The Cellular Basis ofReproduction and Inheritance           CHAPTER 8
8.1 Cell Division___________ is a characteristic of life    Organism level and cellular levelCell division – production...
8.1 Cell Division_________ reproduction – creation of offspring by a single parent     Double chromosomes, etc. and spli...
8.1 Cell DivisionCell Division    _____________ reproduction    Multicellular reproduction    Sperm and egg __________...
8.2 Prokaryote ReproductionProkaryotes    Chromosome of ___________ DNA    Plasma membrane    Cell ________Binary ___...
8.2 Prokaryote Reproduction
8.3 Chromosomes DuplicateIn eukaryotes most genes found in _________    Exceptions?Most of the time chromosomes diffuse...
8.3 Chromosomes DuplicateHumans have _____ chromosomes    2 copies of each, 1 from each parent    Dogs have 78 (36 from...
8.3 Chromosomes Duplicate      Before division chromosomes       duplicate      Sister _________ – identical       copie...
8.4 Multiplying CellsCells divide at different _______Cell cycle – ordered ____________ from formation to division      ...
8.4 Multiplying CellsInterphase    90% of cell cycle (performs its ___________)    Creates ___________    Increases __...
8.4 Multiplying CellsG1 – ‘first gap’    Cell growsS – ‘_________ of DNA’    Cell continues to ________    Chromosome...
8.4 Multiplying CellsMitotic phase    Cell divides    10% of cell cycle    Mitosis and ___________
8.4 Multiplying CellsMitosis – _________ and contents divideCytokinesis – __________ dividesYields 2 daughter cells, __...
8.5 Cell Division5 stages of mitosis – Figure 8.5 page 130-131    (Interphase)    Prophase    Prometaphase    Metapha...
8.5 Cell Division - Interphase       Cell ________       DNA replicates but is         __________ in the nucleus        ...
8.5 Cell Division - Prophase       In nucleus chromatin condense,        coil into ___________       Duplicated chromoso...
8.5 Cell Division - Prometaphase        Nuclear _________ breaks down        Spindle microtubules attach to each        ...
8.5 Cell Division - Metaphase         Mitotic _______ is fully          formed         Chromosomes line up on          i...
8.5 Cell Division - Anaphase      Centromeres separate, sister       _____________ separate          Apart: daughter chr...
8.5 Cell Division - Telophase      __________ of prophase      Cell continues to elongate      Nuclear _________forms  ...
Mitosis Animation
8.6 CytokinesisDifferent for plants and animals    Why?In ________ cells cleavage furrow    Actin microfilaments cause...
8.6 CytokinesisIn plants cell ________    ___________ with cell wall material     move to middle    Fuse to create cell...
8.6 Cytokinesis
8.7 Factors Affecting Division__________ of cell division is key for an organismInfluence by ________ and _________ fact...
8.7 Factors Affecting DivisionGrowth factors    Secreted _________    Cause other cells to divide    Blood __________ ...
8.7 Factors Affecting Division__________ dependence    Cell must contact a solid surfaceDensity-dependent inhibition  ...
8.8 Control SystemIn an organism cells are __________, receive nutrients    Growth factors signal ___________Cell cycle...
8.8 Control System3 major checkpoints, what is the cell checking for?    __________ of stage    Environmental condition...
8.9 Cancer Cells_________ is a disease of cell cycleTransformed cells usually killed by ___________ system__________ – ...
8.9 Cancer CellsBenign tumor – abnormal cells remain at __________ siteMalignant tumors – __________ to other parts of t...
8.9 Cancer Cells___________ – spread of cancer cells from their original site    Circulatory system    Lymphatic system
8.9 Cancer CellsNamed for original location    Carcinoma – internal or external ___________ of the body    ___________ ...
8.9 Cancer CellsTreatments    Surgical ___________    Radiation – damages _________        Cancer cells often lose abi...
8.10 Mitosis ReviewGrowth, cell replacement and asexual reproduction of multicellular organismsYields same chromosome __...
8.11 Homologous Pairs___________ cells (all cells in your body except sperm/egg cells) - 46 chromosomes    22 pairs of _...
8.11 Homologous PairsExample of chromosome 1 during metaphaseGenes at the same ______ (location)                        ...
8.11 Homologous Pairs_____ chromosomes – determine individual’s sex    Autosomes – other 22 pairsX and Y chromosomes ar...
8.12 Gametes_________ cell – any cell with 2 homologous chromosomes (2n=46)    _________ cells_________ cell – a cell w...
8.12 Gametes       ___________ –        sperm and egg fuse           Zygote is diploid       Mitosis takes over       ...
8.13 From Diploid to HaploidMeiosis – cell division that _________ the number of chromosomes    Single __________ of DNA...
8.13 From Diploid to Haploid8 stages of meiosis    Prophase I    Metaphase I                    Meiosis    Anaphase I ...
8.13 From Diploid to Haploid    Chromosomes _________    DNA is a loose mass
8.13 From Diploid to Haploid    Chromatin ____________    ___________ – homologous     chromosomes (each 2 sister     ch...
8.13 From Diploid to Haploid     Tetrads align at imaginary      __________ plate     ________ microtubules attach to   ...
8.13 From Diploid to Haploid    Tetrad is ________    Sister chromatids stay _______ at     centromere and move toward  ...
8.13 From Diploid to Haploid  2 daughter cells are ________, each chromosome   consists of 2 sister chromatids  Meiosis ...
Meiosis Animation
8.14 Mitosis vs Meiosis
8.15 Varied OffspringGenetically __________ from parents and siblings_____________ assortment/orientation    Red for ma...
8.16 Different Versions of GenesChromosomes each contain many ________    Homologous chromosomes have genes for same ___...
8.17 Crossing OverAn exchange of ____________ segments of DNA between two homologous chromosomes__________ – where 2 hom...
8.17 Crossing Over   1. ________ at the same place   2. Rejoin the ________      chromatid   3. ‘Untwist’ and homologs    ...
8.19 Altering Chromosome Number______________ – a pair of chromosomes fail to separate
8.19 Altering Chromosome NumberTrisomy – having ____ copies    13, 18 and 21 (Down syndrome)Monosomy – having ____ copy
8.23 Chromosome StructureChromosome structure can be __________Inversions less likely to have _________ effects than del...
You should now be able to…1.   Compare the parent-offspring relationship in asexual and     sexual reproduction.2.   Expla...
You should now be able to…8.    Explain how anchorage, cell density, and chemical growth      factors control cell divisio...
You should now be able to…15.   Compare mitosis and meiosis noting similarities and      differences.16.   Explain how gen...
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1004 chapter 8_-_the_cellular_basis_of_reproductio

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  • INSERT FIGURE 8.3B
  • 1004 chapter 8_-_the_cellular_basis_of_reproductio

    1. 1. The Cellular Basis ofReproduction and Inheritance CHAPTER 8
    2. 2. 8.1 Cell Division___________ is a characteristic of life  Organism level and cellular levelCell division – production of 2 identical ‘________’ cells from ‘parent’ cellBefore division, cell needs to _________ chromosomes
    3. 3. 8.1 Cell Division_________ reproduction – creation of offspring by a single parent  Double chromosomes, etc. and split  Genetically ______________________Reproduction – creation of offspring by the fusion of a sperm and egg  Not genetically identical  Production of sperm/egg involves special
    4. 4. 8.1 Cell DivisionCell Division  _____________ reproduction  Multicellular reproduction  Sperm and egg __________  Development into multicellular organism
    5. 5. 8.2 Prokaryote ReproductionProkaryotes  Chromosome of ___________ DNA  Plasma membrane  Cell ________Binary _________ - ‘dividing in half’2 Identical daughter cells
    6. 6. 8.2 Prokaryote Reproduction
    7. 7. 8.3 Chromosomes DuplicateIn eukaryotes most genes found in _________  Exceptions?Most of the time chromosomes diffuse mass  ___________ – DNA and protein  Too thin to see under microscopeAs a cell prepares to divide, mass ___________ down  Distinct ______________
    8. 8. 8.3 Chromosomes DuplicateHumans have _____ chromosomes  2 copies of each, 1 from each parent  Dogs have 78 (36 from each parent)  Cats have 38 (19 from each parent)Chromatin – thin, long fibers of DNA wound around ____________  Proteins maintain ___________ and control activity of genes
    9. 9. 8.3 Chromosomes Duplicate Before division chromosomes duplicate Sister _________ – identical copies joined at ___________  92 chromatids Cell __________  Sister chromatids now called chromosomes
    10. 10. 8.4 Multiplying CellsCells divide at different _______Cell cycle – ordered ____________ from formation to division  Interphase – ____________ stage  _________ phase - division
    11. 11. 8.4 Multiplying CellsInterphase  90% of cell cycle (performs its ___________)  Creates ___________  Increases ____________  ______________ duplicate
    12. 12. 8.4 Multiplying CellsG1 – ‘first gap’  Cell growsS – ‘_________ of DNA’  Cell continues to ________  Chromosomes duplicateG2 – ‘second gap’  Cell continues to grow  Prepares for __________
    13. 13. 8.4 Multiplying CellsMitotic phase  Cell divides  10% of cell cycle  Mitosis and ___________
    14. 14. 8.4 Multiplying CellsMitosis – _________ and contents divideCytokinesis – __________ dividesYields 2 daughter cells, _________ to parent  ‘daughter’ doesn’t have anything to do with ‘sex’Cycle begins again
    15. 15. 8.5 Cell Division5 stages of mitosis – Figure 8.5 page 130-131  (Interphase)  Prophase  Prometaphase  Metaphase  Anaphase  Telophase
    16. 16. 8.5 Cell Division - Interphase Cell ________ DNA replicates but is __________ in the nucleus  After replication, how many chromatids?  How many sister chromatids?
    17. 17. 8.5 Cell Division - Prophase In nucleus chromatin condense, coil into ___________ Duplicated chromosomes are sister chromatids, joined at _________ In cytoplasm ___________ move away from each other ___________ grow from centrosomes, form mitotic spindle
    18. 18. 8.5 Cell Division - Prometaphase Nuclear _________ breaks down Spindle microtubules attach to each sister chromatid at _____________ (region on centromere) ‘Motor’ proteins move chromosomes toward center of cell
    19. 19. 8.5 Cell Division - Metaphase Mitotic _______ is fully formed Chromosomes line up on imaginary ___________ plate Kinetochores of each sister chromatids face __________
    20. 20. 8.5 Cell Division - Anaphase Centromeres separate, sister _____________ separate  Apart: daughter chromosomes Motor proteins ‘walk’ chromosomes along microtubules toward _____ Some spindles push, some pull Cell _________
    21. 21. 8.5 Cell Division - Telophase __________ of prophase Cell continues to elongate Nuclear _________forms around 2 daughter nuclei Chromatin uncoils Spindle fibers disappear __________ furrow forms and 2 cell separate
    22. 22. Mitosis Animation
    23. 23. 8.6 CytokinesisDifferent for plants and animals  Why?In ________ cells cleavage furrow  Actin microfilaments cause myosin to ___________
    24. 24. 8.6 CytokinesisIn plants cell ________  ___________ with cell wall material move to middle  Fuse to create cell plate
    25. 25. 8.6 Cytokinesis
    26. 26. 8.7 Factors Affecting Division__________ of cell division is key for an organismInfluence by ________ and _________ factors  Growth factors  Density  __________ to anchor  ‘Cell culture’
    27. 27. 8.7 Factors Affecting DivisionGrowth factors  Secreted _________  Cause other cells to divide  Blood __________ release ‘platelet-derived growth factors’
    28. 28. 8.7 Factors Affecting Division__________ dependence  Cell must contact a solid surfaceDensity-dependent inhibition  ___________ cells stop dividing  Contact of cell-surface proteins responsible
    29. 29. 8.8 Control SystemIn an organism cells are __________, receive nutrients  Growth factors signal ___________Cell cycle ________ system  Like a washing machine  Triggers/coordinates key events
    30. 30. 8.8 Control System3 major checkpoints, what is the cell checking for?  __________ of stage  Environmental conditions  Presence of ____________ moleculesG1 is most important  G0 is a _______________ state
    31. 31. 8.9 Cancer Cells_________ is a disease of cell cycleTransformed cells usually killed by ___________ system__________ – abnormally growing mass; a cancer cell that proliferates
    32. 32. 8.9 Cancer CellsBenign tumor – abnormal cells remain at __________ siteMalignant tumors – __________ to other parts of the body
    33. 33. 8.9 Cancer Cells___________ – spread of cancer cells from their original site  Circulatory system  Lymphatic system
    34. 34. 8.9 Cancer CellsNamed for original location  Carcinoma – internal or external ___________ of the body  ___________ – tissue that supports the body  Leukemia / Lymphoma – blood-forming tissue and ________ nodes
    35. 35. 8.9 Cancer CellsTreatments  Surgical ___________  Radiation – damages _________  Cancer cells often lose ability to repair  ______________ – disrupts cell cycle
    36. 36. 8.10 Mitosis ReviewGrowth, cell replacement and asexual reproduction of multicellular organismsYields same chromosome _________ and ______
    37. 37. 8.11 Homologous Pairs___________ cells (all cells in your body except sperm/egg cells) - 46 chromosomes  22 pairs of ___________ chromosomes (autosomes)  1 homolog from mom, 1 from dad – carry genes controlling same characteristics  1 pair of sex chromosomesOther species typically have __________ homologs
    38. 38. 8.11 Homologous PairsExample of chromosome 1 during metaphaseGenes at the same ______ (location)  May be different types__________ at the same location
    39. 39. 8.11 Homologous Pairs_____ chromosomes – determine individual’s sex  Autosomes – other 22 pairsX and Y chromosomes are exceptions  Females carry ____  Males carry ____Not truly homologous
    40. 40. 8.12 Gametes_________ cell – any cell with 2 homologous chromosomes (2n=46)  _________ cells_________ cell – a cell with 1 set of chromosomes  Gametes (sperm/egg cells) – 22 autosomes + 1 sex chromosome  Sex chromosome is either X or Y
    41. 41. 8.12 Gametes ___________ – sperm and egg fuse  Zygote is diploid Mitosis takes over How are gametes made? …_________
    42. 42. 8.13 From Diploid to HaploidMeiosis – cell division that _________ the number of chromosomes  Single __________ of DNA followed by 2 divisions  Meiosis I and Meiosis II  Yields 4 daughter cells, each with _______ the number of chromosomes as parent cell
    43. 43. 8.13 From Diploid to Haploid8 stages of meiosis  Prophase I  Metaphase I Meiosis  Anaphase I I  Telophase I and Cytokinesis  Prophase II  Metaphase II  Anaphase II Meiosis II  Telophase II and Cytokinesis
    44. 44. 8.13 From Diploid to Haploid Chromosomes _________ DNA is a loose mass
    45. 45. 8.13 From Diploid to Haploid Chromatin ____________ ___________ – homologous chromosomes (each 2 sister chromatids) pair up  Results in a ___________  Crossing over – chromatids __________ segments of DNA Centrosomes move, spindle forms
    46. 46. 8.13 From Diploid to Haploid Tetrads align at imaginary __________ plate ________ microtubules attach to kinetochores at the centromeres
    47. 47. 8.13 From Diploid to Haploid Tetrad is ________ Sister chromatids stay _______ at centromere and move toward opposite poles together
    48. 48. 8.13 From Diploid to Haploid 2 daughter cells are ________, each chromosome consists of 2 sister chromatids Meiosis II is the same as _________ just beginning with haploid cellsTYPO!!
    49. 49. Meiosis Animation
    50. 50. 8.14 Mitosis vs Meiosis
    51. 51. 8.15 Varied OffspringGenetically __________ from parents and siblings_____________ assortment/orientation  Red for maternal, blue for paternal  2n Combinations  223 for humans  about 8 million
    52. 52. 8.16 Different Versions of GenesChromosomes each contain many ________  Homologous chromosomes have genes for same _________ at same __________
    53. 53. 8.17 Crossing OverAn exchange of ____________ segments of DNA between two homologous chromosomes__________ – where 2 homologous, non-sister chromatids cross over
    54. 54. 8.17 Crossing Over 1. ________ at the same place 2. Rejoin the ________ chromatid 3. ‘Untwist’ and homologs separate 4. Sister chromatids _________ Yields 4 different chromosomes
    55. 55. 8.19 Altering Chromosome Number______________ – a pair of chromosomes fail to separate
    56. 56. 8.19 Altering Chromosome NumberTrisomy – having ____ copies  13, 18 and 21 (Down syndrome)Monosomy – having ____ copy
    57. 57. 8.23 Chromosome StructureChromosome structure can be __________Inversions less likely to have _________ effects than deletion or duplication
    58. 58. You should now be able to…1. Compare the parent-offspring relationship in asexual and sexual reproduction.2. Explain why cell division is essential for prokaryotic and eukaryotic life.3. Explain how daughter prokaryotic chromosomes are separated from each other during binary fission.4. Compare the structure of prokaryotic and eukaryotic chromosomes.5. Describe the stages of the cell cycle.6. List the phases of mitosis and describe the events characteristic of each phase.7. Compare cytokinesis in animal and plant cells.
    59. 59. You should now be able to…8. Explain how anchorage, cell density, and chemical growth factors control cell division.9. Explain how cancerous cells are different from healthy cells.10. Describe the functions of mitosis.11. Explain how chromosomes are paired.12. Distinguish between somatic cells and gametes and between diploid cells and haploid cells.13. Explain why sexual reproduction requires meiosis.14. List the phases of meiosis I and meiosis II and describe the events characteristic of each phase.
    60. 60. You should now be able to…15. Compare mitosis and meiosis noting similarities and differences.16. Explain how genetic variation is produced in sexually reproducing organisms.17. Describe the causes and symptoms of Down syndrome.

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