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  1. 1. Narrative
  2. 2. What is narrative?
  3. 3. What is narrative? • It is NOT the plot or the story • It’s how the story is told/presented to an audience to create meaning to an audience • Remember the narrative theory and structure changes because the way we tell stories changes (think of films 20 years ago compared to today)
  4. 4. Theorists/theories? Theorist Their theory explained
  5. 5. The basic theories (a bit dated ) Theorist Their theory explained Todorov Narrative structure = equilibrium, disequilibrium, new equilibrium Strauss Binary opposites = binary opposition forms a fundamental way to understanding narrative (opposition offers structure or a premise to a text) Barthes Codes – narrative is all about anticipation and expectation. His codes encourage explanations of how audiences seek clues and answers to predict possible outcomes Enigma code* Action code* Semantic code* Symbolic code Cultural code *know these at minimum Propp Character types – narratives always have certain character types who perform certain roles/actions (7 character types are: hero, villain, dispatcher, donor, helper, heroine, false hero)
  6. 6. Other theorists (more recent) Theorist Their theory explained Kuleshov effect (Lev Kuleshov) The power of editing to create meaning on audience (editing is a way to tell a story or the way to create an intended perception of a story) Image (assembly/connection between images) Rhythm (pace) Space (where things are) Time (over what period of time? Example – transitions) Cameron Modular narratives – contemporary cinema has modular (segmental) narrative structures where sense of time is manipulated (it’s not presented straight-forwardly) Forking path Episodic Anachronic Split Screen Cook Hollywood narrative – these films include structures that are ‘linear’ “linear narrative with cause and effect within overall narrative of enigma resolution and a high degree of narrative closure” Similar to todorov
  7. 7. Do 1 old, 1 new •  • Such as: old=Todorov (but make links to cook) new= Kuleshov ?
  8. 8. Other useful narrative terms • Diegesis • Narrative Range: unrestricted / restrictive narrative • Narrative depth: objective character identification (POV) / subjective character identification
  9. 9. Kuleshov • editing creates meaning • Background: history of editing – there wasn’t any before! All meaning came from MES, think of how editing creates so many meanings to audiences………remember best editing is invisible! • Around the time soon after came about he held an experiment to measure audience response which suggested how important context was (because you can easily lead people to believe anything) • Even Alfred Hitchcock considers this theory! • Editing creates meaning of the following things: Images Assembly – association of images Rhythm Pace – establish sense of pace (linked to time) Time Temporal – how long? When?
  10. 10. Kuleshov examples • Original video (2 experiments) • Alfred hitchcock video • Charlie brooker wipe • Scary Mary Scroll down to MICHAEL PARKES prezi on ‘editing’
  11. 11. Kuleshov examples Original video (2 experiments) By image association Guy face then cut to food = hungry or nautious Guy face then cut to baby = caring/father (or pedo!) Alfred Hitchcock video Same as above Charlie brooker wipe (could be a theorist) - theory = ***can create meaning through editing because of technological advancements*** -reality TV (with changing footage/cuts/voiceover/music etc) Scary Mary Making meaning by genre narrative conventions (change a film to horror by just changing the narrative structure) -cuts to represent her as a villian/mad -haunting music -fast pace etc
  12. 12. AS or A2? • Some people say AS is easier but you could do A2: • Documentaries – remember documentary mode theory (BILL NICHOLS) – Documentaries still tell stories even though they are ‘real’ or non-fiction (remember you edit it in such a way to persuade people to believe something) – You could discuss that some of the theories at A2 because of the text (genre of doc/print) are challenged because they aren’t film based Ancillary (print work) • How elements are placed in design work and how layout and visual hierarchy create a logical ‘story’ • Also how these ‘stories’ or ‘narratives’ create enigma to consume the product (like your advert was a ‘preview’ to your documentary – it previewed part of a wider narrative)
  13. 13. Revision notes Theorist/theory Coursework ex 1 1 Part in your sequence Coursework ex 2 1 Part in your sequence Coursework ex 3 1 Part in your sequence Todorov If you can  Strauss Cook Kuleshov