Nazi consolidation
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Nazi consolidation

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Revision resources from 27th March on the Nazi consolidation of power process and Gleichschaltung.

Revision resources from 27th March on the Nazi consolidation of power process and Gleichschaltung.

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Nazi consolidation Nazi consolidation Presentation Transcript

  • How did the Nazis consolidate their regime? The whole process of Gleichschaltung and the creation of the Nazi Dictatorship
  • • Role of Hitler. • Organisation of the Nazis. • Propaganda. • SA and violence (Propaganda by deed). • Support and reasons for support. • Political Intrigue. • Failures of Weimar.
  • Messianic message Powerful speaker Choice of message Recognition of importance of propaganda (incl. mass rallies) Hitler was not infallible- meeting with Hindenburg in August 1932 where he demanded to be made chancellor Not everyone impressed with Hitler’s style and rhetoric. Nazis did as well in some areas where they did not have mass rallies as where they did. Führerprinzip
  • • Party organised into Gaue (local areas). • Headed by a Gauleiter- who was appointed by Hitler and had orders, but also got some degree of independence depending on his area. • Organisations built up for young people, women, students, lawyers, factory workers. • Nazi Welfare Organisation- soup kitchens and food donations. • Centralised propaganda machine but taking into account local circumstances and building up local contacts- e.g. butcher/ teacher. Direct mailing and pamphlets and posters. • Training speakers. 6,000 through the Nazi speaker training school by 1933. • Technology- loudspeakers, slideshows, films and planes (Führer over Germany). • Message= Volksgemeinschaft It gave the Nazis a presence across the country, but explains why they were bankrupt by the Nov 1933 election.
  • • “We must struggle with ideas, but if necessary, also with fists”. • 500,000 by 1933. Brown shirts, swastikas etc. • Röhm led- eager, radical socialist Nazi, into unrest and disorder (problems later). • Young men- joined because they hated communism/ loved Hitler/ unemployed/ attracted to violence/ purpose in life/ smart uniform and accommodation/ comradeship. • Propaganda hander-outers, protector of Nazi meetings, driving Communists from the streets. • SA casualties became martyrs.
  • Nazi voters The appeal of NazismYouth Resistance of Catholicism/ Socialism ‘The politics of anxiety’ Who voted for the Nazis? Religion Geography Class Volkspartei: People’s Party?
  • Group Specific message Success Farmers Special benefits to offset collapse of agricultural prices Farmers keen. Unemployed and industrial workers Bread and worked. Some inroads made. Mittelstand Limiting control of large department stores Successful. Industrialists Playing down fear of nationalisation and state control of economy. Eventually successful- although leads to split in the party only solved with Night of the Long Knives Ability to reach specific groups...
  • • Führer cult. • Volksgemeinschaft. • German nationalism. • Scapegoats: o November Criminals o Communists (Soviet Union) o Jews • Socialist message of National Socialism?
  • Weaknesses in the Weimar constitution. Violence/ Imprisonment Use of the army/ police Propaganda Use of Nazi organisation (e.g. the Gauleiters) Support from business/ industry Support from the army Support/ ignoring from the Church Hitler’s leadership (Führerprinzip)
  • • Problems with his position: Hitler only had three Nazis in cabinet, the coalition government did not have a majority in the Reichstag and Hindenburg had proved quite whimsical when it came to appointing and dismissing his Chancellors. • HOWEVER: Hitler had proved persistent and a skilful politician and the Nazis- persistently popular. The alternative was civil war or a coup by the communists. Goering was minister of the interior in Prussia and had responsibility for the police, meaning he could persecute Nazi opponents. Goebbels could exploit state facilities (radio/ press) to create propaganda. Nazi strength Propaganda Use of the police although, it is worth noting that one reasons for Nazi success is the lack of a viable alternative
  • • The intention of the Cabinet was to eliminate the Reichstag entirely and to achieve a ‘legal’ revolution. Election called (ignoring a possible pact with the Centre Party). Hindenburg allowed Hitler use of the emergency powers act under Article 48 to forbid political meetings and opposition newspapers. Hitler appealed to the nation in terms of restoration of Germany's economy, international prestige and the restoration of "Christian morality", agricultural stability and economic recovery. Reichstag fire leads to Hindenburg signing a Nazi drafted ‘Law for the Protection of the German People and State’ Hitler also promised the army that: a) respect the army's traditions and political neutrality and b) to rearm, reintroduce conscription and conquer eastern Europe.
  • • Held in an atmosphere of fear following the Reichstag fire. Violence and terror dominated the meetings, in Prussia, Goering enrolled 50,000 into the police (most SA and SS members and 69 people died). • The Nazis had three million Reichsmarks from big business to wage their campaign. 88% turnout (suggesting influence and intimidation of the SA and corruption by officials) and the Nazis gained 288 seats. Still not the 305 majority and not the two thirds majority of the Reichstag required for a constitutional change). • However, 3/4 voters had moved to the right and did not support the Republic. Violence Big Business Weimar weakness
  • • 23rd March- the Enabling Act got passed, allowing Hitler to make laws without involving the Reichstag or the President. Hitler achieved his two thirds majority by: arresting KPD deputies and twelve of the SPD, promising the Centre Party he would protect the rights and privileges of the Catholic Church and promising the middle class political parties that the institutions they held dear (Reichstag, Reichsrat, Presidentcy and Lander would eventually get their powers back) and violence if they didn't support him (the SS surrounded the Opera House where they were meeting and the SA lined the corridors inside). The SPD were the only group to oppose and the law was passed. Nazi strength/ violence Weimar weakness
  • • 31st March: Coordination Law. The Lander (federated states independent from central government) Diets (local parliaments) were reconstituted to reflect the share of different parties in the Reichstag by it didn't mater because the Reich governors were appointed with powers to make own laws. They were usually the Nazi Gauleiters in any case. The diets were dissolved in January 1934.
  • • 1 May: Nazis created a national holiday in honour of National Labour. • 2 May: SA and SS occupied trade union offices throughout Germany, beating up leading trade union officials and putting them in concentration camps. Unions replaced by the German Labour Front (DAF) in which all workers had to enrol. • 7 May: leader of the DNVP, Ernst Oberfohren (already forced to resign by the Nazis) found dead in home. Official verdict suicide. State Party and DVP already closed down. • 10 May: assets and files of SPD were seized. Book burning ceremonies organised (by students) in university towns. 'Offensive' books (e.g. anti war, written by Jews or left wing authors) were burned in the streets. Ministry of the Interior compelled German states to introduce new syllabuses into schools and universities. All teachers' and university lecturers' associations were affiliated to the National Socialist Teachers Organisation. Violence/ national control
  • • 1 June: Special 'Adolf Hitler donation' from German industrialists to say thanks for eliminating the trade unions- in the hope that the Nazis would not ask them for more money. They were attempting to stay independent. • 21 June: SPD banned- accompanied by violence and incarceration in concentration camps. • 14 July: Concordat signed between Vatican and government guaranteeing religious freedoms for Catholics, its own administration rights and allowing Catholic schools- Article 31 of the Concordat banned youth clubs and other church social groups. The Catholic Centre Party was banned. • July: Hitler announced the end of the 'legal revolution' leading to a rift with the SA. Business- but do they love the Nazis? Capitulation of the Church
  • • Spring: Hindenburg ill- Hitler needed to make sure he succeeded Hindenburg to protect his position. He needed the support of the army. Some nationalists were already having doubts. • Early summer: Von Papen warned of a second revolution from the SA. • 21 June: Hitler told by Von Blomberg (Defence Minister) that if he failed to control the SA, Hindenburg would hand over power to the army.
  • • 29 June: Hitler summoned SA leaders for a meeting in Wiessee (Bavaria). • 30 June/1 July: Night of the Long Knives. Execution of leading SA members- including Rohm.1 August: Hindenburg died. The army did not put up any opposition to Hitler combining the offices of Chancellor and President. • 19 August: Plebiscite confirmed Hitler's combination of Chancellor and President. Army swore a personal oath of loyalty to him. Autumn: Arrest of two Protestant bishops who were opposing the coordination of the Protestant churches. Crisis- independent Confessing Church set up in October. Capitulation of the army Church shows some backbone.
  • • July: Ministry of Church Affairs set up- failed to coordinate German Protestants who remained divided into three main groups- the German Christians (under Muller, fanatical Nazi), the Confessing Church and the mainstream churches (who were trying to both cooperate and preserve independence). • 14 July: Law against the New Formation of Parties passed. All social groups supposed to be under National Socialist control. No more political parties, but was all opposition dealt with.