Attitude Week 2 A-Level Sports Psychology Miss Bowe
Attitude is a little thing that makes a big difference Winston Churchill
Happiness is an attitude. We either make ourselves miserable, or happy and strong. The amount of work is the same. Francesca Reigler
The only disability in life is a bad attitude. Scott Hamilton
You must start with a positive attitude or you will surely end without one. Carrie Latet
Excellence is not a skill. It is an attitude. Ralph Marston
Last Two Weeks … Introduction to attitude and its three components Explain the three personality theories Describeattitude and its three components Evaluate how attitude can help predict personality Explain prejudice and stereotyping in sport TASK – 5 minutesGo through the worksheets from starter activity
Key Terms Did you fill in your glossary? If not do we will do it at the end of the lesson Chapter 9: Page 130 in your textbook Try to use your own words or bullet points Don’t be afraid to ask questions or discuss your answers
This Week … Look at assertion and aggression AND attitude Recap attitude and its three components Define assertion and aggression Describe aggression and its three theories Discuss how aggression can be combatted
Recap Attitude Developing a positive attitude is vital for sporting success Simply having a positive attitude is good for you! e.g. a positive attitude towards a healthy lifestyle a negative attitude towards a healthy lifestyle
What is an attitude? An attitude is 'a learned emotional and behavioural response to a stimulus or situation‘ Attitudes are formed through Experiences - either pleasant or unpleasant Attitudes of the people around us.
Defining attitude Trandis (1971) ‘ideas charged with emotion (positive or negative) which automatically result an action to a particular social situation.’ Attitude Object Linked to a situation or item Focus of an individuals attitude For examplePeople, objects, events, ideas
Triadic Model of Attitude (3 parts) Cognitive component What a person thinks or believes about an attitude object e.g. I believe that jogging is good for me and helps me keep fit’ Affective component What a person feels about the attitude object, their emotions e.g. I enjoy keeping fit an healthy, it makes me feel good Behavioural component How a person acts or intends to act towards the attitude object e.g. I go jogging three times a week and encourage my friends to
Cognitive Dissonance Theory The three parts to forming an attitude
General vs Specific Attitudes General attitudes will not help us predicttrue behaviour Fishbein and Ajzen (1975) state Specific attitudes must be considered to predict behaviour If the intention is present the behaviour will follow So to predict, perform or encourage a behaviour we must; Understand its relevance of a specific behaviour Get all the info and facts, or experience it directly Discuss and deal with any negative attitudes immediately
Can we change or predict attitude? If attitudes form our beliefs and values can we predict how we will act in different situations? Changing Attitudes To get an individual to change their attitude about something, they must be persuaded. The ability to persuade someone to change their attitude is dependant on three factors: Do you know what they might be??
Changing Attitude Status of the persuaderSomeone of high status who is knowledgeable and genuine is likely to be successful Clarity of the messageA clear, concise and accurate argument should be put forward to give them all the information Ability to understand the messageThe individual being persuaded must be capable of understanding the message
Cognitive Dissonance Theory A mismatch in the triadic model will cause a imbalance or a dissonance in the mind of the person being persuadedWhy? The introduction of new information influences the cognitive (belief) or affective (emotional) component of the triangle. To reduce the imbalance we must change the behaviour Cognitive (belief or thought) Affective (feeling or emotion) Behaviour (or intention)
If the is an imbalance something must be changed … Cognitive (belief or thought) Affective (feeling or emotion) Behaviour (or intention) thought thought feeling behaviour feeling behaviour
Defining assertion Assertion is … behaviour which is not outside the rules of the game and does not have the intention of causing harm. E.g. a fair but hard challenge in a game of football
Defining aggression Aggression incorporates the desire to harm another person and is not within the laws of the game.
Three Theories of Aggression Natural instinctHumans are predisposed to aggressive behaviour as a survival tool FrustrationWhen a person is stopped from achieving they become frustrated and aggressive Social learningAggression is learnt from those around us and those in the public eye TASK (2 minutes) Can you think of an example of aggression in your sport?
Combatting aggression … Showing non-aggressive role-models Rewarding 'turning the other cheek' Punishing aggression Control of arousal levels Avoidance of situations which cause aggression Handing responsibility to an aggressive player Stopping repeatedly aggressive players from participating further
Key Terms TASK (10 minutes)Add any key terms to your glossary to help your revision Chapter 9: Page 130 - 145 in your textbook Try to use your own words or bullet points Don’t be afraid to ask questions or discuss your answers
Have a go … Question 1 What is the difference between aggression and assertion? Aggression is outside of the rules of the game and has the intent of causing harm Assertion is within the laws of the game and is free from intent to cause harm
Question 2 Name the three theories used to explain why we are aggressive Natural Instinct Frustration Social Learning
Question 3 Suggest four ways in which aggression could be controlled Showing non-aggressive role models Rewarding turning the other cheek Punishing aggression Controlling arousal levels Preventing aggressive players from participating further
Question 4 What are the three components which make up our attitude formation Cognitive – what you think/your belief Affective – what you feel/your emotions Behavioural – what you do/your intended behaviour
Question 5 On what three factors does the ability to change someone’s attitude depend? The person and their mental and emotionally state How clear the message is If they understand or can relate to the message