Postmodernism Lesson 3Aims and ObjectivesBy the end of this lesson you will…..Understand the theories of the following thinkers -Baudrillard and FoucaultBe able to apply their ideas to your own ideas aboutPostmodern Media
BaudrillardPart One: Jean Baudrillard (1929-2007)Baudrillard was a controversial Philosopherwhose main ideas and concepts have beenused to understand the effect of living in aPostmodern environment on ourperceptions of reality.His most important book "Simulacra andSimulations" became the basis of the MatrixfilmsSimulations and SimulacraHyperreality
Baudrillard cont.• The effect of Postmodernism on the Audience can be extensive and can alterour perceptions of the media and reality as the media and reality merge.REALITYHIGHTEN AND EXAGGERATE(SIMULATE)SIMULACRAHYPERREALITY
Simulations and Simulacra• Media represent reality andin doing so change it to makeit more visual and fun.• However what happens whenwe start to believe that this"Simulation" is actual reality?
Activity: Chinese Drawings• Using your whiteboards draw the image thatis passed to you - how different is the endimage from the original?
• Rate the following foods– which would you prefer to consume ?– which tastes more like an orange?
• The effect of living in Simulacra is a distortedsense of reality or Hyperreality…..
HyperrealityKey Term: HyperrealityWas first described by thePhilosopher Jean Baudrillard werehe suggested that the media cannow create such idealisticrepresentations of reality that outperform actual reality.The audience is left feelingdepressed as theyre own lifedoesnt live up to artificial reality.
Baudrillard and Aspirational TVhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=59OJ17raqWw• How can we see the hyperreal world of TVadvertising as a simulation of Reality?• What effects will this have on the public?
Baudrillard and the Media (war)• Baudrillard wrote an articlecalled "The Gulf War did nottake place" which was verycontroversial.• In it he suggests that theMedia set the agenda on thenarrative of war - the war wesaw on TV did not match realevents.(they don’t show all truths (restricted truths) thereforethis limits knowledge/power)
News events = Haiti Earthquake• How can we use Baudrillards ideas to understand TheHaitian Earthquake?• http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aZRJtAED8uonewswipe haiti• http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=62QIIjOmJq0newswipe season 2 ep 3• Can you relate this to recent events such as NorthKorea & Boston bombings? Similarities/differences?
Think of what is NOT on TV• http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_ongoing_conflicts• On going conflicts NOT on TV news agenda
Baudrillard and Hyper-sexuality• Watch the following news links on the recent report intoMedia representations of gender.• http://news.bbc.co.uk/today/hi/today/newsid_8538000/8538207.stm (the whole of society is hyper-sexualized’)• http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/uk/8538179.stm (children ofboth genders are over-exposed to sexual imagery’)• http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/uk/8537757.stm(media blamedfor sexualization of young girls’)
Dove evolution advert• Hyperreal beautyhttp://www.nextnature.net/2007/03/simulacra-for-dummies/Simulacra for Dummies• ….it seems appropriate to post (above website) thismovie as an ultimate “Simulacra for Dummies”. Thismovie is quite known and probably already posted onthis blog. But just in case, here it is once more: the“Evolution” movie made by Dove. The construction ofreality.
Comparison of companiesdove Body shop2013 – sketch artist idea for advert (toshow pretty/ugly……seems positive toreflect that everyone is beautifulBUTEmphasis on beauty – outerbeauty/image (let’s face it – theywouldn’t have a model with a deformitywould they?)-no animal testing claim-but they have animal products (crushedbone)
The debate = should this happen?• Using the concept of Hyperreality apply it to theongoing debates of sexual imagery and children:– Should the media represent hyper-sexual/hyper-beauty (idealistic) representations?• Yes? = why? – free speech, democracy, money/profit• No? = why? – sets up false expectations/aspirations thatpeople cannot reach = they feel inadequate– How can you apply Baudrillards ideas to virtualworlds like The Sims?
What does this mean?"Life doesnt imitate Art, itimitates bad TV"(Woody Allen)Original quote: Does life imitate art or does art imitate life? (Oscar wilde)
Part Two: Michel Foucault (1926-1984)• Foucaults ideas centred onHistory, particularly around howwe know about the world aroundus and each other. He wroteextensively on the history ofsexuality and gender and was apioneer of "Queer Theory" hemain contributions include.• Panopticalisation• Knowledge and Power• He died from an AIDs relatedillness in 1984
Foucault and the Panopiticon• Foucaults ideas explain why we are so obsessed withVoyeurism in Postmodernity.•• The Panopiticon was an innovate prison design by Englishphilosopher Jeremy Bentham in 1785. In it he designed aprison in which all inmates could be constantly watched orbe under the threat of being watched.•• Foucault thought that this idea was interesting and startedto apply the idea to Society.
Panopticonilastion and Power• Foucault suggested that the act of watching (voyeurism) was an act ofpower and control on part of the viewer. We are never ourselves in socialsituations until we are alone away from others controlling sight.• Because of this people act differently and the act of watching becomesan act of control.• Recently Foucaults ideas have been used to understand Reality TV andthe Media.• In the late 90s CCTV cameras were introduced to the UK andNottingham has the largest concentration of CCTV than any other city.
Noam Chomsky• What you will find in this film is compelling evidence (based not ondelusions, but on facts) that American media is controlled by acorporate elite who use it essentially for propaganda purposes inorder to, if I may lift a phrase from Chomsky, "control the publicmind."• Once you realize how consolidated the corporate media really is,and how they twist the facts in order to pump disinformation intothe homes of unsuspecting citizens, youll never be able to look atCNN the same way again.• Main stream media is used to divert people away from hard-hittingcontent (Example – people rather watch ‘Knocked up’ or ‘Juno’(comedies) than ‘If these walls could talk’ (graphic drama).......bothfilms about unwanted pregnancy
Noam ChomskyNoam Chomsky (1928 - )Chomsky is a key media analyst working atMIT, he wrote "Manufacture of Consent" inwhich he suggests that the media is a keypart changing peoples opinion on newtechnologies or political decisions.How have the media gainedconsent for CCTV since theearly 90s?How controlled are you by CCTV? - Googlestreet view
Big Brother as Panopticon• Since the late 90s reality TV has grown in popularity asit turns the camera on the audience, some argue this islazy TV programming others that it reflects Chomskys"Manufacture of Consent" and Foucualts Panopticon.• Does "Big Brother" reflect our Postmodern voyeuristicvisual culture?
Big brother & panopticonismEditing & Reality -Celebrity Big Brother & RacismBig BrotherTo what extent is Big Brother aPanopitcon?How does watching Big Brotherfeel?To what extent does the votingsystem put you in control?How real or Hyperreal are thecontestants?Why was it been cancelled?http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BBwepkVurCI editing & realityhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=trcA4r41OL8 big brother and racism
Social Networking as Panopticon• Recently the growing Popularity ofsocial networking has reflected howdependant we are on observingothers and wanting to keep in touch.• To what extent to you agree that"Facebook" is a Panopticon?• What is the most popular feature of"Facebook"?• What other features of the Internetcould be read as Panopitcal?
SummaryBaudrillardThe media presents a simulation of the worldthat is artificial and hyperrealSome audiences read the hyperrealrepresentation as reality - hyper-sexualityThe representation of reality is mediatedthrough the media - war reportingFoucaultThe media could be argued to "ManufactureConsent" for CCTVVoyeurism (the act of watching) changes theway people behave/present themselvesReality TV reflects a voyeuristic PostmodernsocietySocial Networking and the internet give usgreater control over voyeurism
Task (due mon apr 28)• Write an essay:Compare the similarities and differences of 2 advertising campaigns by evaluating theirpostmodern features.• Research both campaigns a little• Deconstruct and analyse both adverts– Denotation/connotation….context…….audiences……forms……conventions (and whether theyreinforce/challenge conventions) etc.• Give context (what is it’s purpose in the world it was created in?….how does it relate to history,present and impact on future?)– Extension: compare to other traditional adverts• Discuss audience – who is it for? Type of audience? Effect on audience?– Extension – relate to an audience theory• Relate to Baurillard’s theory of simulation/simulcra/hyperreality ……….also discuss idealisticrepresentation• Relate to Focault’s theory of panopticalisation and power– Compare the pomo theories of both adverts• Throughout essay remember the for and against arguments!• Extension: you could mention the men’s dove parody (and talk about how this is postmodern)