Aim and Objectives Introduce and understand the different personality theories By the end of the lesson you will be able to: Define personality Understand the difference between nature and nurture Describe the different personality theories Trait Theories (Hollander, Esyneck, Cattell) Social Learning Theories (Bandura) Interationist Theories (Lewin, Festinger) Explain the effects of personality tests and profiling
Hollander‘Personality is a combination of all the characteristics that make a person unique’ Esyneck ‘Personality refers to those relatively stable and enduring aspects of an individuals behaviour.’
how people act or reacttodeal with different situations
Task write down 5 statements about you beginning with ‘I am …’ Example: I am … enthusiast (5 minutes)
Defining Personality Do your answers describe up your personality? If you’re not sure … ask your friends and family Keep these answers with you through the lesson to see if any of the personality types we go through describe you! Why do we study personality? To see what makes people tick To control arousal levels To perform at an optimum level
Nature vs Nurture Are we born with our characteristics? Can they be learnt or changed? Trait theories believe personality is innate … in our genes Social learning theories believe we learn how to act or react … from observing others Interactionisttheories believe it is a bit of both … we learn our behaviour from others … but we have our own traits
TASK: Summarise the trait theory If you had to explain to someone who doesn’t know anything about personality and PE as a subject … How would you explain the trait (nature) theory?(3 minutes … bullet points/ a few sentences) “Trait theories see personality as being innate (we are born with) and that it is stable and predictable in all situations. This means we can predict how people will act and react”
Trait Theorywhy we act the way we do Traits are underlying, long lasting behaviours Main ideas People can’t help the way they act We are all born with a number of traits (Cattellidentified 171 traits filtered down to 16). Personality doesn’t change Environment and the situation don’t effect personality
Eysenck’s Trait Theory (1968) Everyone can be placed anywhere along two dimensions: Introversion– ExtroversionStable– Unstable A third dimension was later added: Psychotic Introverts passive, quiet, and unsociable Extroverts sociable, outgoing and active Emotional stability calm, even-tempered. Emotional instability moody, anxious and rigid
How would you describe an introvert Introverts are: - more easily aroused than extroverts - more likely to obey orders - are liable to be restrained - prefer working alone Extroverts prefer working in groups
Trait Theories Eysneck Personality Dimensions (Trait Approach) My results … http://similarminds.com/eysenck.html Extroversion results were very high which suggests you are overly talkative, outgoing, sociable and interacting at the expense too often of developing your own individual interests and internally based identity. Neuroticism results were moderately low which suggests you are relaxed, calm, secure, and optimistic. Psychoticism results were very low which suggests you are overly kind natured, trusting, and helpful at the expense too often of your own individual development (martyr complex).
Cattell’s Trait Theory (1965) According to Cattell, a hierarchy of personality traits Sourcetraits at the top (most important) behaviours that do vary and are most likely to be displayed. Surface traits behaviours displayed with different intensity and regularity 16 primary traits and developed a questionnaire(Cattell 16PF questionnaire) – see homework
Type A / Type B personalities This theory is based upon how people deal with stress. Sometimes called the Narrow Band Approach (Girdana et al, 1990) Type A personalities include: - a strong desire to succeed - high levels of alertness - work at a fast pace - find it hard to delegate - need to be in control - experience high levels of stress.
Type A / Type B personalities Type B personalities include: - be more relaxed - delegate easily - be less competitive - be tolerant - experience lower levels of stress
Social Learning Theory Main theorist was Albert Bandura (1977) He argued: - People behave differently in different situations - Personality is learned - There are different ways of learning personality: How would you explain the social learning theory? Give examples (3 minutes)
Observational Learning Learning of behaviours by simply watching others.Also known as modelling
Vicarious ConditioningLearning of a response by watching someone else. The learning is particularly influenced by whether the observed person receives reinforcement (rewarded) or punishment
Social Learning Theory
Bandura’s Model of Observational Learning The model has 4 stages: AttentionProcesses what to look for in the model’s performance 2) Retention Processes how to remember the model’s performance 3) Motor Reproductionhow to copy the model’s performance 4) Motivational Processes the reason why a person would want to copy the model’s performance
Interactionist Theory of Personality Interactionists believe B= f (P,E) What does this mean? Behaviour as a function of personality traits and environmental conditions This can be seen as a combination of the best bits of Trait Theory and Social Learning Theory
Interactionist Theory The Situation traitsdetermine behaviour but can be modified by situations traits situations behaviour Lewin behaviour is a function of both the person or personality (P) and the environment (E) B = f(P,E) Behaviour
Measuring Personality INTERVIEWS before or after the event not directly related to performance open ended and flexible transient feelings or attitudes may be expressed difficult to quantify accurately may be influenced by the interviewer
Three main theories:How are personalities formed? Trait Theory personality is heredity and is passed onthrough genetics (2) Social Learning Theory personality is learned through environmental influences Interactionist Theory personality is a combination of genetic and environmental influences.
Type A personality, means that you are a fast-paced individual who is always on the run.
More easily stressed, who does not accept failure easily, and expects the most in others.
Type B personality is exactly the opposite of a Type A.
More reserved and calm, not easily bothered by small problems in life.
Social Learning Theory The main difference between trait theory and social learning theory is the importance of the environment Will people act or react differently in different situations?
What have we learnt about today? You should now be able to … Define personality Understand the difference between nature and nurture Describe the different personality theories Trait Theories (Hollander, Esyneck, Cattell) Social Learning Theories (Bandura) Interationist Theories (Lewin, Festinger) Explain the effects of personality tests and profiling