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The periodic table






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    The periodic table The periodic table Presentation Transcript

    • The Periodic Table
    • The Periodic Table
    • The Table in General
      • Columns (families)
        • Called families
        • Elements in a family have similar chemical and physical properties
        • As you go from the top to the bottom of the column the elements get larger.
    • This is column 1 the alkali metals Draw an arrow down column one.
    • The Table in General
      • Rows (periods)
        • Called periods
        • First element in a period is a very reactive solid metal
        • Last element in a family is a very non-reactive gas
        • Elements get less reactive as you move right
          • Reactive means to lose electrons
        • Elements become less metallic as you move to the right
    • This is Period 4 Draw an arrow across period four.
    • Alkali Metals
    • Alkali Metals
      • Shade this column yellow.
      • One electron in the valence shell
        • Valence means the outer shell
      • Soft, less dense metals
      • Most reactive of all metals
      • React with water to form bases
      • Never found free, alone, in nature
      • Used to make soap, salt, baking soda
    • Alkaline Earth Metals
    • Alkaline Earth Metals
      • Shade this column red
      • Two electrons in the valance shell
      • Harder, higher melting point, more dense than Alkali metals (column 1)
      • Very reactive
      • Never found free in nature
    • Transition Elements
    • Transition Elements
      • Shade all these elements purple.
    • Transition Elements
      • Good conductors of heat and electricity
      • Higher melting point than first two families
      • Some are hard and brittle
      • Some combine with oxygen to form oxides
      • Form brightly colored compounds
    • Rare Earth Elements
    • Rare Earth Elements
      • Shade the elements light blue/teal.
      • 1 st Row Lanthanide Series
        • Soft, malleable, great conductors, used to make alloys (mixed metals w/ metals or nonmetals)
      • 2 nd Row Actinide Series
        • all but three are synthetic, manmade.
    • Boron Family
    • Boron Family
      • Shade all the elements Green.
      • Three electrons in the valance shell
      • Collection of "odd ducks"
        • boron is a metalloid
        • aluminum, gallium, indium and thallium are poor metals
      • Aluminum is the third most abundant element on earth.
    • Carbon Family
    • Carbon Family
      • Shade all elements Dark Blue
      • Four valence electrons
      • Form organic compounds
        • Organic means alive or living
      • Silicon is the second most abundant element on earth
      • Tin resists Oxidation and Corrosion
      • Lead is very dense and poisonous
    • Nitrogen Family
    • Nitrogen Family
      • Shade this family Brown.
      • Five electrons in the valance shell
      • Stable, do not combine easily
      • Nitrogen is the most abundant in earths atmosphere. Uses: Fertilizer, dyes, explosives Ex NH 3 (Ammonia)
      • Phosphorus: Match tips
      • Arsenic: Rat Poison
    • Oxygen Family
    • Oxygen Family
      • Shade all elements in this family Orange.
      • 6 outer electrons
      • Oxygen supports burning, is very reactive, combines with many other elements
      • Sulfur, Selenium, Tellurium: Brittle, combine easily with other elements
    • Halogen Family
    • Halogen Family
      • Shade all elements in this family Pink
      • Seven valence electrons.
      • Most chemically reactive non-metals
      • Never found free in nature
      • Low melting and boiling point
      • As gases they form diatomic elements ex. F 2 , Cl 2
    • Noble Gas Family
    • Noble Gas Family
      • Shade all elements in this family gray.
      • Full valance shell, He 2 electrons Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe, Rn all have 8 electrons
      • Inert, do not combine with other elements
      • He- balloons, Ne- signs, Ar- fill in windows, Xe- photographic lamps, Rn- Treats cancer
    • Who has no family?
    • Hydrogen (no family)
      • Shade this element no color.
      • One valance electron
      • Highly reactive
      • Highly combustible
      • Colorless odorless gas at room temperature
    • Who has no family?
    • Metalloids: Draw the step ladder & Shade the metalloids with stripes.
    • Non-metals mark the non-metals with dots.
    • Properties of a metal.
      • Physical
        • Superior electric and thermal conductivity
        • High luster
        • High density
        • Malleable
        • Alkali and Alkaline earth metals are reactive, low density, low hardness, low melting point
    • Properties of a metal.
      • Chemical
        • Form positively charges ions
        • Oxidize easily
        • React with acid
        • Some react with water to form a base
    • Properties of a non-metal
      • Chemical
        • Form negatively charged ions
      • Physical
        • Brittle when solid
        • Most are solid and gas (Bromine is a liquid)
        • Not thermally or electrically conductive
        • Lower melting points and boiling points than metals
    • Definition of a Metalloid
      • An element which is like both a metal and a non-metal in terms of malleability, ductility, conductivity and luster
      • Vertical lines______________________________
      • Horizontal rows____________________________
      • Elements on the zigzag______________________
      • Elements on the top right____________________
      • 1 valance electron reactive family______________
      • 2 valance electron reactive family______________
      • 3-12 families ______________________________
      • Elements that form salts_____________________
      • Elements that do not react___________________
      • Elements that are pulled out from the Periodic table___________________________________
      • Element that is all alone_____________________
      Families total of 11 Periods total of 7 Metalloids Non-Metals Alkali Metals Alkaline Earth Metals Transition Elements Halogens Nobel Gas or Inert Gases Rare Earth elements Hydrogen
    • Read the Element 77 Ir Iridium 192.217 9 6 2 8 18 32 15 2
    • Example Element
      • Element: _______________
      • Symbol: ________________
      • Atomic mass: _____________
      • Atomic number:______________
      • Family: _____________________
      • Period: ____________
      • Number of total electrons: _________
      • Number of valance electrons: _______
      Iridium Ir 192.271 77 Transition Element # 9 6 77 2