GCSE Key Terms Glossary


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Great for GCSE revision. Includes all the key terms from chapters 1 -12 of the AQA textbook

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GCSE Key Terms Glossary

  1. 1. GCSE<br />Physical Education<br />Glossary of Terms<br />4361180280035020000<br />Name: Bronwen Webster <br />Chapter 1: The Participant as an Individual<br />Physiology: The functions and processes of the human body.<br />Flexibility: The range of movement around a joint.<br />Peak: At your very best – the best prepared period for you to be able to perform. <br />Inclusion: A policy that no one should experience barriers to learning as a result of their disability, heritage, gender, special educational need, ethnicity, social group, sexual orientation, race or culture. <br />Equestrian: Relating to horseback riding or horseback riders. <br />Physique: the form, size and development of a person’s body. <br />Metabolic: The whole range of biochemical processes that occur within us.<br />Power: The combination of speed and strength. <br />Maximal Strength: The greatest amount of weight that can be lifted in one go. <br />Body Composition: The percentage of body weight that is fat, muscle and bone. <br />Musculature: The system or arrangement of muscles on a body. <br />Somatotypes: Different body types based on shape, most commonly endomorph, mesomorph and ectomorph. <br />Trunk: The middle part of your body (midsection). <br />Dehydration: The rapid loss of water from the body.<br />Landscape: The aspect of the land characteristic of a particular region. <br />Challenge: A test of your ability or resources in a demanding situation. <br />Risk: The possibility of suffering harm, loss or danger. <br />Competitive: An activity that involves some form of contest, rivalry or game. <br />Recreational: Any form of play, amusement or relaxation preformed as games, sports or hobbies. <br />Periodisation: The different parts of a training programme.<br />Peak: At your very best – the best prepared period for you to be able to perform. <br />General Fitness: A state of general good health and to be able to carry out activities at a relatively low level. <br />Chapter 2: Physical and Mental Demands of Performance<br />Local muscular fatigue- When a muscle, or group of muscles, is unable to carry on contracting and movement stops.<br />Apprehensive- Fearful about the future.<br />Motivation- Your drive to succeed and desire and energy to achieve something.<br />Stress fracture- a break in the bone caused by repeated application of a heavy load or constant pounding on a surface, such as by running.<br />Tennis elbow- a painful injury or inflammation of the tendon attached to the elbow joint.<br />Dilated- enlarged, expanded or widened.<br />Sprains- the overstretching or tearing of ligaments at a joint.<br />Strains- the overstretching of a muscle, rather than a joint.<br />Gaseous exchange- the process where oxygen is taken in from the air and exchanged for carbon dioxide.<br />Alveoli- small air sacs in the lungs where gaseous exchange takes place.<br />Intercostal muscles- abdominal muscle in between the ribs which assist in the process of breathing.<br />Sternum- the chest or breastbone.<br />Glycogen- the main form of carbohydrate storage, which is converted into glucose as needed by the body to satisfy its energy needs.<br />Lactic acid- a mild poison and waste product of anaerobic respiration.<br />Heart rate- the number of times your heart beats in one minute, which is one contraction and relaxation of the heart.<br />Pulse- a recording of the rate per minute at which the heart beats.<br />Stroke volume (SV)- the volume of blood pumped out of the heart by each ventricle during one contraction.<br />Cardiac output (Q)- the amount of blood ejected from the heart in one minute.<br />Blood pressure- the force of the circulating blood on the walls of the arteries.<br />MHR- maximum heart rate (220 minus age).<br />Training zone- the range of the heart rate within which a specific training effect will take place.<br />Chapter 3: Leisure and Recreation<br />Low-impact- not strenuous with little or no pressure on the joints. <br />Private enterprise- a privately owned business not regulated in the same way as a state owned organisation. <br />Rural areas- an area outside cities and towns. <br />Urban areas- a geographical area consisting of a town or city.<br />Intrinsic reward- something that gives a person an individual or internal satisfaction derived from doing something well.<br />Extrinsic reward- something that is done for a particular reward that is visible to others.<br />Trend- the latest and most popular attraction or activity. <br />Chapter 4: Diet<br />Nutrients - the substances that make up food.<br />Obesity- this is a condition of being extremely fat or overweight, which frequently results in health problems.<br />Basal metabolic rate: the minimum rate of energy required to keep all of the life processes of the body maintained when it is at rest.<br />Calorie: a unit that measures heat or energy production in the body.<br />Chapter 5: Health, Fitness and a Healthy Active Lifestyle<br />Bronchitis- inflammation of the air passages between the nose and the lungs.<br />Prescription drugs- drugs that cannot be bought over the counter but only with a doctor’s prescription.<br />Performance-enhancing drugs- a type of unlawful drug that can help to improve sporting performance.<br />Athletes foot- a fungal infection between the toes.<br />Health - a state of complete physical, mental and social wellbeing and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity<br />Fitness: good health or good condition, especially as the result of exercise and proper nutrition.<br />Exercise: activity that requires physical or mental exertion, especially when performed to develop or maintain fitness.<br />Sedentary: sitting down or being physically inactive for long periods of time.<br />Joints: a connection point between two bones where movement occurs.<br />Quadriceps: the group of four muscles on the upper, front of the leg.<br />Patella: the kneecap.<br />Synovial: where bony surfaces are covered by cartilage, connected by ligaments with a joint cavity containing synovial fluid.<br />Articulation: a moveable joint between inflexible parts of the body.<br />Origin: the end of the muscle attached to the fixed bone.<br />Insertion: the end of the muscle attached to the bone that moves.<br />Prime mover: the muscle that initially contracts to start a movement, also known as the ‘agonist’.<br />Antagonist: the muscle that relaxes to allow movement to take place.<br />Reaction time: how quickly you are able to respond to something or some form of stimulus.<br />Movement time: how quickly a performer can carry out an actual movement.<br />Inherent: something you are born with.<br />Explosive strength- this is strength used in one short, sharp, burst or movement.<br />Static strength- this is the greatest amount of strength that can be applied to an immoveable object.<br />Speed - the ability to move all or parts of the body as quickly as possible. It is a combination of reaction time and movement time.<br />Power - combination of the maximum amount of speed with the maximum amount of strength.<br />Cardiovascular Endurance - often referred to as ‘stamina’ and is the ability of the heart and lungs to keep operating efficiently during an endurance event.<br />Flexibility - often called ‘suppleness’ and refers to the range of movement around a joint.<br />Synchronise: an adjustment that causes something to occur at the same time.<br />Ambidextrous: the ability to use both hands with equal levels of skill.<br />Agility - combination of flexibility and speed and is the ability to move quickly, changing direction and speed whenever possible.<br />Balance - the ability to maintain a given posture in static and dynamic situations and to be able to stay level and stable.<br />Co-ordination - the ability to link all the parts of movement into one effective smooth movement and is the ability to be able to control the body during physical activity.<br />Reaction time - this is the time taken for the body, or part of the body, to respond to a stimulus. This can be divided into two specific cases:<br />Simple reaction time - this is where someone must react to something as it happens. For example, a sprinter at the start of the race has to react to the sound of the gun going off in order to record their fastest time.<br />Choice reaction time - this occurs when someone is able to size up a situation and then decide when they are going to react. For example, a footballer has to decide the best time to make a tackle.<br />Timing - the ability to coincide movements in relation to external factors.<br />Knowledge of results: this is a form of terminal feedback at the end of a performance and could be as simple as winning or losing.<br />Knowledge of performance: this relates to how well the performance was carried out rather than just the end result.<br />Open skills – these occur in situations that are constantly changing, such as any invasion game activity where the environment around the performer is constantly changing and skills may have to be adapted according to the demands of the game.<br />Closed skills – these occur in situations that are constant and unchanging so they are not affected by the sporting environment, such as performing a trampoline routine.<br />Intrinsic – this is sensed or felt by the performer while they are actually performing.<br />Extrinsic – this comes from sources other than the performer themselves, such as sounds or things they can see.<br />Whole – a complete performance is carried out with all aspects of the performance covered.<br />Part – only specific aspects of the performance are practiced, such as a specific skill.<br />Fixed – a set session or aspect is concentrated upon.<br />Variable – a combination of all of the above.<br />Chapter 6: Training<br />Specificity: training that is particularly suited to a particular sport or activity.<br />Progression: where training is increased gradually as the body adjusts to the increased demands being made on it.<br />Plateauing: where progress seems to halt within a training programme and it takes some time to move on to the next level.<br />Specificity<br />Progression<br />Overload<br />Reversibility<br />Tedium (varying the way you train can reduce this!)<br />Overload: making the body work harder than normal in order to improve it.<br />FIT: frequency, intensity and time are ways to make the body work harder.<br />Reversibility: if training stops then the effects gained can be lost too.<br />Frequency: increasing the number of training sessions, increasing your training gradually.<br />Intensity: increasing the actual amount of activity you are including in one session, such as increasing weight or the number of exercises.<br />Time: known as ‘duration’ and means increasing the actual amount of time you spend taking part in the training session.<br />Reversibility: If you stop or decrease your training then all the good work you have put in will be lost at a faster rate than it was gained.<br />Lactic acid: a mild poison and waste product of anaerobic respiration.<br />Training threshold: the minimum heart rate to be achieved to ensure fitness improves.<br />Training zone: the range of the heart rate within which a specific training effect will take place.<br />Stations: particular areas where types of exercise are set up or performed.<br />Laps: the number of times each set of stations is performed.<br />Muscle tone: where tension remains in a muscle, even when it is at rest.<br /> Repetitions: the number of times you actually move the weights.<br />Sets: the number of times you carry out a particular weight activity.<br />Repetition maximum (RM): the maximum weight you are able to lift once.<br />Shuttle runs: running backwards and forwards across a set distance.<br />Aerobic exercise: exercise carried out using a supply of oxygen.<br />Continuous Training: any type of training that keeps the heart rate, and therefore the pulse rate, high over a sustained period of time e.g. running<br />Interval Training: training that has periods of work and periods of rest, with variations of the two.<br />Fartlek Training: a form of interval training that can include walking, brisk walking, jogging and fast steady running.<br />Chapter 7: School and Physical Education<br />Extra-curricular: an activity that takes place out of timetabled lessons, such as lunch times or after school.<br />Cross-curricular: linking with other subjects taught in school.<br />PESSCL: Physical Education School Sport and Club Links.<br />Specialist Sports College: a school that receives extra funding to make a specialist provision for sport.<br />School Sports Co-ordinator (SSCo): based in specialist sports colleges and working in partnership schools.<br />PESSYP: PE and Sport Strategy for Young People.<br />National Governing Body (NGB): the organisation that runs a particular sport across the country.<br />Infrastructure: the organisation necessary for the strategy to work.<br />SSP: School Sport Partnership.<br />Whole-school approach: something that is an essential part of everything a school does.<br />Economic wellbeing: having sufficient income for basic necessities.<br />Recreational: any form of play, amusement or relaxation performed as games, sports or hobbies.<br />Competitive: an activity that involves some form of contest, rivalry or game.<br />Chapter 8: Cultural and Social Factors<br />Leisure industry: an provider that provides opportunities for people in their available leisure time.<br />User groups: particular groups of people who would use leisure facilities.<br />Etiquette: the unwritten rules or conventions of any activity.<br />Peer group: people of the same age and status as you.<br />Peer group pressure: where the peer group will attempt to persuade an individual to follow their lead.<br />Ethnic: a group of people with a common national or cultural tradition.<br />Chapter 9: Opportunity for Further Involvement<br />Tactics: pre-arranged and rehearsed strategies or methods of play.<br />Technique: the manner or way in which someone carries out or performs a particular skill.<br />Vocation: a regular occupation for which you would be particularly qualified or suited.<br />Open sport: an activity that allows both amateurs and professionals to compete together.<br />Shamateur: someone who competes in an amateur sport but who receives illegal payments.<br />Accredited: a recognised standard of award leading on to a higher learning level.<br />Proficiency: being adequately or well qualified.<br />Inclusion: a policy that no one should experience barriers to learning as a result of their disability, heritage, gender, special educational need, ethnicity, social group, sexual orientation, race or culture.<br />Equity: something that is fair, just and impartial.<br />Chapter 10: International Factors<br />Test match: a match played in cricket or rugby by all-star teams from different countries.<br />Media: the various forms of mass communication, such as radio, TV and the press.<br />Propaganda: messages aimed at influencing the behaviour or opinions of large numbers of people.<br />Apartheid: a policy of separating groups, especially because of race or colour.<br />Boycott: not using or dealing with something, as a protest.<br />Seeded: the best players or teams are selected and kept apart in the earlier rounds.<br />Byes: a free passage into the next round of a knockout.<br />Chapter 11: Social Factors<br />Exemplar: a particularly good example or model of how something should be performed.<br />Media pressure: the way the media may hound or intrude upon individuals.<br />Logo: the badge or emblem that a company uses as the representation of the company names.<br />Endorse: giving approval or support to something.<br />Goodwill: a good relationship and popularity.<br />Tax relief: the payment of less tax.<br />Minority sports: lesser known sports with lower participation levels.<br />Inspirational: being able to motivate and fill someone with the urge to do something.<br />Ethnic: a group of people with a common national or cultural tradition.<br />Status: a level, rank or particular social position.<br />Risk assessment: to look at the likelihood of damage, or the possible dangers involved, in carrying out a particular action or activity.<br />Legislation: laws, rules or regulations that are legally enforced.<br />Climatic: relating to the weather or particular weather conditions.<br />Kickers: protective hockey footwear that fits on over boots.<br />