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  • 1. FILM PRODUCTION The Five Key Stages Of Film Production
  • 2. The Key Stages  Development  Pre-production  Production  Post-production  Distribution
  • 3. DEVELOPMENT       Finding Finance Script development Stars Director Other Key Crew Role of the Producer
  • 4. SECURING FINANCE -Can be complex and very lengthy -Must attract potential investors -Generate confidence in film’s ability to create revenue -Returns can be enormous -But very risky -The higher the film’s profile, the more likely to attract investors -Blockbusters attract more than low budget -Only one in ten films make significant financial return
  • 5. The package  A script treatment - ten or more pages concerning storylines, characters and locations.  Generic profile of film - help investors to “place” film in marketplace (potential audience)  Proposed budget - rough guide to price
  • 6. The package continued  Visual representation of key narrative moments  Key personnel - stars, director, DOP, etc  Potential spin-offs, merchandising and tieins - all its money making potential.
  • 7. FINANCE  100% financing - a studio or other backer gives 100% of the film’s budget in return for full ownership of the film.  Multi-party financing - the independent producer typically raises finance from a host of sources.
  • 8. EXERCISE Titanic $200,000,000 Spiderman 2 $200,000,000 Waterworld $175,000,000 The,Wild,Wild West $175,000,000 Van Helsing $170,000,000 Terminator 3 $170,000,000 Troy $150,000,000 With a partner, look at the list of the biggest film budgets and discuss what factors do you think helped secure such huge amounts of investment in these films?
  • 9. PRE-PRODUCTION         Finalising Script Scheduling Budgeting Casting Crew contracts Storyboarding Location scouting Equipment hire
  • 10. PRODUCTION     Cinematography – cinematographer & camera crew Production Design – Art direction and dressers Actors – rehearse, act, shoot Sound – Booms, mics etc
  • 11. PRODUCTION     Costumes, Make-up and hair Special FX – green screens and blood Editing Production Team
  • 12. POST-PRODUCTION        Editing Re-shoots Sound mixing ADR Foley Music Laboratories
  • 13. Stages (brief) STAGES Development Pre-production Production Post-production -ideas for the film -legal issues (ownership/music etc) -rights to books/plays are bought (if borrowed) -screenplay is written -Preparations are made for the shoot -cast and film crew are hired -locations are selected -sets are built -The raw elements for the finished film are recorded. (filmed using cameras/mics etc) -The film is edited -production sound (dialogue) is concurrently (but separately) edited -music tracks (and songs) are composed, performed and recorded -if a film is sought to have a score; sound effects are designed and recorded; -any other computer-graphic 'visual' effects are digitally added, all sound elements are mixed into "stems" then the stems are mixed then married to picture
  • 14. DISTRIBUTION  Launching a film in the marketplace  Distributor acquires rights to film  Could invest in film at beginning  Buy rights after film made  Part of larger company and automatically distribute film  $60 billion global film entertainment business
  • 15. RELEASE CYCLES 0 months Theatrical release 3 months Airline 4-6 months Hotel pay-per-view 6 months PPV/Video-on-demand 6 months DVD rental 6-12 months DVD sale 18 months Pay-TV (eg FilmFour, Sky) 36 months Free-TV (eg BBC1) Further revenues are available from soundtracks, merchandise, sponsorship and long term library sales.
  • 16. POSITIONING  How and when to release a film - a crucial decision. Want to avoid slow times or event films. Cinema release date important for DVD release.  Target right audience - test screenings, p&a campaign.
  • 17. CIRCULATION AND RELEASE  How many copies of film to circulate?  Saturation 700-1000 prints  Arthouse 20 prints  Timing - school holidays for blockbusters, Jan-March for potential award winners  Competition - too many blockbusters, too crowded
  • 18. MARKETING  Can cost as much as the film  Must create the “must see” factor - word of mouth  Marketing mix - posters, trailers, media ads, internet, promotions, merchandising, premieres, press junkets, previews and festivals
  • 19. Key Terms           Securing finance (funding) Investors Revenue Financial return Blockbuster 100% finance Multi-party finance Producer Budget & proposed budget financial R          A Development Pre-production Production Location scouting Post-production Distribution & distributor Release cycle Further revenue Circulation & release G