WHAT ARE MODAL VERBS? They are: • Ought to • Can They are used to express • Could opinions of the speaker: • May obligation, permission, • Might possibility, probability, • Must necessity, ability and desire • Shall Modal verbs are sometimes • Should referred to as • Will Modal Auxiliary verbs because they help other verbs • Would
HOW DO WE USE MODALS? S M V Subject Verb Example: We must wear the seatbelt There is NO –(E)S in the 3rd person singular in present: She musts study. There is no DO in questions and negatives: You don’t should tell him but You shouldn’t tell him Do you can swim? but Can you swim?
FORM Da ponovimo: There is no “s” in singular There is no “do / does” in the question There is no “don’t / doesn’t” in the negative He can ski and not He cans ski or He can skis Would you like to come with me? Do you would like to come with me?
FORM Modal verbs do not have infinitives or –ing forms to can / caning to must /musting Modal verbs are followed by an infinitive without to She must study He could play football in his youth (general ability)
FORM Modal verbs do not have all the tenses Modal verbs use other verbs to complete the tenses e.g. Must is completed with have to You must come early You had to come early yesterday
HAVE TO Have to is not an actual modal verb, but it is used like a modal. I have to work tomorrow. She has to work tomorrow. It is used in all tenses. I had to work last night. "Have to" is less formal than Must and is common in conversation.
FORMMODAL POSITIVE QUESTIONMUST Strong/formal obligation *Motorcyclists must wear Must we wear helmets? helmets *All employees must Do we have to wear wear proper safety helmets? equipmentHAVE TO Rules/necessary Do we have to have a things/ not as strong passport? as must Children have to go to school
MUST VS MUSTN’T Be careful about the difference between mustnt and dont have to! Mustnt means its not allowed, or its a bad idea: You mustnt eat so much chocolate, youll be fat Dont have to means you dont need to do something, but its fine if you want to do it: I dont have to get up early at the weekend MUST – MORATI HAVE TO - MORATI MUSN’T – NE SMETI DON’T HAVE TO – NE MORATI