Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
0
1004 chapter 8_-_the_cellular_basis_of_reproductio
1004 chapter 8_-_the_cellular_basis_of_reproductio
1004 chapter 8_-_the_cellular_basis_of_reproductio
1004 chapter 8_-_the_cellular_basis_of_reproductio
1004 chapter 8_-_the_cellular_basis_of_reproductio
1004 chapter 8_-_the_cellular_basis_of_reproductio
1004 chapter 8_-_the_cellular_basis_of_reproductio
1004 chapter 8_-_the_cellular_basis_of_reproductio
1004 chapter 8_-_the_cellular_basis_of_reproductio
1004 chapter 8_-_the_cellular_basis_of_reproductio
1004 chapter 8_-_the_cellular_basis_of_reproductio
1004 chapter 8_-_the_cellular_basis_of_reproductio
1004 chapter 8_-_the_cellular_basis_of_reproductio
1004 chapter 8_-_the_cellular_basis_of_reproductio
1004 chapter 8_-_the_cellular_basis_of_reproductio
1004 chapter 8_-_the_cellular_basis_of_reproductio
1004 chapter 8_-_the_cellular_basis_of_reproductio
1004 chapter 8_-_the_cellular_basis_of_reproductio
1004 chapter 8_-_the_cellular_basis_of_reproductio
1004 chapter 8_-_the_cellular_basis_of_reproductio
1004 chapter 8_-_the_cellular_basis_of_reproductio
1004 chapter 8_-_the_cellular_basis_of_reproductio
1004 chapter 8_-_the_cellular_basis_of_reproductio
1004 chapter 8_-_the_cellular_basis_of_reproductio
1004 chapter 8_-_the_cellular_basis_of_reproductio
1004 chapter 8_-_the_cellular_basis_of_reproductio
1004 chapter 8_-_the_cellular_basis_of_reproductio
1004 chapter 8_-_the_cellular_basis_of_reproductio
1004 chapter 8_-_the_cellular_basis_of_reproductio
1004 chapter 8_-_the_cellular_basis_of_reproductio
1004 chapter 8_-_the_cellular_basis_of_reproductio
1004 chapter 8_-_the_cellular_basis_of_reproductio
1004 chapter 8_-_the_cellular_basis_of_reproductio
1004 chapter 8_-_the_cellular_basis_of_reproductio
1004 chapter 8_-_the_cellular_basis_of_reproductio
1004 chapter 8_-_the_cellular_basis_of_reproductio
1004 chapter 8_-_the_cellular_basis_of_reproductio
1004 chapter 8_-_the_cellular_basis_of_reproductio
1004 chapter 8_-_the_cellular_basis_of_reproductio
1004 chapter 8_-_the_cellular_basis_of_reproductio
1004 chapter 8_-_the_cellular_basis_of_reproductio
1004 chapter 8_-_the_cellular_basis_of_reproductio
1004 chapter 8_-_the_cellular_basis_of_reproductio
1004 chapter 8_-_the_cellular_basis_of_reproductio
1004 chapter 8_-_the_cellular_basis_of_reproductio
1004 chapter 8_-_the_cellular_basis_of_reproductio
1004 chapter 8_-_the_cellular_basis_of_reproductio
1004 chapter 8_-_the_cellular_basis_of_reproductio
1004 chapter 8_-_the_cellular_basis_of_reproductio
1004 chapter 8_-_the_cellular_basis_of_reproductio
1004 chapter 8_-_the_cellular_basis_of_reproductio
1004 chapter 8_-_the_cellular_basis_of_reproductio
1004 chapter 8_-_the_cellular_basis_of_reproductio
1004 chapter 8_-_the_cellular_basis_of_reproductio
1004 chapter 8_-_the_cellular_basis_of_reproductio
1004 chapter 8_-_the_cellular_basis_of_reproductio
1004 chapter 8_-_the_cellular_basis_of_reproductio
1004 chapter 8_-_the_cellular_basis_of_reproductio
1004 chapter 8_-_the_cellular_basis_of_reproductio
1004 chapter 8_-_the_cellular_basis_of_reproductio
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

×
Saving this for later? Get the SlideShare app to save on your phone or tablet. Read anywhere, anytime – even offline.
Text the download link to your phone
Standard text messaging rates apply

1004 chapter 8_-_the_cellular_basis_of_reproductio

134

Published on

Published in: Career, Technology, Education
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
134
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
2
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
No notes for slide
  • INSERT FIGURE 8.3B
  • Transcript

    • 1. The Cellular Basis ofReproduction and Inheritance CHAPTER 8
    • 2. 8.1 Cell Division___________ is a characteristic of life  Organism level and cellular levelCell division – production of 2 identical ‘________’ cells from ‘parent’ cellBefore division, cell needs to _________ chromosomes
    • 3. 8.1 Cell Division_________ reproduction – creation of offspring by a single parent  Double chromosomes, etc. and split  Genetically ______________________Reproduction – creation of offspring by the fusion of a sperm and egg  Not genetically identical  Production of sperm/egg involves special
    • 4. 8.1 Cell DivisionCell Division  _____________ reproduction  Multicellular reproduction  Sperm and egg __________  Development into multicellular organism
    • 5. 8.2 Prokaryote ReproductionProkaryotes  Chromosome of ___________ DNA  Plasma membrane  Cell ________Binary _________ - ‘dividing in half’2 Identical daughter cells
    • 6. 8.2 Prokaryote Reproduction
    • 7. 8.3 Chromosomes DuplicateIn eukaryotes most genes found in _________  Exceptions?Most of the time chromosomes diffuse mass  ___________ – DNA and protein  Too thin to see under microscopeAs a cell prepares to divide, mass ___________ down  Distinct ______________
    • 8. 8.3 Chromosomes DuplicateHumans have _____ chromosomes  2 copies of each, 1 from each parent  Dogs have 78 (36 from each parent)  Cats have 38 (19 from each parent)Chromatin – thin, long fibers of DNA wound around ____________  Proteins maintain ___________ and control activity of genes
    • 9. 8.3 Chromosomes Duplicate Before division chromosomes duplicate Sister _________ – identical copies joined at ___________  92 chromatids Cell __________  Sister chromatids now called chromosomes
    • 10. 8.4 Multiplying CellsCells divide at different _______Cell cycle – ordered ____________ from formation to division  Interphase – ____________ stage  _________ phase - division
    • 11. 8.4 Multiplying CellsInterphase  90% of cell cycle (performs its ___________)  Creates ___________  Increases ____________  ______________ duplicate
    • 12. 8.4 Multiplying CellsG1 – ‘first gap’  Cell growsS – ‘_________ of DNA’  Cell continues to ________  Chromosomes duplicateG2 – ‘second gap’  Cell continues to grow  Prepares for __________
    • 13. 8.4 Multiplying CellsMitotic phase  Cell divides  10% of cell cycle  Mitosis and ___________
    • 14. 8.4 Multiplying CellsMitosis – _________ and contents divideCytokinesis – __________ dividesYields 2 daughter cells, _________ to parent  ‘daughter’ doesn’t have anything to do with ‘sex’Cycle begins again
    • 15. 8.5 Cell Division5 stages of mitosis – Figure 8.5 page 130-131  (Interphase)  Prophase  Prometaphase  Metaphase  Anaphase  Telophase
    • 16. 8.5 Cell Division - Interphase Cell ________ DNA replicates but is __________ in the nucleus  After replication, how many chromatids?  How many sister chromatids?
    • 17. 8.5 Cell Division - Prophase In nucleus chromatin condense, coil into ___________ Duplicated chromosomes are sister chromatids, joined at _________ In cytoplasm ___________ move away from each other ___________ grow from centrosomes, form mitotic spindle
    • 18. 8.5 Cell Division - Prometaphase Nuclear _________ breaks down Spindle microtubules attach to each sister chromatid at _____________ (region on centromere) ‘Motor’ proteins move chromosomes toward center of cell
    • 19. 8.5 Cell Division - Metaphase Mitotic _______ is fully formed Chromosomes line up on imaginary ___________ plate Kinetochores of each sister chromatids face __________
    • 20. 8.5 Cell Division - Anaphase Centromeres separate, sister _____________ separate  Apart: daughter chromosomes Motor proteins ‘walk’ chromosomes along microtubules toward _____ Some spindles push, some pull Cell _________
    • 21. 8.5 Cell Division - Telophase __________ of prophase Cell continues to elongate Nuclear _________forms around 2 daughter nuclei Chromatin uncoils Spindle fibers disappear __________ furrow forms and 2 cell separate
    • 22. Mitosis Animation
    • 23. 8.6 CytokinesisDifferent for plants and animals  Why?In ________ cells cleavage furrow  Actin microfilaments cause myosin to ___________
    • 24. 8.6 CytokinesisIn plants cell ________  ___________ with cell wall material move to middle  Fuse to create cell plate
    • 25. 8.6 Cytokinesis
    • 26. 8.7 Factors Affecting Division__________ of cell division is key for an organismInfluence by ________ and _________ factors  Growth factors  Density  __________ to anchor  ‘Cell culture’
    • 27. 8.7 Factors Affecting DivisionGrowth factors  Secreted _________  Cause other cells to divide  Blood __________ release ‘platelet-derived growth factors’
    • 28. 8.7 Factors Affecting Division__________ dependence  Cell must contact a solid surfaceDensity-dependent inhibition  ___________ cells stop dividing  Contact of cell-surface proteins responsible
    • 29. 8.8 Control SystemIn an organism cells are __________, receive nutrients  Growth factors signal ___________Cell cycle ________ system  Like a washing machine  Triggers/coordinates key events
    • 30. 8.8 Control System3 major checkpoints, what is the cell checking for?  __________ of stage  Environmental conditions  Presence of ____________ moleculesG1 is most important  G0 is a _______________ state
    • 31. 8.9 Cancer Cells_________ is a disease of cell cycleTransformed cells usually killed by ___________ system__________ – abnormally growing mass; a cancer cell that proliferates
    • 32. 8.9 Cancer CellsBenign tumor – abnormal cells remain at __________ siteMalignant tumors – __________ to other parts of the body
    • 33. 8.9 Cancer Cells___________ – spread of cancer cells from their original site  Circulatory system  Lymphatic system
    • 34. 8.9 Cancer CellsNamed for original location  Carcinoma – internal or external ___________ of the body  ___________ – tissue that supports the body  Leukemia / Lymphoma – blood-forming tissue and ________ nodes
    • 35. 8.9 Cancer CellsTreatments  Surgical ___________  Radiation – damages _________  Cancer cells often lose ability to repair  ______________ – disrupts cell cycle
    • 36. 8.10 Mitosis ReviewGrowth, cell replacement and asexual reproduction of multicellular organismsYields same chromosome _________ and ______
    • 37. 8.11 Homologous Pairs___________ cells (all cells in your body except sperm/egg cells) - 46 chromosomes  22 pairs of ___________ chromosomes (autosomes)  1 homolog from mom, 1 from dad – carry genes controlling same characteristics  1 pair of sex chromosomesOther species typically have __________ homologs
    • 38. 8.11 Homologous PairsExample of chromosome 1 during metaphaseGenes at the same ______ (location)  May be different types__________ at the same location
    • 39. 8.11 Homologous Pairs_____ chromosomes – determine individual’s sex  Autosomes – other 22 pairsX and Y chromosomes are exceptions  Females carry ____  Males carry ____Not truly homologous
    • 40. 8.12 Gametes_________ cell – any cell with 2 homologous chromosomes (2n=46)  _________ cells_________ cell – a cell with 1 set of chromosomes  Gametes (sperm/egg cells) – 22 autosomes + 1 sex chromosome  Sex chromosome is either X or Y
    • 41. 8.12 Gametes ___________ – sperm and egg fuse  Zygote is diploid Mitosis takes over How are gametes made? …_________
    • 42. 8.13 From Diploid to HaploidMeiosis – cell division that _________ the number of chromosomes  Single __________ of DNA followed by 2 divisions  Meiosis I and Meiosis II  Yields 4 daughter cells, each with _______ the number of chromosomes as parent cell
    • 43. 8.13 From Diploid to Haploid8 stages of meiosis  Prophase I  Metaphase I Meiosis  Anaphase I I  Telophase I and Cytokinesis  Prophase II  Metaphase II  Anaphase II Meiosis II  Telophase II and Cytokinesis
    • 44. 8.13 From Diploid to Haploid Chromosomes _________ DNA is a loose mass
    • 45. 8.13 From Diploid to Haploid Chromatin ____________ ___________ – homologous chromosomes (each 2 sister chromatids) pair up  Results in a ___________  Crossing over – chromatids __________ segments of DNA Centrosomes move, spindle forms
    • 46. 8.13 From Diploid to Haploid Tetrads align at imaginary __________ plate ________ microtubules attach to kinetochores at the centromeres
    • 47. 8.13 From Diploid to Haploid Tetrad is ________ Sister chromatids stay _______ at centromere and move toward opposite poles together
    • 48. 8.13 From Diploid to Haploid 2 daughter cells are ________, each chromosome consists of 2 sister chromatids Meiosis II is the same as _________ just beginning with haploid cellsTYPO!!
    • 49. Meiosis Animation
    • 50. 8.14 Mitosis vs Meiosis
    • 51. 8.15 Varied OffspringGenetically __________ from parents and siblings_____________ assortment/orientation  Red for maternal, blue for paternal  2n Combinations  223 for humans  about 8 million
    • 52. 8.16 Different Versions of GenesChromosomes each contain many ________  Homologous chromosomes have genes for same _________ at same __________
    • 53. 8.17 Crossing OverAn exchange of ____________ segments of DNA between two homologous chromosomes__________ – where 2 homologous, non-sister chromatids cross over
    • 54. 8.17 Crossing Over 1. ________ at the same place 2. Rejoin the ________ chromatid 3. ‘Untwist’ and homologs separate 4. Sister chromatids _________ Yields 4 different chromosomes
    • 55. 8.19 Altering Chromosome Number______________ – a pair of chromosomes fail to separate
    • 56. 8.19 Altering Chromosome NumberTrisomy – having ____ copies  13, 18 and 21 (Down syndrome)Monosomy – having ____ copy
    • 57. 8.23 Chromosome StructureChromosome structure can be __________Inversions less likely to have _________ effects than deletion or duplication
    • 58. You should now be able to…1. Compare the parent-offspring relationship in asexual and sexual reproduction.2. Explain why cell division is essential for prokaryotic and eukaryotic life.3. Explain how daughter prokaryotic chromosomes are separated from each other during binary fission.4. Compare the structure of prokaryotic and eukaryotic chromosomes.5. Describe the stages of the cell cycle.6. List the phases of mitosis and describe the events characteristic of each phase.7. Compare cytokinesis in animal and plant cells.
    • 59. You should now be able to…8. Explain how anchorage, cell density, and chemical growth factors control cell division.9. Explain how cancerous cells are different from healthy cells.10. Describe the functions of mitosis.11. Explain how chromosomes are paired.12. Distinguish between somatic cells and gametes and between diploid cells and haploid cells.13. Explain why sexual reproduction requires meiosis.14. List the phases of meiosis I and meiosis II and describe the events characteristic of each phase.
    • 60. You should now be able to…15. Compare mitosis and meiosis noting similarities and differences.16. Explain how genetic variation is produced in sexually reproducing organisms.17. Describe the causes and symptoms of Down syndrome.

    ×