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  • 1. Personality
    A2 Psychology Lesson
    Miss Bowe
  • 2. Aim and Objectives
    Introduce and understand the different personality theories
    By the end of the lesson you will be able to:
    Define personality
    Understand the difference between nature and nurture
    Describe the different personality theories
    Trait Theories (Hollander, Esyneck, Cattell)
    Social Learning Theories (Bandura)
    Interationist Theories (Lewin, Festinger)
    Explain the effects of personality tests and profiling
  • 3. Hollander‘Personality is a combination of all the characteristics that make a person unique’
    ‘Personality refers to those relatively stable and enduring aspects of an individuals behaviour.’
  • 4. Defining Personality…
    • the unique characteristics of an individual
    • 5. how people relate to each other
    • 6. how people act or reacttodeal with different situations
    Task write down 5 statements about you beginning with ‘I am …’
    Example: I am … enthusiast
    (5 minutes)
  • 7. Defining Personality
    Do your answers describe up your personality?
    If you’re not sure … ask your friends and family
    Keep these answers with you through the lesson to see if any of the personality types we go through describe you!
    Why do we study personality?
    To see what makes people tick
    To control arousal levels
    To perform at an optimum level
  • 8. Nature vs Nurture
    Are we born with our characteristics?
    Can they be learnt or changed?
    Trait theories believe personality is innate … in our genes
    Social learning theories believe we learn how to act or react … from observing others
    Interactionisttheories believe it is a bit of both
    … we learn our behaviour from others … but we have our own traits
  • 9. TASK: Summarise the trait theory
    If you had to explain to someone who doesn’t know anything about personality and PE as a subject …
    How would you explain the trait (nature) theory?(3 minutes … bullet points/ a few sentences)
    “Trait theories see personality as being innate (we are born with) and that it is stable and predictable in all situations.
    This means we can predict how people will act and react”
  • 10. Trait Theorywhy we act the way we do
    Traits are underlying, long lasting behaviours
    Main ideas
    People can’t help the way they act
    We are all born with a number of traits (Cattellidentified 171 traits filtered down to 16).
    Personality doesn’t change
    Environment and the situation don’t effect personality
  • 11. Eysenck’s Trait Theory (1968)
    Everyone can be placed anywhere along two dimensions:
    Introversion– ExtroversionStable– Unstable
    A third dimension was later added: Psychotic
    passive, quiet, and unsociable
    sociable, outgoing and active
    Emotional stability
    calm, even-tempered.
    Emotional instability
    moody, anxious and rigid
  • 12. How would you describe an introvert
    Introverts are:
    - more easily aroused than extroverts
    - more likely to obey orders
    - are liable to be restrained
    - prefer working alone
    Extroverts prefer working in groups
  • 13. Trait Theories
    Eysneck Personality Dimensions (Trait Approach)
    My results …
    Extroversion results were very high which suggests you are overly talkative, outgoing, sociable and interacting at the expense too often of developing your own individual interests and internally based identity.
    Neuroticism results were moderately low which suggests you are relaxed, calm, secure, and optimistic.
    Psychoticism results were very low which suggests you are overly kind natured, trusting, and helpful at the expense too often of your own individual development (martyr complex).
  • 14. My Personality Traits
  • 15. Cattell’s Trait Theory (1965)
    According to Cattell, a hierarchy of personality traits
    Sourcetraits at the top (most important)
    behaviours that do vary and are most likely to be displayed.
    Surface traits
    behaviours displayed with different intensity and regularity
    16 primary traits and developed a questionnaire(Cattell 16PF questionnaire) – see homework
  • 16. Trait Theories
    Cattell 16 personality factors
    • Need more than 3 dimensions
    • 17. 16 personality factors
    • 18. Gives personality profile
    • 19. Answers influenced by mood,
    motivation and situational factors
  • 20. Type A / Type B personalities
    This theory is based upon how people deal with stress.
    Sometimes called the Narrow Band Approach (Girdana et al, 1990)
    Type A personalities include:
    - a strong desire to succeed
    - high levels of alertness
    - work at a fast pace
    - find it hard to delegate
    - need to be in control
    - experience high levels of stress.
  • 21. Type A / Type B personalities
    Type B personalities include:
    - be more relaxed
    - delegate easily
    - be less competitive
    - be tolerant
    - experience lower levels of stress
  • 22. Social Learning Theory
    Main theorist was Albert Bandura (1977)
    He argued:
    - People behave differently in different situations
    - Personality is learned
    - There are different ways of learning personality:
    How would you explain the social learning theory?
    Give examples (3 minutes)
  • 23.
    • Observational Learning Learning of behaviours by simply watching others.Also known as modelling
    • 24. Vicarious ConditioningLearning of a response by watching someone else. The learning is particularly influenced by whether the observed person receives reinforcement (rewarded) or punishment
    Social Learning Theory
  • 25. Bandura’s Model of Observational Learning
    The model has 4 stages:
    AttentionProcesses what to look for in the model’s performance
    2) Retention Processes
    how to remember the model’s performance
    3) Motor Reproductionhow to copy the model’s performance
    4) Motivational Processes
    the reason why a person would want to copy the model’s performance
  • 26. Interactionist Theory of Personality
    Interactionists believe
    B= f (P,E)
    What does this mean?
    Behaviour as a function of personality traits and environmental conditions
    This can be seen as a combination of the best bits of Trait Theory and Social Learning Theory
  • 27. Interactionist Theory
    The Situation
    traitsdetermine behaviour
    but can be modified by situations
    behaviour is a function of both the person or personality (P) and the environment (E)
    B = f(P,E)
  • 28. Measuring Personality
    before or after the event
    not directly related to performance
    open ended and flexible
    transient feelings or attitudes may be expressed
    difficult to quantify accurately
    may be influenced by the interviewer
  • 29. Measuring Personality
    • before or after the event
    • 30. not directly related to performance
    • 31. rigidly and systematically set out
    • 32. transient feelings or attitudes may be expressed
    • 33. able to quantify accurately
    • 34. would not be influenced by another
    • 35. can be used to assess specific traits
  • Measuring Personality
    • made during an actual event
    • 36. directly related to performance
    • 37. varies according to the competitive nature of the event
    • 38. difficult to quantify accurately
    • 39. may be influenced by the observer’s views and attitudes
  • Profile of Mood States (POMS)
    are an important aspect of personality which may influence sports performance
  • 40. Profile of Mood States (POMS)
    Elite sportspeople
    show LOW
    and HIGH vigour
    Unsuccessful sportspeopleshow HIGH
    and LOW vigour
  • 47. Three main theories:How are personalities formed?
    Trait Theory
    personality is heredity and is passed onthrough genetics
    (2) Social Learning Theory
    personality is learned through environmental influences
    Interactionist Theory
    personality is a combination of genetic and environmental influences.
  • 48. Trait Theories
    Type A or Type B Personalities
    • Type A personality, means that you are a fast-paced individual who is always on the run.
    • 49. More easily stressed, who does not accept failure easily, and expects the most in others.
    • 50. Type B personality is exactly the opposite of a Type A.
    • 51. More reserved and calm, not easily bothered by small problems in life.
  • Social Learning Theory
    The main difference between trait theory and social learning theory is the importance of the environment
    Will people act or react differently in different situations?
  • 52. What have we learnt about today?
    You should now be able to …
    Define personality
    Understand the difference between nature and nurture
    Describe the different personality theories
    Trait Theories (Hollander, Esyneck, Cattell)
    Social Learning Theories (Bandura)
    Interationist Theories (Lewin, Festinger)
    Explain the effects of personality tests and profiling