Panitikan ng Umuunlad na Bansa: Kaligiran ng Cambodia


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Kaligiran ng bansang Cambodia.

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Panitikan ng Umuunlad na Bansa: Kaligiran ng Cambodia

  1. 1. Mischelle D. Mariano BSE IV-A
  2. 2. Heaven protects our King And gives him happiness and glory To reign over our souls and our destinies, The one being, heir of the Sovereign builders, Guiding the proud old Kingdom. Temples are asleep in the forest, Remembering the splendour of Moha Nokor. Like a rock the Khmer race is eternal. Let us trust in the fate of Kampuchea, The empire which challenges the ages. Songs rise up from the pagodas To the glory of holy buddhistic faith. Let us be faithful to our ancestors' belief. Thus heaven will lavish its bounty Towards the ancient Khmer country, the Moha Nokor. Pambansang Awit ng Cambodia
  3. 3. CAMBODIA 101  Officially known as Kingdom of Cambodia  A country in the southern portion of the Indochina peninsula in Southeast Asia  Bordered by:  Thailand – Northwest  Laos – Northeast  Vietnam – East  Gulf of Thailand - Southwest
  4. 4.  68th most populous country in the world  The minority groups include Vietnamese, Chinese, Chams and 30 other hill tribes  The capital and the largest city is Phnom Penh, the political, economic and cultural center of Cambodia  The English form "Cambodia" is derived from "Cambodge", the French transcription of "Kampuchea". CAMBODIA 101
  6. 6. ANCIENT CAMBODIA  The first humans in Cambodia were Stone Age hunters and gatherers. However farming was introduced into Cambodia about 2,300 BC. The first farmers in Cambodia used stone tools but from about 1,500 BC the Cambodians used tools and weapons made from bronze. By about 500 BC they had learned to use  The first civilisation in the area arose about 150 AD in the Mekong River delta in South Vietnam. This civilisation was known to the Chinese who called it Fu-nan. iron.
  7. 7. ANCIENT CAMBODIA  While Fu-nan was trading with the Chinese Cambodian society grew more sophisticated. Settlements grew larger. So did kingdoms. By the beginning of the 7th century AD all of Cambodia was highly civilized.  At first Cambodia was divided into rival states. However at the beginning of the 9th century a king named Jayavarman II founded the Khmer Empire in Cambodia.
  8. 8. THE KHMER EMPIRE  Like all early civilizations the Khmer Empire was an overwhelmingly agricultural society, Although there were many craftsmen the great majority of the people were farmers. Their staple diet was rice.  The Khmers were animists. They believed that spirits inhabited natural phenomena such as the earth and trees. Later Indian religions (Hinduism and Buddhism) were introduced but they co-existed with traditional beliefs.
  9. 9. THE KHMER EMPIRE  The rich and powerful built fine temples (the only stone buildings in Cambodia). They were richly decorated with fine stone carvings. The most famous temple is Angkor Wat which was built in the early 12th century.  Then about 1000 AD King Jayavarman V was killed. Civil war followed until Suryavarman I founded another dynasty. By 1011 he was in control of Cambodia. However his dynasty only lasted until 1080 when it was replaced by another.
  10. 10. THE KHMER EMPIRE  In 1177 a people called the Chams from Champa (on the coast of Vietnam) invaded Cambodia. However King Jayavarman VII managed to drive them out by 1183 and between 1203 and 1220 he was able to force the Chams to submit to him. Nevertheless by the mid-13th century the Khmer kingdom was in decline.  In 1431 the Thais captured the Cambodian capital, Angkor. Afterwards it was abandoned and new capital was founded at Phnom Penh. By the mid-16th century Angkor was overgrown by the jungle and it was accidentally rediscovered by a Cambodian king.
  11. 11. CAMBODIA 1500-1800  During the 16th century Cambodian power continued to decline. At the end of the century Cambodia fell under Thai suzerainty . In 1594 the Thais captured the capital. After that they dominated the region.  From the middle of the 17th century the power of Vietnam grew. In the early 17th century the Cambodians controlled parts of what is now South Vietnam. They held a port called Prey Nokor. (Later it was renamed Saigon). In the late 17th century Prey Nokor fell under Vietnamese rule.
  12. 12. CAMBODIA 1500-1800  During the 18th century Cambodia found itself squeezed between two powerful neighbours, Thailand and Vietnam. The Thais invaded Cambodia several times in the 18th century and in 1772 they destroyed Phnom PenH. In the last years of the 18th century the Vietnamese also invaded Cambodia. The Cambodian king was forced to look to the Thais for protection. In return Thailand took north-west Cambodia.
  13. 13. 19TH CENTURY CAMBODIA  In the early 19th century King Chan (1806-1834) turned to the Vietnamese for protection from the Thais. The Thais were annoyed by this policy and when a rebellion occurred in south Vietnam in 1833 they took advantage by invading Cambodia. However the Vietnamese king crushed the rebellion and the Thai army retreated.
  14. 14. 19TH CENTURY CAMBODIA  As a result the Vietnamese emperor strengthened his control over Cambodia. When Cambodian King Chan died in 1834 one of his daughters was installed as Queen and Vietnamese people settled in Cambodia. The Vietnamese regarded the Cambodians as 'barbarians' an tried to 'civilize' them by teaching them Vietnamese customs.  Resentment at Vietnamese influence led to a rebellion in 1840-1841. The Thais invaded again to re-assert their control of Cambodia.
  15. 15. 19TH CENTURY CAMBODIA  However in the 1850s French missionaries arrived in Cambodia. The Cambodian king turned to the French to protect him from both the Thais and the Vietnamese. So in 1863 Cambodia became a French protectorate.
  16. 16. 20TH CENTURY CAMBODIA  Under French rule some economic development took place in Cambodia. Roads and railways were built and in the 1920s a rubber industry grew up. However the Cambodians were forced to pay heavy taxes and from the 1930s Cambodian nationalism grew.
  17. 17. 20TH CENTURY CAMBODIA  Then in 1941 Cambodia was occupied by the Japanese. However at first they allowed French officials to remain in their posts but in March 1945 as the Japanese were losing the war they desperately tried to curry favour with the Cambodians. They arrested French officials and declared Cambodia independent. However when the Japanese surrendered the French took over again. They arrived in October 1945.
  18. 18. 20TH CENTURY CAMBODIA  This time the French did allow the Cambodians to have political parties and a constitution. By a treaty of 1949 Cambodia was made semi-independent. Then in 1952 King Sihanouk dismissed the government and took personal control of the country. Events then moved swiftly. On 9 November 1953 the French finally allowed Cambodia to become fully independent and in 1955 Sihanouk abdicated in favor of his father and elections were held.
  19. 19. 20TH CENTURY CAMBODIA  Sihanouk formed his own political movement. From 1955- 1970 he dominated politics in Cambodia so much so that it is sometimes called the 'Sihanouk era'. In 1960, when his father died, he named himself 'Chief of State'. Sihanouk called his movement 'Buddhist Socialism'. However it was not really socialist at all.  Sihanouk's reign began to crumble in 1968 when the communists began a civil war. In 1970 Sihanouk left the country. While he was away the National Assembly voted to remove him as chief of state. Cambodia was renamed the Khmer Republic.
  20. 20. 20TH CENTURY CAMBODIA  However the communists slowly made headway. The Americans bombed Cambodia to try and stop the communists. Nevertheless they captured Phnom Penh on 17 April 1975.
  22. 22. THE KHMER ROUGE  In 1975 a horrific and tragic era of Cambodian history began in the reign of the Khmer Rouge. They were led by Pol Pot (or Saloth Sar) also known as 'Brother Number One'. How many people were killed by Pol Pot and the Khmer Rouge is not known for certain but it was probably at least 1.5 million and it may have been as many as 3 million. Pol Pot declared that history would begin again in Cambodia. The first year of revolution was now the first year of history.
  23. 23. THE KHMER ROUGE  In 1975 Cambodia was a mainly agricultural country. Pol Pot decided it should be completely agricultural. This meant all the people from the towns and cities were forced to move to the countryside. Pol Pot also decided that agricultural output should double in 4 years. Private property was banned and collective farms were formed. They were supposed to grow 3 tons of rice per hectare. People were made to work very long hours to try and grow the extra rice. They were given insufficient food and many fell ill and died from a combination of exhaustion and malnutrition.
  24. 24. THE KHMER ROUGE  That was not all. Religion was banned in Cambodia (people caught practicing Buddhism were executed). Family relationships were banned (on the grounds that parents exploited their children). Furthermore the smallest infringement of the rules resulted in execution. Although they were half starved, people caught foraging for food were executed. People were also executed for being lazy. Needless to say anyone who complained was executed.
  25. 25. THE KHMER ROUGE  Furthermore the Khmer Rouge murdered intellectuals. Soon people who could speak a foreign language or who wore glasses were executed. This nightmarish situation was only ended by a war with Vietnam. The Vietnamese invaded Cambodia in December 1978 and quickly prevailed. Unfortunately Pol Pot escaped and he did not die until 1998.
  26. 26. THE KHMER ROUGE  Pol Pot's soldiers fled to Thailand and they were welcomed by the Thai's who feared a Vietnamese invasion. The Khmer Rouge continued a guerrilla war against the Vietnamese. However the Vietnamese forces withdrew from Cambodia in 1989.  Afterwards negotiations began among several different parties. The result was the Paris Peace Accords of 1991. Communism was abandoned in Cambodia and a provisional government ruled until 1993 when elections were held and a constitution was framed. Sihanouk was made a constitutional monarch.
  27. 27. THE KHMER ROUGE  However the Khmer Rouge refused to take part in the elections and they continued their guerrilla war. Fortunately in 1996 Pol Pot's second in command Leng Sary defected in 1996. Many Khmer Rouge troops followed him. Pol Pot himself died in 1998 and peace returned to Cambodia.  In 1999 Cambodia joined ASEAN.
  28. 28. 21ST CENTURY CAMBODIA  In 2004 King Norodom Sihanouk abdicated. His son became King Norodom Sihamoni in his place.  Today Cambodia is still a poor country but there is every reason to be optimistic about its future. In the early years of the 21st Century the Cambodian economy grew rapidly.
  29. 29. 21ST CENTURY CAMBODIA  Cambodia suffered badly during the recession of 2009 but it soon recovered and today it is growing strongly. Today the textiles industry in Cambodia is booming. Tourism is also an important industry in in Cambodia. However many people in Cambodia still live by farming.  In 2005 oil was discovered in the sea off Cambodia and it holds great promise for the future. Today the population of Cambodia is 14.9 million.
  31. 31. Birth and Death Rituals  The birth of a child is a happy event for the family. According to traditional beliefs, however, confinement and childbirth expose the family, and especially the mother and the child to harm from the spirit world. A woman who dies in childbirth—crosses the river (chhlong tonle) in Khmer is believed to become an evil spirit. In traditional Khmer society, a pregnant woman respects a number of food taboos and avoids certain situations. These traditions remain in practice in rural Cambodia, but they have become weakened in urban areas.
  32. 32. Birth and Death Rituals  Death is not viewed with the great outpouring of grief common to Western society; it is viewed as the end of one life and as the beginning of another life that one hopes will be better. Buddhist Khmer usually are cremated, and their ashes are deposited in a stupa in the temple compound. A corpse is washed, dressed, and placed in a coffin, which may be decorated with flowers and with a photograph of the deceased.
  33. 33. Birth and Death Rituals  White pennant-shaped flags, called "white crocodile flags," outside a house indicate that someone in that household has died. A funeral procession consisting of an achar, Buddhist monks, members of the family, and other mourners accompanies the coffin to the crematorium. The spouse and the children show mourning by shaving their heads and by wearing white clothing. Relics such as teeth or pieces of bone are prized by the survivors, and they are often worn on gold chains as amulets. If the child is always ill, his or her parents can go and change the name of child
  34. 34. Courtship, Marriage, Divorce  Courtship patterns differ between rural and urban Khmer; romantic love is a notion that exists to a much greater extent in larger cities. A man usually marries between the ages of nineteen and twenty-five, a girl between the ages of sixteen and twenty-two. After a spouse has been selected, each family investigates the other to make sure its child is marrying into a good family. In rural areas, there is a form of bride-service; that is, the young man may take a vow to serve his prospective father-in-law for a period of time.
  35. 35. Courtship, Marriage, Divorce  The traditional wedding is a long and colorful affair. Formerly it lasted three days, but in the 1980s it more commonly lasted a day and a half. Buddhist priests offer a short sermon and recite prayers of blessing. Parts of the ceremony involve ritual hair cutting, tying cotton threads soaked in holy water around the bride's and groom's wrists, and passing a candle around a circle of happily married and respected couples to bless the union. After the wedding, a banquet is held. Newlyweds traditionally move in with the wife's parents and may live with them up to a year, until they can build a new house nearby.
  36. 36. Courtship, Marriage, Divorce  Divorce is legal and relatively easy to obtain, but not common. Divorced persons are viewed with some disapproval. Each spouse retains whatever property he or she brought into the marriage, and jointly-acquired property is divided equally. Divorced persons may remarry, but the woman must wait ten months. Custody of minor children is usually given to the mother, and both parents continue to have an obligation to contribute financially toward the rearing and education of the child. The divorced male doesn't have a waiting period before he can re-marry.
  37. 37. Customs  In Khmer culture a person's head is believed to contain the person's soul--therefore making it taboo to touch or point one's feet at it. It is also considered to be extremely disrespectful to use the feet to point out a person, or to sit or sleep with the soles of the feet pointing at a person, as the feet are the lowest part of the body and are considered to be impure.  When greeting people or to show respect in Cambodia people do the "sampeah" gesture, identical to the Indian namaste and Thai wai.
  38. 38. Customs  Customary Cambodian teachings are laid out in verse form in long works from the 14th to 18th centuries collectively called Chhbap ("rules" or "codes").These were traditionally learned by rote. Works such as the Chhbap Pros ("Boy's Code"), Chhbap Srey ("Girl's Code") and Chhbap Peak Chas ("Code of Ancient Words") gave such advice as: a person that does not wake up before sunrise is lazy; a child must tell parents or elders where they go and what time they will return home; always close doors gently, otherwise a bad temper will be assumed; sit in a chair with the legs straight down and not crossed (crossing the legs is a mark of an impolite person); and always let the other person do more talking.  In Cambodia it is not polite to make eye contact with someone who is older or someone who is considered a superior.
  39. 39. Clothing  Clothing in Cambodia is one of the most important aspects of the culture. Cambodian fashion differs according to ethnic group and social class. Khmer people traditionally wear a checkered scarf called a Krama. The "krama" is what distinctly separates the Khmer (Cambodians) from their neighbors the Thai, the Vietnamese, and the Laotians. The scarf is used for many purposes including for style, protection from the sun, an aid (for the feet) when climbing trees, a hammock for infants, a towel, or as a "sarong". A "krama" can also be easily shaped into a small child's doll for play. Under the Khmer Rouge, krama of various patterns were part of standard clothing.
  40. 40. Cambodian KRAMA
  41. 41. Clothing  The long-popular traditional garment known as the Sampot, is an Indian-influenced costume which Cambodians have worn since the Funan era. Historically, Khmer clothing has changed depending on the time period and religion. From the Funan era to the Angkor Era, there was a strong Hindu influence in Cambodian fashion which favored wearing Sampots over the lower body and oftentimes nothing from the waist up except jewelry including bracelets and collars such as the Sarong Kor, a symbol of Hinduism.
  42. 42. Cambodian Sampot
  43. 43. Clothing  As Buddhism began to replace Hinduism, Khmer people started wearing the blouse, shirt and trousers of Khmer style. Khmer people, both common and royal, stopped wearing the Hindu-style collars and began to adopt beautiful decorated shawls such as Sbai instead. This new clothing style was popular in the Udong period.
  44. 44. Cuisine  Khmer cuisine or more generally, Cambodian cuisine is one of the worlds oldest living cuisines, and is regarded by manyas one of the healthiest and most balanced cuisines on the planet.  The staple food for Cambodians is rice, and today rice is consumed by most Cambodians daily and with all meals, utilizing a great number of cooking styles and techniques. In fact, Cambodians eat more rice than any other people in the world
  45. 45. Cuisine  In addition, rice is eaten all day long in the form of street- side snacks, such as deep-fried rice cakes with chives and spinach, for breakfast, as in Cambodia's famous rice noodle soup kuyteav or rice porridge, and in many desserts. Plain white rice is served with nearly every family meal, typically served with grilled freshwater fish, a samlor or soup, and an assortment of seasonal herbs, salad leaves and vegetables.
  46. 46. KUYTEAV
  47. 47. Cuisine  A common ingredient, almost a national institution, is a pungent type of fermented fish paste used in many dishes, a distinctive flavoring known as prahok. It's an acquired taste for most Westerners, but is an integral part of Khmer cuisine and is included in many dishes or used as a dipping sauce. The liberal use of prahok, which adds a salty tang to many dishes, is a characteristic which distinguishes Khmer cuisine from that of its neighbours.
  48. 48. PRAHOK
  49. 49. Amok (Cambodian Curry)
  50. 50. Religion  Buddhism has been the dominant religion in Cambodia, in one form or another, since the reign of Jayavarman VII (c. 1181-1200). Before its adoption as the state religion however, Hinduism flourished for over a thousand years. Roman Catholicism was introduced by French missionaries beginning in the eighteenth century. Sunni Islam is practiced among the Chams, while among the Sino-Khmer population Mahayana Buddhism, Confucianism and Chinese folk religions remain popular.
  51. 51. Religion  Buddhism has existed in Cambodia since at least the 5th century AD, with some sources placing its origin as early as the 3rd century BC. Theravada Buddhism has been the Cambodian state religion since the 13th century AD (excepting the Khmer Rouge period), and is currently estimated to be the faith of 95% of the population.
  52. 52. Religion  Cambodia was first influenced by Hinduism during the beginning of the Kingdom of Funan kingdom. Hinduism was one of the Khmer Empire's official religions. Cambodia is the home to one of the only two temples dedicated to Brahma in the world. Angkor Wat of Cambodia is the largest Hindu temple of the world.
  53. 53. Religion  Islam is the religion of a majority of the Cham (also called Khmer Islam) and Malay minorities in Cambodia. According to Po Dharma, there were 150,000 to 200,000 Muslims in Cambodia as late as 1975. Persecution under the Khmer Rouge eroded their numbers, however, and by the late 1980s they probably had not regained their former strength. All of the Cham Muslims are Sunnis of the Shafi'i school. Po Dharma divides the Muslim Cham in Cambodia into a traditionalist branch and an orthodox branch.
  54. 54. Religion  There are around 20,000 Catholics in Cambodia which represents 0.15% of the total population. There are no dioceses, but there are three territorial jurisdictions - one Apostolic Vicariate and two Apostolic Prefectures. The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (also known as the Mormons) has a growing population in Cambodia. The church's late prophet, President Gordon B. Hinckley, officially introduced missionary work to Cambodia on May 29, 1996. The church now has 15 congregations (12 Khmer language and 3 Vietnamese language).
  55. 55. TRIBAL Religions  Highland tribal groups, most with their own local religious systems, probably number fewer than 100,000 persons. The Khmer Loeu have been loosely described as animists, but most tribal groups have their own pantheon of local spirits. In general they see their world filled with various invisible spirits (often called yang), some benevolent, others malevolent. They associate spirits with rice, soil, water, fire, stones, paths, and so forth.  Some tribes have special medicine men or shamans who treat the sick. In addition to belief in spirits, villagers believe in taboos on many objects or practices. Among the Khmer Loeu, the Rhade and Jarai groups have a well-developed hierarchy of spirits with a supreme ruler at its head.
  56. 56. Pagodas in Cambodia The 100- Column Pagoda in Kratie, Cambodia.
  57. 57. The Angkor Wat
  58. 58. The Angkor Wat  The largest Hindu temple complex in the world. The temple was built by King Suryavarman II in the early 12th century in as his state temple and eventual mausoleum. Breaking from the Shaivism tradition of previous kings, Angkor Wat was instead dedicated to Vishnu. As the best- preserved temple at the site, it is the only one to have remained a significant religious centre since its foundation – first Hindu, dedicated to the god Vishnu, then Buddhist. The temple is at the top of the high classical style of Khmer architecture. It has become a symbol of Cambodia, appearing on its national flag, and it is the country's prime attraction for visitors.
  59. 59. Education in Cambodia  Traditional education in Cambodia was handled by the local wat, and the Bhikkhu were the teachers. The students were almost entirely young boys, and the education was limited to memorizing Buddhist chants in Pali.  During the period of the French protectorate, an educational system based on the French model was inaugurated alongside the traditional system. Initially, the French neglected education in Cambodia. Only seven high school students graduated in 1931, and only 50,000 to 60,000 children were enrolled in primary school in 1936.
  60. 60. Education in Cambodia  In the year immediately following independence, the number of students rapidly increased. Vickery suggests that education of any kind was considered an "absolute good" by all Cambodians and that this attitude eventually created a large group of unemployed or underemployed graduates by the late 1960s.
  61. 61. Education in Cambodia  From the early twentieth century until 1975, the system of mass education operated on the French model. The educational system was divided into primary, secondary, higher, and specialized levels. Public education was under the jurisdiction of the Ministry of Education, which exercised full control over the entire system; it established syllabi, hired and paid teachers, provided supplies, and inspected schools. An inspector of primary education, who had considerable authority, was assigned to each province. Cultural committees under the Ministry of Education were responsible for "enriching the Cambodian language."
  62. 62. Cambodian Literature  Cambodian or Khmer literature has a very ancient origin. Like most Southeast Asian national literatures its traditional corpus has two distinct aspects or levels:  The written literature, mostly restricted to the royal courts or the Buddhist monasteries.  The oral literature, which is based on local folklore. It is heavily influenced by Buddhism, the predominant religion, as well as by the Hindu epics Ramayana and Mahabharata.
  63. 63. Cambodian Literature Ancient Stone Inscriptions  A testimony of the antiquity of the Khmer language are the multitude of epigraphic inscriptions on stone. The first written proof that has allowed the history of the Khmer empire to be reconstructed are those inscriptions.  These writings on columns, stelae and walls throw light on the royal lineages, religious edicts, territorial conquests and internal organization of the kingdom.
  64. 64. Cambodian Literature Buddhist Texts  Following the stone inscriptions, some of the oldest Khmer documents are translations and commentaries of the Pali Buddhist texts of the Tripitaka written in the Khmer script.  These texts were written with stencils by the monks on palmyra palm leaves. They were kept in various monasteries throughout the country and many did not escape the destruction of the Khmer Rouge.
  65. 65. Cambodian Literature REAMKER  The Reamker or Ram Ker (Rama's fame) is the Cambodian version of the Ramayana, the famous Indian epic. The Reamker comes in rhymed verses and is staged in sections that are adapted to Cambodian dance movements interpreted by local artists.  The Reamker is the oldest form of Cambodian theatre. The Robam Sovann Maccha - a certain dance from the Reamker about Hanuman and Suvannamaccha, the golden mermaid, is one of the most renowned pieces of classical dance in Cambodia.
  66. 66. Cambodian Literature Court Literature  King Thommaracha II (1629–1634) wrote a poem directed to the Khmer young generation which is still a well loved traditional piece of poetry.  King Ang Duong (1841–1860) is known in Khmer literature for being not only a king but a famous classical writer in prose. His novel Kakey or Ka key (from the Sanskrit word for a "female crow"), is inspired in a Jataka tale and has elements of regional folktales.  Another work by Ang Duong, also probably inspired in an ancient legend, is Puthisen Neang Kong Rey, a novel about a faithful wife ready to sacrifice her life for her husband. Khmer poets and songwriters have used the words "Kakey" for a woman who is unfaithful to her man and "Neang Kong Rey" for a very faithful woman.
  67. 67. Cambodian Literature Popular Legends  One of the most representative of these tales was the story of Vorvong and Sorvong, a long story of the Khmer oral tradition about two Khmer princes that fell into disgrace, but after a series of ordeals regained their status. Vorvong and Sorvong was first put into writing by Auguste Pavie as "Vorvong and Saurivong"; this French civil servant claimed that he had obtained the folk legend version he wrote down from a certain "Old Uncle Nip" in Somrontong District. This story was put into writing in Battambang.
  68. 68. Cambodian Literature Popular Legends  Tum Teav is a classic tragic love story set in Kampong Cham that has been told throughout the country since at least mid 19th century. It is based on 17th or 18th century poem of uncertain origin, probably having originated in a more ancient Cambodian folk legend. Nowadays Tum Teav has oral, literary, theatre, and film versions in Khmer.
  69. 69. Cambodian Literature Modern Literature  The era of French domination brought about a requestioning of the role of the literature in Cambodia. The first book in the Khmer script in a modern printing press was printed in Phnom Penh in 1908. It was a classical text on wisdom, "The Recommendations of Old Mas", published under the auspices of Adhémard Leclère.
  70. 70. Cambodian Literature Modern Literature  Some of the first modern Cambodian literary works keep the influences of the versified traditional literature, like the 1911 novel Dik ram phka ram (The Dancing Water and the Dancing Flower), Tum Teav (1915) by the venerable Som, the 1900 work Bimba bilap (Bimba's Lamentation) by female novelist Sou Seth, or even Dav Ek by Nou Kan, which appeared in 1942.