  • 8. Changes in Matter 10. Physical Change – a change in a substance that does not change its identity; a change in any physical property of a substance, not in the substance itself Examples: Molding clay, crumpling paper, water freezing into ice, rock melting into lava, dissolving sugar into water, mixing red and green marbles
  • 9. Changes in Matter (cont.) 11. Chemical Change – a change in which one or more substances combine or break apart to form new substances Examples: Iron rusting, burning wood, digesting food, baking a cake, mixing an acid and a base Signs that a chemical change has occurred include: 1) New color, 2) New smell, 3) Gas bubbles or smoke, 4) An increase or decrease in temperature
  • 10. Physical Change vs. Chemical Change • How to Tell Chemical & Physical Changes Apart • A chemical change makes a substance that wasn't there before. There may be clues that a chemical reaction took place, such as light, heat, color change, gas production, odor, or sound. The starting and ending materials of a physical change are the same, even though they may look different. • “Physical & Chemical Changes” (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vW9of4JYHY0 )
  • 11. States of Matter 12. States of Matter – forms in which matter can exist • Solid – a state of matter that has a definite shape and a definite volume • Liquid – a state of matter that has no definite shape but has a definite volume • Gas – a state of matter with no definite shape or volume • Plasma – a gas-like state of matter consisting of a mixture of free electrons (negatively-charged subatomic particles) and atoms that have lost their electrons
  • 12. How are physical properties related to physical changes? How are chemical properties related to chemical changes? • A physical change is a change in any physical property of a substance, not in the substance itself • Physical properties describe how a substance behave during a physical change like ice melts at 0 degrees C is the property while actual melting is the change • Chemical properties describe how a substance behave during a chemical change like iron may rust is the property while actual rusting of iron is the change
  • 13. Phase Changes Phase Change Definition Example Reverse Phase Change Freezing Liquid => Solid Water freezing into ice Melting Melting Solid => Liquid Ice melting into water Freezing Condensation Gas => Liquid Water vapor condensing into water on a mirror Vaporization Vaporization Liquid => Gas Water boiling and turning into steam Condensation Deposition Gas => Solid Cold air turning into ice crystals Sublimation Sublimation Solid => Gas Dry ice changing into carbon dioxide gas Evaporation – Vaporization occurring only on the surface level
  • 14. Factors which Affect Phase Changes • States of Matter & Phase Change – 3:08-5:40 (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BjyXIZtlHFo) • Water Boiling @ Room Temperature, under a Vacuum (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XoOQNwcrDWE) (*Pressure Cookers …)
  • 15. How Pressure Cookers Work
  • 16. Resources • http://www.chem4kids.com/files/matter_changes.html • (How do we use properties to help us describe matter?) http://www.mcgrawhill.ca/school/learningcentres/file.php/97800 70726901/olc2/dl/699403/2_2.pdf
  • 17. Charles’ Law – (Gas Behavior) • “Liquid Nitrogen Experiments: The Balloon” (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZgTTUuJZAFs)