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Delay Tolerant Disaster Communication with the One Laptop Per Child XO

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Presentation of Daniel Patrick Iland, Don Voita and Elizabeth Belding on the topic "Delay Tolerant Disaster Communication with the One Laptop Per Child XO" at ISCRAM2013

Presentation of Daniel Patrick Iland, Don Voita and Elizabeth Belding on the topic "Delay Tolerant Disaster Communication with the One Laptop Per Child XO" at ISCRAM2013

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  • 1. Delay Tolerant Disaster Communication with the One Laptop Per Child XO Daniel Iland, Don Voita, and Elizabeth Belding University of California, Santa Barbara Department of Computer Science {iland, don, ebelding}@cs.ucsb.edu
  • 2. What happens to network connectivity during a crisis?
  • 3. http://latimesblogs.latimes.com/world_now/2012/03/strong-earthquake-hits-mexico.html
  • 4. What happened to network connectivity during Sandy? Hurricane Sandy's Landfall
  • 5. Loss of Power == Loss of Connectivity
  • 6. Source: USA Today
  • 7. Cellular and Wi-Fi networks typically provide blanket Internet connectivity o (almost) always on Internet o available (almost) everywhere In a disaster, users can only take advantage of connectivity islands o A functional Wi-Fi or cellular base station o Preparedness: Locations with backup power and networking options  Satellite, packet radio, white space connections, etc. How is Internet connectivity different in a crisis?
  • 8. UCSB's blanket connectivity: 10+ cellular towers, 360+ Wi-Fi APs
  • 9. UCSB's connectivity islands (without power or fiber)
  • 10. The Problem How can we enable communication in a disaster area when network infrastructure is limited, unreliable or unavailable?
  • 11. How can a few locations with Internet access impact a large area?
  • 12. Our Solution Delay-Tolerant, peer-to-peer applications spread information using Wi-Fi
  • 13. Goals for Connectivity in a Crisis •Maximize information spread through the networks of mobile devices in a disaster area •Take advantage of infrastructure oBut do not rely on it •Be available before, during, and after a crisis o'Viral installation' from user to user •Minimal configuration and interaction required
  • 14. What did we build? •An Activity for One Laptop Per Child laptops oUsers can share messages without infrastructure oEach device uploads messages automatically if Internet access is available •An Ushahidi Plugin oDrop-in plugin that extends Ushahidi API to handle submissions from OLPCs and generate cures
  • 15. The One Laptop Per Child Project •2.5 million OLPC XOs in the field worldwide •Open source platform with existing mesh and ad-hoc network capabilities •Solar and manual charging available
  • 16. One Laptop Per Child XO Laptops communicate without infrastructure
  • 17. Our example use case: Ushahidi
  • 18. Ushahidi reports from Haiti
  • 19. Disaster victims may have difficulty using Ushahidi after a disaster • Submitting to Ushahidi requires Internet or cellular connectivity • An Ushahidi instance may not exist before the crisis • Users will not have the URL, the SMS number, etc. • Configuration information is required • Texting +44 762 480 2524 is non-obvious • 'Shortcode' may not yet be available • User interaction is required • Each message must be submitted individually
  • 20. Morrow, Nathan, et al. "Independent evaluation of the Ushahidi Haiti project."Development Information Systems International 8 (2011).
  • 21. Goals for this work •Enable users of One Laptop Per Child laptops to easily share messages with each other •Enable OLPCs to automatically upload messages to Ushahidi •Use cures generated by the Ushahidi server to maximize network efficiency and provide delivery confirmation. 1. Vahdat, A., & Becker, D. (2000). Epidemic routing for partially connected ad hoc networks (p. 18)
  • 22. Simple Delay-Tolerant Routing •Epidemic Routing1 oTransmit to any device that comes into range o"Store and Forward" approach oProvides maximum delivery probability •Epidemic Routing with cure generated on delivery. oMarks message as received (with time of receipt) oCures cascade through the network opportunistically  Just like messages oPrevent unnecessary duplication and retransmission 1. Vahdat, A., & Becker, D. (2000). Epidemic routing for partially connected ad hoc networks (p. 18)
  • 23. What happens when an Internet connection is found? 1. Upload all uncured messages to Ushahidi 2. Download and stores new cures 3. Download and store new messages 4. Redistribute new messages and cures throughout the area, using Wi-Fi Satellite Internet ConnectionWi-Fi Wi-Fi Physical Movement
  • 24. How do OLPCs exchange information?
  • 25. Evaluation and Future Work • Analysis of OLPC ad-hoc networking • Future focus on Android devices and wireless routers • Other Delay-Tolerant applications o Twitter o Facebook o Google Person Finder o etc.
  • 26. XMPP/Clique overhead that maintains connections between OLPCs dominates the network! OLPC ad-hoc networking: high overhead 500 Messages PercentageofPacketsorBytes
  • 27. Target Platform: Android Devices • 750 million+ Android devices in use worldwide o 250 million activated from September 2012-March 2013 • 4+ projects that enable ad-hoc or mesh o Serval o Commotion o SPAN o Android IBSS
  • 28. Two Internet connections support 40,000+ message authors
  • 29. Two Internet connections support 40,000+ message recipients
  • 30. Questions? Daniel Iland University of California, Santa Barbara iland@cs.ucsb.edu
  • 31. What causes a battery to drain quickly? Carroll, Aaron, and Gernot Heiser. "An analysis of power consumption in a smartphone." Proceedings of the 2010 USENIX conference on USENIX annual technical conference. 2010.
  • 32. One Laptop Per Child XO Laptop Power Consumption An OLPC distributing messages An OLPC receiving and forwarding messages

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