(20100201 ut)r-parity and-cosmological_constraints
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    (20100201 ut)r-parity and-cosmological_constraints (20100201 ut)r-parity and-cosmological_constraints Presentation Transcript

    • SUSY without R-Parity:Cosmological Constraints 岩本 祥 [Sho Iwamoto] 2010/02/01 Thesis Oral Examinations @ UT/Komabaalong my magisterial thesis “Supersymmetry without R-parity: Its Phenomenology” (R-parityの保存を課さない超対称理論の現象論的側面)
    • Outline [Review] 1. SUSY without R-Parity 2. Cosmological Constraints 3. Our Result (1. LFV) 4. Our Result (2. RpV) 5. Conclusion[Our Work] The “Our Work” is… M. Endo, K. Hamaguchi and Sho Iwamoto Cosmological Constraints on R-parity violation arXiv: 0912.0585 [hep-ph] (2009) [Thesis Oral Exam] SUSY without R-Parity / Sho Iwamoto ( 2010/02/01 ) <2>
    • 1. SUSY without R-parityWe usually impose the R-parity on the MSSM.But we have other choices than the R-parity, and it‟s also important. [Thesis Oral Exam] SUSY without R-Parity / Sho Iwamoto ( 2010/02/01 ) <3>
    • Introductive Diagram Standard Model Supersymmetry MSSM L-conservation R-parity conservation B-conservation -MSSM Also possible & important.MSSM with R-parity -MSSM Dark Matter!! MSSM without R-parity [Thesis Oral Exam] SUSY without R-Parity / Sho Iwamoto ( 2010/02/01 ) <4>
    • SUSY without R-parity Standard Model  Very successful model  One unnaturalness “Hierarchy problem”Extra dimension Others… Various Extensions… Supersymmetry MSSM (Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model) [Thesis Oral Exam] SUSY without R-Parity / Sho Iwamoto ( 2010/02/01 ) <5>
    • SUSY without R-parityStandard Model Supersymmetry MSSM  “Hierarchy problem” Solved  Proton decay problem[Thesis Oral Exam] SUSY without R-Parity / Sho Iwamoto ( 2010/02/01 ) <6>
    • Proton decay @ MSSMMSSM Superpotential:Both and → proton decay [Thesis Oral Exam] SUSY without R-Parity / Sho Iwamoto ( 2010/02/01 ) <7>
    • Proton decay @ MSSM Both and invoke decay of proton.→ 3 choices to avoid this problem!Usual choice because…. To forbid & with R-parity etc. To impose B-conservation with Baryon-parity etc. To impose L-conservation with Lepton-parity etc. with the assumption that [Thesis Oral Exam] SUSY without R-Parity / Sho Iwamoto ( 2010/02/01 ) <8>
    • Why R-parity? ( s : spin )R-parity conservation → NO B- and L-violating events (proton decay etc.) We‟ve never observed! Since the LSP cannot decay! [Lightest Supersymmetric Particle] → A candidate for the Dark Matter! <9>
    • Introductive Diagram Standard Model Supersymmetry MSSM R-parity conservationMSSM with R-parity Dark Matter!! [Thesis Oral Exam] SUSY without R-Parity / Sho Iwamoto ( 2010/02/01 ) <10>
    • Without R-parityWe have 3 choices. To forbid B- & L-violation with R-parity etc. To impose B-conservation with Baryon-parity etc. To impose L-conservation with Lepton-parity etc. (and to assume .) [Thesis Oral Exam] SUSY without R-Parity / Sho Iwamoto ( 2010/02/01 ) <11>
    • Without R-parityThat is, MSSM with R-parity → -MSSM → -MSSM → [Thesis Oral Exam] SUSY without R-Parity / Sho Iwamoto ( 2010/02/01 ) <12>
    • Without R-parityThat is, We can install MSSM with R-parity → New RpV interactions! -MSSM → (R-parity violating) -MSSM → [Thesis Oral Exam] SUSY without R-Parity / Sho Iwamoto ( 2010/02/01 ) <13>
    • Introductive Diagram Standard Model Supersymmetry MSSM L-conservation R-parity conservation B-conservation -MSSM Also possible & important.MSSM with R-parity -MSSM Dark Matter!! MSSM without R-parity [Thesis Oral Exam] SUSY without R-Parity / Sho Iwamoto ( 2010/02/01 ) <14>
    • Why Important? •What‟s the Dark Matter? ? •Is SUSY the truth? SUSY detection in LHC is important.R-parity is Conserved (missing transverse momentum) → LSP yields Large → Used as a signalThen if not? → We have to study! <15>
    • Introductive Diagram Standard Model Supersymmetry MSSM L-conservation R-parity conservation B-conservation -MSSM Also possible & important.MSSM with R-parity -MSSM Dark Matter!! MSSM without R-parity [Thesis Oral Exam] SUSY without R-Parity / Sho Iwamoto ( 2010/02/01 ) <16>
    • What I studied WhatI studied (with Hamaguchi, Endo) = A detailed analysis of cosmological constraints on these RpV couplings. much more stringent than from collider experiments. <17>
    • 2. Cosmological ConstraintsThe violation of R-parity may spoil the current Baryon Asymmetry of the Universe. [Thesis Oral Exam] SUSY without R-Parity / Sho Iwamoto ( 2010/02/01 ) <18>
    • Baryon asymmetry of the Universe Current university:There’s Baryon, and no anti-baryon. Baryon [Thesis Oral Exam] SUSY without R-Parity / Sho Iwamoto ( 2010/02/01 ) <19>
    • Wash-out with B-viol.However, if we have interaction, in the early universe.And if frequently enough, → achieve Equilibrium :→ must be small enough! [Thesis Oral Exam] SUSY without R-Parity / Sho Iwamoto ( 2010/02/01 ) <20>
    • (Bouquet and Salati, 1987) Wash-out with B-viol. That is, if LARGE , then “WASH-OUT” occurs!! [Thesis Oral Exam] SUSY without R-Parity / Sho Iwamoto ( 2010/02/01 ) <21>
    • Kuzmin, Rubakov and Shaposhnikov, 1985 Campbell, Davidson, Ellis and Olive, 1992 Wash-out with L-viol. This story does not end here. The L-violation also washes-out the Baryon asymmetry in the presence of the Sphaleron!! [Thesis Oral Exam] SUSY without R-Parity / Sho Iwamoto ( 2010/02/01 ) <22>
    • Manton, 1983; Klinkhamer and Manton, 1984; ‟t Hooft, 1976 Kuzmin, Rubakov, Shaposhnikov, 1985; Ringwald, 1988 SphaleronIn the early universe → the sphaleron process is frequent. (by thermal effects) [Thesis Oral Exam] SUSY without R-Parity / Sho Iwamoto ( 2010/02/01 ) <23>
    • Manton, 1983; Klinkhamer and Manton, 1984; ‟t Hooft, 1976 Kuzmin, Rubakov, Shaposhnikov, 1985; Ringwald, 1988 SphaleronIn the early universe → the sphaleron process is frequent. (by thermal effects) Sphaleron converts Baryon Anti-lepton [Thesis Oral Exam] SUSY without R-Parity / Sho Iwamoto ( 2010/02/01 ) <24>
    • Sphaleron’s Effect  If Baryon is short… sphaleron works right to left. sphaleron(baryon) (anti-lepton) [Thesis Oral Exam] SUSY without R-Parity / Sho Iwamoto ( 2010/02/01 ) <25>
    • Sphaleron’s Effect  If Baryon is short… sphaleron works right to left.(baryon) (anti-lepton) [Thesis Oral Exam] SUSY without R-Parity / Sho Iwamoto ( 2010/02/01 ) <26>
    • Sphaleron’s Effect  Also when (anti-)Lepton is short, sphaleron does left to right. sphaleron (anti-lepton)(baryon) [Thesis Oral Exam] SUSY without R-Parity / Sho Iwamoto ( 2010/02/01 ) <27>
    • Sphaleron’s Effect  Also when (anti-)Lepton is short, sphaleron does left to right.(baryon) (anti-lepton) [Thesis Oral Exam] SUSY without R-Parity / Sho Iwamoto ( 2010/02/01 ) <28>
    • Wash-out with B-viol.  Thus, actually the previous is(baryon) (anti-lepton) [Thesis Oral Exam] SUSY without R-Parity / Sho Iwamoto ( 2010/02/01 ) <29>
    • Wash-out with B-viol.  Thus, actually the previous sphaleron is(baryon) (anti-lepton) [Thesis Oral Exam] SUSY without R-Parity / Sho Iwamoto ( 2010/02/01 ) <30>
    • Wash-out with B-viol.  Thus, actually the previous is “WASH-OUT!!”(baryon) (anti-lepton) [Thesis Oral Exam] SUSY without R-Parity / Sho Iwamoto ( 2010/02/01 ) <31>
    • Wash-out with L-viol.  Therefore, if large before EWPT,(baryon) (anti-lepton) [Thesis Oral Exam] SUSY without R-Parity / Sho Iwamoto ( 2010/02/01 ) <32>
    • Wash-out with L-viol.  Therefore, if large before EWPT, sphaleron (anti-lepton)(baryon) [Thesis Oral Exam] SUSY without R-Parity / Sho Iwamoto ( 2010/02/01 ) <33>
    • Wash-out with L-viol.  Therefore, if large before EWPT, “WASH-OUT” occurs!!(baryon) (anti-lepton) [Thesis Oral Exam] SUSY without R-Parity / Sho Iwamoto ( 2010/02/01 ) <34>
    • Campbell, Davidson, et al., 1992; Dreiner and Ross, 1983 Wash-out with L-viol.  But NOTE ONE IMPORTANT POINT!(baryon) (anti-lepton) [Thesis Oral Exam] SUSY without R-Parity / Sho Iwamoto ( 2010/02/01 ) <35>
    • Campbell, Davidson, et al., 1992; Dreiner and Ross, 1983 Wash-out with L-viol.  But NOTE ONE IMPORTANT POINT!(baryon) (anti-lepton) [Thesis Oral Exam] SUSY without R-Parity / Sho Iwamoto ( 2010/02/01 ) <36>
    • Campbell, Davidson, et al., 1992; Dreiner and Ross, 1983 Wash-out with L-viol. If the Lepton Flavor is not violated [Thesis Oral Exam] SUSY without R-Parity / Sho Iwamoto ( 2010/02/01 ) <37>
    • Campbell, Davidson, et al., 1992; Dreiner and Ross, 1983 Wash-out with L-viol. And if at least one of is not violated, [Thesis Oral Exam] SUSY without R-Parity / Sho Iwamoto ( 2010/02/01 ) <38>
    • Campbell, Davidson, et al., 1992; Dreiner and Ross, 1983Wash-out with L-viol. [Thesis Oral Exam] SUSY without R-Parity / Sho Iwamoto ( 2010/02/01 ) <39>
    • Campbell, Davidson, et al., 1992; Dreiner and Ross, 1983Wash-out with L-viol. sphaleron [Thesis Oral Exam] SUSY without R-Parity / Sho Iwamoto ( 2010/02/01 ) <40>
    • Campbell, Davidson, et al., 1992; Dreiner and Ross, 1983Wash-out with L-viol. [Thesis Oral Exam] SUSY without R-Parity / Sho Iwamoto ( 2010/02/01 ) <41>
    • Campbell, Davidson, et al., 1992; Dreiner and Ross, 1983Wash-out with L-viol. sphaleron [Thesis Oral Exam] SUSY without R-Parity / Sho Iwamoto ( 2010/02/01 ) <42>
    • Campbell, Davidson, et al., 1992; Dreiner and Ross, 1983Wash-out with L-viol. Baryon SURVIVES!!! [Thesis Oral Exam] SUSY without R-Parity / Sho Iwamoto ( 2010/02/01 ) <43>
    • Campbell, Davidson, et al., 1992; Dreiner and Ross, 1983Wash-out with L-viol. Now B and L are balanced, and thus no more process. Baryon SURVIVES!!! sphaleron [Thesis Oral Exam] SUSY without R-Parity / Sho Iwamoto ( 2010/02/01 ) <44>
    • Endo, Hamaguchi, and IWAMOTO, 2009 Wash-out with L-viol.But remember!The Standard Model The MSSM [Thesis Oral Exam] SUSY without R-Parity / Sho Iwamoto ( 2010/02/01 ) <45>
    • Endo, Hamaguchi, and IWAMOTO, 2009 Wash-out with L-viol.But remember! ( tiny ) Lepton Flavor ViolationThe Standard Model The MSSM [Thesis Oral Exam] SUSY without R-Parity / Sho Iwamoto ( 2010/02/01 ) <46>
    • Wash-out with L-viol.  Therefore, Only One L-violation would…(baryon) (anti-lepton) [Thesis Oral Exam] SUSY without R-Parity / Sho Iwamoto ( 2010/02/01 ) <47>
    • Wash-out with L-viol.  Therefore, Only One L-violation would… sphaleron (anti-lepton)(baryon) [Thesis Oral Exam] SUSY without R-Parity / Sho Iwamoto ( 2010/02/01 ) <48>
    • Wash-out with L-viol.  Therefore, Only One L-violation would… Do “WASH-OUT” !!(baryon) (anti-lepton) [Thesis Oral Exam] SUSY without R-Parity / Sho Iwamoto ( 2010/02/01 ) <49>
    • Now We Know When → L-viol. invades Baryon Assymetry. Especially Lepton Flavor Mixing & One L-viol. → Baryon Wash-Out [Thesis Oral Exam] SUSY without R-Parity / Sho Iwamoto ( 2010/02/01 ) <50>
    • Now We KnowIf ? How Large LFV needs? all flavors are mixed→ All L-violation must ? How SMALL? be small enough. [Thesis Oral Exam] SUSY without R-Parity / Sho Iwamoto ( 2010/02/01 ) <51>
    • Now We KnowIf ? How Large LFV needs? all flavors are mixed These are our study!→ All L-violation must ? How SMALL? be small enough. [Thesis Oral Exam] SUSY without R-Parity / Sho Iwamoto ( 2010/02/01 ) <52>
    • 3. Our Result: Lepton Flavor Violation To mix the Lepton Flavors, how large mixing interaction do we need?? [Thesis Oral Exam] SUSY without R-Parity / Sho Iwamoto ( 2010/02/01 ) <53>
    • MethodsSet up: MSSM; before EWPT; Ignoring R-parity violating at first; ↑ ↑ Not diagonal Diagonalize (Flavor viol.) [Thesis Oral Exam] SUSY without R-Parity / Sho Iwamoto ( 2010/02/01 ) <54>
    • Methods We consider the time evolution ofLepton number density in i-th generation By LFV,Boltzmann Equation: Dilution, due to number density the expansion of the universe. time Hubble parameter [Thesis Oral Exam] SUSY without R-Parity / Sho Iwamoto ( 2010/02/01 ) <55>
    • Methods We consider only the decay of Higgsino and the antiparticles‟ process.Approximations: Ignoring the mass of Higgs bosons. All particles obey Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution. (instead of Bose/Fermi distrib.) Shutting Exam] SUSY without R-Parity / Sho Iwamoto ( 2010/02/01 ) [Thesis Oral off the sphaleron at T=100GeV. <56>
    • Result <57>
    • Conclusion → MIXED All Flavors are MIXED ↓ All L-viol. must be small. <58>
    • 4. Our Result: R-parity Violation Now Lepton flavors are mixed. Then how about the constraints on RpV couplings? [Thesis Oral Exam] SUSY without R-Parity / Sho Iwamoto ( 2010/02/01 ) <59>
    • MethodsSet up: MSSM; before EWPT; Lepton flavors are mixed. R-parity violated.Method: The same.→ We examined the time-evolution of (in number density). [Thesis Oral Exam] SUSY without R-Parity / Sho Iwamoto ( 2010/02/01 ) <60>
    • Result <61>
    • Result <62>
    • Conclusion From similar analysis: (For all i, j, k) <63>
    • Note We can avoid this “wash-out” with to create current B-asymm. HERE <64>
    • 5. Conclusion Now we have a good tool to study LHC phenomenology of RpV-MSSM. [Thesis Oral Exam] SUSY without R-Parity / Sho Iwamoto ( 2010/02/01 ) <65>
    • Wash-out by B-viol. → Wash-out !! [Thesis Oral Exam] SUSY without R-Parity / Sho Iwamoto ( 2010/02/01 ) <66>
    • Lepton Flavor Violation → MIXED All Flavors are MIXED ↓ All L-viol. must be small. <67>
    • Wash-out by L-viol. If all Flavors are MIXED, → Wash-out !! [Thesis Oral Exam] SUSY without R-Parity / Sho Iwamoto ( 2010/02/01 ) <68>
    • Application (LHC) Stringent RpV-constraint → LSP is a bit “long-lived.”Example: ( -LSP) → Decay Length (cf. tau-lepton: ) [Thesis Oral Exam] SUSY without R-Parity / Sho Iwamoto ( 2010/02/01 ) <69>
    • Application (LHC) Stringent RpV-constraint → LSP is a bit “long-lived.”Example: ( -LSP) To be a good signal of RpV-MSSM? → Decay Length → Future works! (of my following years.) (cf. tau-lepton: ) [Thesis Oral Exam] SUSY without R-Parity / Sho Iwamoto ( 2010/02/01 ) <70>
    • That‟s all.Thank you for listening.[Thesis Oral Exam] SUSY without R-Parity / Sho Iwamoto ( 2010/02/01 ) <71>
    • Appendices Hierarchy Problem Rate of Proton Decay Collider Constraints Sphaleron The Other Results [Thesis Oral Exam] SUSY without R-Parity / Sho Iwamoto ( 2010/02/01 ) <72>
    • A. Hierarchy Problem [Thesis Oral Exam] SUSY without R-Parity / Sho Iwamoto ( 2010/02/01 ) <73>
    • Hierarchy Problem In Standard Model with Higgs, [Thesis Oral Exam] SUSY without R-Parity / Sho Iwamoto ( 2010/02/01 ) <74>
    • Hierarchy Problem[Thesis Oral Exam] SUSY without R-Parity / Sho Iwamoto ( 2010/02/01 ) <75>
    • Hierarchy Problem In MSSM (or other SUSY models), [Thesis Oral Exam] SUSY without R-Parity / Sho Iwamoto ( 2010/02/01 ) <76>
    • Hierarchy Problem And its superpartner goes round! Cancelled![Thesis Oral Exam] SUSY without R-Parity / Sho Iwamoto ( 2010/02/01 ) <77>
    • B. Rate of Proton Decay [Thesis Oral Exam] SUSY without R-Parity / Sho Iwamoto ( 2010/02/01 ) <78>
    • Proton decay @ MSSMMSSM Superpotential contains: L violating B violatingViolation of both B and L invoke decay of proton as… [Thesis Oral Exam] SUSY without R-Parity / Sho Iwamoto ( 2010/02/01 ) <79>
    • Proton decay @ MSSM[Thesis Oral Exam] SUSY without R-Parity / Sho Iwamoto ( 2010/02/01 ) <80>
    • Rate of Proton Decay ( i, j, k for generations.) [Thesis Oral Exam] SUSY without R-Parity / Sho Iwamoto ( 2010/02/01 ) <81>
    • C. Collider ConstraintsThe RpV interactions are constrained by several experimental facts. [Thesis Oral Exam] SUSY without R-Parity / Sho Iwamoto ( 2010/02/01 ) <82>
    • Constraints The RpV parameters → experimental constraintsAnd the constraints are important to study RpV-MSSM. [Thesis Oral Exam] SUSY without R-Parity / Sho Iwamoto ( 2010/02/01 ) <83>
    • Constraints Example:Standard Model RpV-MSSM [Thesis Oral Exam] SUSY without R-Parity / Sho Iwamoto ( 2010/02/01 ) <84>
    • Constraints Example:Standard Model RpV-MSSM Additional Contribution! ( 2010/02/01 ) [Thesis Oral Exam] SUSY without R-Parity / Sho Iwamoto <85>
    • D. Sphaleron [Thesis Oral Exam] SUSY without R-Parity / Sho Iwamoto ( 2010/02/01 ) <86>
    • SphaleronSphaleron (a „wobbly‟ process) is a non-perturbative solution of the Standard Model (SM).Roughly speaking, [Thesis Oral Exam] SUSY without R-Parity / Sho Iwamoto ( 2010/02/01 ) <87>
    • SphaleronFor example:Note! Sphaleron processes: → Converts !!! [Thesis Oral Exam] SUSY without R-Parity / Sho Iwamoto ( 2010/02/01 ) <88>
    • SphaleronFor example:Note! Sphaleron processes: → Converts !!! [Thesis Oral Exam] SUSY without R-Parity / Sho Iwamoto ( 2010/02/01 ) <89>
    • Sphaleron The sphaleron process:  Generally→ EXTREMELY rare  Thermal effect → enhanced The effect is present when (Before the electroweak phase transition.) [Thesis Oral Exam] SUSY without R-Parity / Sho Iwamoto ( 2010/02/01 ) <90>
    • E. The Other Results [Thesis Oral Exam] SUSY without R-Parity / Sho Iwamoto ( 2010/02/01 ) <91>
    • Result <92>
    • Result <93>