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Int 2 Close Reading
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Int 2 Close Reading



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  • 1. Close Reading
    • 1 passage
    • 3 types of question:
    • Understanding
    • Analysis
    • Evaluation
  • 2. Understanding Questions
    • Understanding (what is said)
    • key word in question = explain
    • (a) read the lines indicated
    • (b) use the number of marks as guide
    • (c) use your own words unless asked to quote
  • 3. Understanding -factual questions
    • Locate information from the text
    • Identify key words/phrases
    • Change to own words
  • 4. Understanding - summary
    • use your own words
    • Use bullet points
    • one for each mark
  • 5. Understanding - meaning from context
    • give meaning of word/phrase
    • quote & explain other words /phrase that make meaning clear
    • refer to & explain illustration which makes meaning clear
  • 6. e.g.
    • _________ means _______
    • Other words phrases “___”, “___” mean _____ which helped me arrive at the meaning.
    • OR
    • _________ means _______ This is explained / illustrated by the example of _________ which helped me arrive at the meaning.
  • 7. Analysis Questions
    • Analysis (How it is said)
    • Key word in question = show how
    • (a) read the lines indicated
    • (b) use the number of marks as guide
    • (c) use your own words unless asked to quote
  • 8. Analysis – Writer’s Language
    • Linkage
    • Imagery
    • Sentence structure
    • Word choice
    • Tone
  • 9. Linkage
    • Link question – marked in 4 parts – 4x½
    • quote the part of the sentence which refers to/sums up the previous idea
    • explain in your own words what that idea is
    • quote the part of the sentence which introduces the new idea
    • explain in your own words what that idea is
  • 10. e.g.
    • The phrase ‘ ___ ’ sums up the idea from the previous paragraph that ___
    • The phrase ‘ ___ ’ introduces the new idea ___ which is developed / expanded upon / illustrated in the rest of/next paragraph.
  • 11. Imagery
    • 4 stages to answering questions on imagery:
    • identify the image (figure of speech)
    • say what is being described
    • say what it is being compared to
    • explain the effect of the comparison (just as…so…)
  • 12.
    • The writer uses a simile (metaphor / personification)
    • to describe the way the boy eats
    • by comparing it with the way a pig eats
    • the effect is to suggest that just as a pig eats in a messy and noisy way so the boy eats in a messy and noisy way.
  • 13. Sentence Structure
    • 2 types of comment you can make
    • Sentence pattern
    • Effect of punctuation within a sentence
  • 14. Sentence Patterns
    • List – say what it is a list of and why
    • Repetition – say what is being repeated and why
    • Climax – often a list in ascending order of importance, with the most important item/idea at the end.
  • 15. Sentence Punctuation
    • Parenthesis - brackets or dashes or commas – to add extra information – say what it is / why it has been included.
    • Ellipsis… - someone or something has been interrupted, a pause or to suggest that something goes on and on and on …
    • Colon: - introduces a list, quotation or explanation/expansion of previous statement.
  • 16. Sentence Punctuation
    • Semi-colon; - separates items/phrases in a list, comes between two statements which are closely related, or balance or contrast one another (antithesis).
    • Inverted commas – indicate a quotation, title of text, direct speech, used when an author wants to distance himself from the opinion offered (so called).
  • 17. Sentence Patterns
    • Anti-climax –the author builds up the expectations which are not fulfilled. Often used for comic effect.
    • Antithesis – balancing opposite ideas together to create a contrast.
  • 18. Word choice and Tone
    • connotations (associations) of words / groups of words reveal the writer’s attitude to the subject.
    • Words to describe tone are: humorous, ironic, mocking, serious, formal, straightforward, argumentative, sarcastic, persuasive, chatty or informal.
  • 19. Evaluation
    • To answer Evaluation questions, you must consider how effectively the writer has presented his information and express your personal response to the text.
    • You can express your judgement by using words like effective, moving, satisfying, exciting, interesting, amusing, humorous, convincing, persuasive, shocking, disturbing, entertaining, enjoyable etc.
    • You might be asked to consider features such as word choice , structure , tone etc.
  • 20.
    • To show how a conclusion rounds off a text consider:
    • The ideas : pick out references to stages in the argument. Is the argument clearly resolved, or is the outcome undecided?
    • The style : does the style remain the same or change? Does the conclusion return to the wording of the opening? You might also discuss word choice and sentence structure .
    • The tone : does the tone remain the same or change from serious to light-hearted or vice versa?
    • The punch line : does it end with a joke or perhaps with a quotation or even introduce a new idea that leaves food for thought?
  • 21.
    • Remember to:
    • Take note of the number of marks and tailor your answer to suit.
    • Follow the instructions given in the question.
    • Use quotations and / or examples to illustrate your answer.