Persuasive writing powerpoint

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  • This is an excerpt from a 7 th grade persuasive paper from the 2006 anchor set, scoring 4 on Content, Organization, and Style (COS). Discuss why this piece of writing is persuasive. The writer takes a clear position: late work can no longer be allowed. The writer uses evidence to elaborate and support his/her position. Use of statistics: 50% Use of specific details: late work earns a passing grade, some kids are happy not to get an E , this twists the grading system, and this can no longer be allowed.
  • Discuss the various reasons why persuasive writing is important in everyday life. Use the document titled Persuasion is Powerful.doc to have students fill in the seven purposes for persuasion and then create a persuasive statement based on the pictures on each of the following slides. A sample key is available in the document folder. It is titled Powerful answer Key.doc . Support a cause Urge people to action Make a change Prove something wrong Stir up sympathy Create interest Get people to agree with you
  • Here are the same purposes paired with more persuasive statements.
  • Here are the same purposes paired with more persuasive statements.
  • This slide is meant to set the stage for the next activity, where students access their prior knowledge and ability to persuade. This is a class discussion or think /pair/ share activity. Slides 37-39 provide a group activity; you will need to decide how to form groups ahead of time.
  • Note: these four essentials are interrelated.
  • It is important to note that while each component is defined separately, they cannot be separated. The diagram is an out-of-shape circle to represent the recursive nature of persuasive writing. Often we think of assessment coming at the end and being done primarily by the teacher. In this instance, we are thinking of assessment as the ongoing process by the writer that leads to revision during the writing process.
  • Definition
  • Point out to students that sometimes you are writing for a general audience (could be read by anyone). This means the writer needs to consider a wide range of readers. Discuss the implications for knowing your audience.
  • Audience awareness is frequently the reason for choice of language. Take some time to define and give examples of formal and informal language. Discuss when each would be the appropriate choice. Examples: Formal really marvelous or good Informal (slang or jargon) sweet Formal Mr. Smith, How are you today? Informal (slang or jargon) Hey Dude, ‘wasup?
  • Discuss with your students how this demonstrates audience awareness. (Directly addresses the audience, imagines what it is like to be the teacher, sees the need to relate to another viewpoint, etc.)
  • If there is something that is really hot with your students, substitute it for “newest video game.” Make cards for as many groups as you need. Allow students to draw a card to find out their audience. Audiences may include: Bill Gates foundation (as a donation) Parents or guardians (as a gift) Grandparents (as a gift) A friend (as a loan) Local business Make sure you have a variety of audience types.
  • As each group reads their letters, the listening groups fill in the form citing audience and evidence. After listening to all the letters, the group will reveal the actual audience. Groups need to discuss why the audience was easy to identify or not and record their ideas on the worksheet.
  • Occasionally, in more sophisticated writing, the position of the writer is not revealed until later in the writing. When done well, this can be very effective.
  • Read the student sample above. The position statement is— I am writing this letter to persuade you into making a rule against turning in late homework assignments . Discuss the position the student has stated and whether or not that statement is clear to the reader. Note where that statement appears in the paragraph. Relate to students that the position statement can be found anywhere in the piece. It might be fun for students to rewrite this paragraph attempting to place the position statement in a different place. Then discuss which position is the most effective and why.
  • Read the student sample above. Ask students to locate the sentence that states the writer ’s position concerning late homework. Discuss the position the student has stated and whether or not that statement is clear to the reader. Note where that statement appears in the paragraph. The position statement is -- Late homework should be accepted, and I will tell you why -- found at the end of the paragraph.
  • Discuss this example with students. This is a clear position statement presented in a more subtle and sophisticated manner. In this example the position statement is in the middle of the paragraph (I know that the rule has its pros and cons, but I really do think that the cons heavily outweigh the pros… ) and the writer uses the position as a transition into the body of the writing. If your students need additional practice there is find the position statement.doc in the document folder with three additional samples. Students may highlight or underline the position statements and compare their answers with others.
  • Discuss with students. (The “precise words” are from the example that follows. Tell students to look for these words in the example.) Generate lists of precise words to persuade with language. Start with an ordinary word such as run or old and list precise synonyms. Discuss the difference between the connotations of the words listed. Examples: old or antique or vintage or senior cabin or vacation home or shack or hut cheap or inexpensive rerun or encore presentation See if students can generate more examples.
  • Discuss words that could be more precise. Take suggestions from students about ways to make this piece more effective. Write on chart paper. There is also a worksheet in the document folder ( Adding precise words.doc) . The worksheet is the same as the slide and may be used with students in partners or individually instead of the slide. On the following slide there is an example of how one seventh grader wrote this paragraph.
  • This is from the 2006 WASL.
  • Chart several possible position statements. Have the the class brainstorm the perspectives, needs and points-of view of the audience. Chart their ideas. Also chart persuasive language that might support the position of wanting the trip. After the class has created three charts, pair students. Have each partner group write an actual letter to the Disney Corporation, choosing information and ideas from the charts.
  • Some students have been used to writing a five-paragraph essay. This organizational structure is not an effective structure for persuasive writing. The following slides will present a variety of effective structures for use in persuasion.
  • This is a preliminary exercise to get students to see more that one point of view and construct counter arguments (rebuttal). Students will not necessarily concede a position as they argue back and forth, but it will prepare them for the next step in concession/rebuttal. Duplicate and distribute My Turn form.doc in Document Folder . (There is also a My Turn dialogue.doc in the Document Folder that can be read aloud as an example.) On the form, have students write down the rule they want to be revised, added, or eliminated and why. Go to the next slide.
  • Help students follow the directions on the slides. Emphasize that each partner must become very familiar with the other person's rule because they will take an opposing viewpoint. Have students then engage in an argument in writing. They are to argue the issue back and forth in a paper exchange, each challenging the other's point of view.
  • You have a My Turn questions.doc paper in the document folder. One person should scribe for the group of three. At least one group should share with the entire group. Did anyone concede that the other side had a good point? If not, would that have made the argument stronger. In the next slides, we will explore the concept of concession/rebuttal further.
  • Discuss this sample (from the 2006 WASL) with your students. The concession/rebuttal is in blue.
  • Shared writing Take ideas from the class and chart times that this has happened to students in your class. As you make your list, discuss the effectiveness of the rebuttals. Example Concession: I know you don ’t want me to go to Jerome’s house since last time we started messing around and Jerome broke his arm, BUT Rebuttal: this time we will be really careful. His arm is out of the cast, and the doctor says it ’s stronger than before. We also won’t get on the trampoline this time.
  • There are certain transitions that signal concession and rebuttal or counter argument. However, they should not become formulaic by being prescribed. You may need to discuss these transitions and give examples of how they might be used. Elicit additional ideas from students. (Some suggestions are below.) Post these transitions so that students can select from them for their writing. Additional examples: One might argue . . . For the most part . . . . Under these conditions . . . Perhaps, possibly, it is possible It must be granted No doubt If it were so In some cases It seems, it may be, in effect
  • In the document folder is 7th concession-rebuttal samples.doc . This has two samples of 7th graders baseline papers and the concession/rebuttal they added after the lesson. You notice that the paper has not been rewritten. The student has indicated where the revision should go. This is exactly as it was seen on the student paper. Students should save this paper with revisions in their portfolios.
  • Adapted from the 2006 WASL This is an example of how a causal chain is developed within a paper. The causal chain is elaborated and embedded in the text and is highlighted in blue.
  • Shared writing These are the first few lines of the picture book, If You Give a Mouse a Cookie by Laura Numeroff. In the book, the sequences eventually end with he ’ll probably want a cookie . If students can’t continue, you may want to get the book from the library and see what the next event is. Stop after these five actions and challenge the group to continue the sequence and finish the book with as many items as it may take to get to “he’ll probably want a cookie. Chart their version. You may want to set a limit on the length.
  • Here is an actual newspaper letter to the editor. Have students find the House that Jack Built strategy in this letter. (You may do this together or have students do this individually. “Vote Yes-yes.doc” is available in the document folder. )
  • The strategies listed in this slide are those that will be addressed in the following lessons. However, there are many more possibilities that might be acceptable. (See the Introductions and Conclusions module on the OSPI website.)
  • Discuss this introduction and which of the criteria it meets. In the following slides you will find examples of the strategies listed above. Note that these strategies are not the only possibilities. (It implies the organizational structure of the paper and states a clear position.)
  • The next 3 slides will provide sample introductions. Read the samples out loud and identify with the class the characteristics of each and why they are effective for persuasive writing.
  • Discuss with the class why this is an effective introduction ( grabs the reader ’s attention, contains a scenario, implies a clear position).
  • Notice that this introduction includes a short scenario ( visit your grandpa in the hospital) a s well as several questions. Again, discuss the effective characteristics of the introduction ( grabs the reader ’s attention, takes a clear position, keeps the reader thinking by asking questions).
  • This writer grabs our attention with an interesting statistics in the first sentence. It is followed by a clear position on late homework.
  • Students should be with a partner. Pass out the 10 minute break.doc (found in the document folder). This document has no introduction but has a place for students to write their own. It also has no conclusion and students will use it again in the conclusions lessons. Partners discuss possibilities for introductions for this paper. Remind them to refer to the Effective Introduction s sheet as they did previously.
  • The strategies listed in this slide are those that will be addressed in the following lesson. However, there are many more possibilities that might be acceptable. (See the Introductions and Conclusions module on the OSPI website.)
  • Discuss this conclusion and which of the criteria it meets. (It is difficult to assess how well the conclusion connects with the body of the piece if you don ’t have the body. In this instance we have given that information in parentheses.) The positive strategy in the conclusion is that there is a call to action. In the following slides you will find examples of the strategies for conclusions. Note that these strategies are not the only possibilities.
  • The next 3 slides will provide sample conclusions. Read the samples out loud and identify with the class the characteristics of each and why they are effective for persuasive writing.
  • The call to action is at the end ( Say no to no late work). In addition, this conclusion includes audience awareness - directly addressing Mr. Perez, and also a rhetorical question (But isn ’t that how we get wiser?). Discuss with your students.
  • This conclusion proposes a compromise solution to deal with students who don ’t turn work in on time. Discuss with your students.
  • The prediction is in the center of the conclusion (If a rule as such is adopted, no one will take part in extra activities offered to them, the AP programs will be lacking, students will be falling asleep in class, and grades will begin dropping.) The position is clear and the author ends with a not so rhetorical question. Discuss with your students.
  • Students should be with a partner Students should get out their copies of 10 minute break. Partners discuss possibilities for conclusions for this paper. Remind them to refer to the sheet Effective Conclusions as they did previously. This is a WASL paper from 2003.
  • You will not want to do all of these at one time, but teach one or two as a lesson. The directions tell the student to use their “homework” paper for practice, but you may change the slide or directions to refer to any piece of writing that would be appropriate. Emphasize with students that these strategies are used to develop their writing and to support the author ’s position.
  • Example
  • Feel free to change from the homework paper to another topic or paper.
  • The writer portrays himself/herself as an expert ( Even an A student like myself) and also offers a solution to the problem.
  • Feel free to change from the homework paper to another topic or paper.
  • This is an example that illustrates problem solving. Read the slide and have students discuss. Determine the effectiveness. You may want to return to this slide later and discuss how the writer has used transitions ( But in the second sentence and An alternative solution in the last sentence.)
  • Shared writing A gallery walk is simply a walking tour around the room to see what everyone has produced. It ’s frequently done in silence. After the gallery walk, note which solutions have several stickies and read them aloud.
  • Example
  • Feel free to change from the homework paper to another topic or paper.
  • A rhetorical question is a particular kind of question which, although it seems to be entirely innocent because it assumes its own answer, is a very persuasive rhetorical device. Here is an example: “How would you like to be in his position?” Obviously the answer is implied in the question and need not be given, yet the effect is to engage the reader's attention persuasively.
  • Example
  • Feel free to change from the homework paper to another topic or paper. At the end of the series of lessons, you can have students sort through the revisions they have added to their baseline paper. They should select those that work most effectively and write a final draft. You may also want to assign a different persuasive prompt. Students apply what they have learned.
  • This Persuasive scoring guide.doc is also found in the document folder and can be copied and distributed to each student so that it is readable. Discuss this guide with your students and pull one or two anchor papers from the WASL (on the OSPI website) and compare them to the Persuasive Scoring Guide.
  • Whole class In the document folder you will find the following papers: Assessment sample 1.doc Assessment sample 2.doc Assessment sample 3.doc Assessment sample 4.doc Discuss papers with the students and compare them to the Scoring Guide. Decide on the elements the papers contain and designate a score. You will notice that samples 2-4 have a first draft and a revised draft so that students can see improvement with the addition of persuasive strategies. For teacher use there is an annotations of assessment.doc in the document folder which may help during the discussions. If you would like further examples of persuasive writing on the same prompt, there are three exemplary papers (from the middle school WASL) in the document folder. Exemplary texts are particularly useful as models for what students can aim for in terms of quality. There are two versions. The first ( nolatehomeworknot annotated.doc) has only the papers. The second version ( nolatehomeworkannotated.doc) has explanations of the strategies the writers have used.

Transcript

  • 1. Persuasive Text- Reading and Writing
  • 2. Persuasive Example
    • Persuasive text is convincing.
      • Some late work counts as 50% credit, bumping kids to a D, which is passing. Some kids are happy because they are glad not to get an E. But, how can we allow students to turn in all of their work late but still have a passing grade? The kids that have D’ s don’t care about their work because even if they turn it in late, they can still get a passing grade. These kids have sort of twisted the grading system to benefit themselves. This can no longer be allowed.
  • 3. Purposes of Persuasive Text
  • 4. Persuasive Text
    • In persuasive text, a writer takes a position FOR or AGAINST an issue and writes to convince the reader to believe or do something.
    • Discussion:
    • Where do we see persuasive writing?
  • 5. Persuasion is Powerful Use it to:
    • Stir
    • Up
    • Sympathy
  • 6. Persuasion is Powerful Use it to:
    • Support
    • a
    • Cause
  • 7. Persuasion is Powerful Use it to:
    • Urge
    • People
    • To
    • Action
  • 8. Persuasion is Powerful Use it to:
    • Make
    • A
    • Change
  • 9. Persuasion is Powerful Use it to:
    • Prove
    • Something
    • Wrong
  • 10. Persuasion is Powerful Use it to:
    • Create
    • Interest
  • 11. Persuasion is Powerful Use it to:
    • Get
    • People
    • To
    • Agree
    • With
    • You
  • 12. Persuasion is Powerful! Use it to…
      • Purpose
      • Support a cause
      • Urge people to action
      • Make a change
      • Prove something wrong
    • Persuasive Statement
    • Please support my soccer team by buying discount coupons.
    • Vote for Pedro.
    • The principal should let us wear hats.
    • Cars do not cause global warming.
  • 13. Persuasion is Powerful! Use it to…
      • Purpose
      • Stir up sympathy
      • Create interest
      • Get people to agree with you
    • Persuasive Statement
    • If you don ’t adopt this dog, it could be put to death.
    • Better grades get you a better job and more money.
    • I am sure you ’ll agree Snickers are the best candy bars.
  • 14. What Persuades You?
    • Why do you decide to agree with someone ’s idea?
    • How do you convince others to agree with you?
    • How persuasive are you?
  • 15. Effective Persuasion Essentials Audience Awareness Clear Position Persuasive Language Organizational Structure
  • 16. Persuasive Text Position Persuasive Language Assessment Audience Awareness Organizational Structures Persuasive text is recursive in nature. These essential elements are constantly working together to make the best case for the writer ’s position.
  • 17. Audience Awareness Providing information an audience may need and/or anticipating an audience ’s point of view
  • 18. Audience Awareness
    • Know your audience before you start writing.
      • The audience is who will read your writing.
      • The audience may be your teacher, your parents, your friends, or the President of the United States.
  • 19. Audience Awareness
    • Knowing who your audience is helps you to decide:
      • How to connect with the ideas, knowledge, or beliefs of the person or group.
      • What information to include.
      • What arguments will persuade him/her.
      • How informal or formal the language should be.
  • 20. Audience Awareness – example
    • Dear Ms. Marek,
    • Imagine you were a student, sitting in RELA when your teacher says , “Okay, get out your reading log.” You rustle around in your backpack for a while until you realize -- oh no! You left your homework at home, perfectly done.
  • 21. Audience Awareness – your turn
    • Working with your group, write a short letter asking for an iPad 2.
    • Teacher holds the cards with different audiences. Students choose cards.
    • Once your audience has been identified, think about the best information and arguments that you can make.
    • Consider persuasive language that will connect with your audience.
  • 22. Possible Audiences – Persuasive Letters
  • 23. Audience Awareness – follow up
    • Each group will read its letter without naming the audience.
    • As you listen, complete the Audience Awareness letter form.
      • Write down who you think the audience might be and why.
      • Cite direct evidence from the text.
    • Discuss why it was difficult or easy to figure out the audience.
  • 24. Clear Position A position or argument; the audience knows exactly what the writer wants
  • 25. Clear Position
    • The writer must clearly state or imply his/her position and stay with that position.
    • Generally, the position is stated in the opening paragraph or introduction.
  • 26. Clear Position – example
    • I am writing this letter to persuade you to make a rule against turning in late homework assignments. At first that sounds unbearable for us kids, but when you really look at it you see it does more good than bad. Just simply turning in our homework on time prepares us for the hurdles life throws at us. Have you ever thought to look at it from the teacher’ s point of view? They shouldn’t have to grade a late assignment from last quarter. Having no late homework will also be very pleasing to those of us who get our work done on time. It means kids who don’t turn in their work on time don’t get to work the system, which isn’t fair.
  • 27. Find the Position Statement
    • Imagine you were a student sitting in your math class when your teacher says, “Okay, get out your homework!” You rustle around in your backpack for a while until you realize – oh no! You left our homework at home perfectly done. The teacher comes by your desk and you say, “I am sorry. I left my homework at home. My mom just had a baby, so I was taking care of her, and I just ran out the door without it.” Your teacher smiles at you. “It’s okay. I understand. Just bring it in tomorrow.” Isn’t that a better situation than “Oh too bad! You don’t get any credit for it.”? Late homework should be accepted, and I will tell you why.
  • 28. Find the Position Statement
    • My feeling about the rule that teachers do not accept late homework is definitely a mixed one. I know that the rule has its pros and cons, but I really do think that the cons heavily outweigh the pros. I would like to show you, the principal, my position on this rule in a little bit more depth.
  • 29. Drop and Write
    • Take out your Drop and Write
    • Re-read your letter.
    • Underline, highlight, or circle your position!
    • Is your position clear? Is your position strong?
    • Share and discuss with the person sitting next to you.
    • Re-write (improve) your position!
  • 30. Persuasive Language Words and phrases that urge or compel the reader to support the position of the author
  • 31. Persuasive Language
    • Persuasive language is choosing just the right words or phrases to use at just the right time with just the right audience.
      • Precise words trigger strong feelings.
        • Seizes
        • Snarls
        • Dumbstruck
      • Repeated words or phrases for emphasis
        • I have a dream…(Martin Luther King, Jr.)
      • Different connotations
        • Mean or strict
        • Died or passed away
        • Used or pre-owned
  • 32. Find Words that Could Be More Persuasive
    • You are a young middle school student. Essay in one hand, you go to class. “I’m done!” You are glad .
    • The teacher takes the essay out of your hands and throws it away . She says , “It’s a day late!”
    • You look at your hard work. The teacher didn ’t look at it! The No Late Homework Rule is bad .
  • 33. Persuasive Language
    • Imagine yourself as a young middle school student. Five page essay in one hand, you rush into the classroom. “I’m done! I’m done!” You pant, beaming proudly .
    • The teacher seizes the essay out of your grasp and tears it to pieces before your eyes. She snarls , “It’s a day late!” On your knees, you stare dumbstruck at your hard work, ripped to shreds. The teacher didn’t even glance at it! The No Late Homework Rule is a cruel, horrible rule .
  • 34. Putting it together – Audience Awareness, Clear Position, Precise Language
    • The Disney Corporation is giving away an all-expense paid trip for one class to go to Disneyland.
    • Write several position statements that state what you want.
    • Chart ideas and beliefs that might connect with the Corporation and persuade them to give your class the trip.
    • Also chart precise language that would be appropriate for the audience as well as persuasive.
  • 35. Persuasion – follow up
      • As a class:
      • Each pair reads its letter.
      • Discuss decisions that each pair made (audience awareness, position statement, precise language).
      • Discuss the effectiveness of each pair ’s arguments.
  • 36. Organizational Structures
        • Concession/Rebuttal
        • Causal Chain
        • Order of Importance
        • Introductions/Conclusions
  • 37. Organizational Structures
    • Persuasive organization frequently looks very different from expository organization.
    • As we look at different structures, we will see what that means regarding the organization of the paper.
  • 38. Organizational Structure – Concession/Rebuttal Acknowledging or recognizing the opposing viewpoint, conceding something that has some merit, and then refuting it with another argument
  • 39. My Turn! Your Turn! (Preparing for Concession/Rebuttal)
    • Get with a partner.
    • Choose one rule in your school that needs to be revised, added, or eliminated, and think about why. Each partner may choose a different rule.
    • Each of you takes the role of a student. Write the rule, what needs to be changed, and why.
  • 40. My Turn! Your Turn!
    • Trade your paper with your partner.
    • Acting as principal, respond to your partner ’s paper and write back with the principal’s arguments.
    • When you get your own paper back, respond again, this time as a student.
    • Repeat.
    • Repeat once more.
    • Your paper, when complete, will show two points of view (an argument and counter argument).
  • 41. Group Discussion
    • Say goodbye to your partner and find two other people for a discussion.
    • Each student reads his/her own paper aloud.
    • Select one paper from your group. Discuss and write the answers to the following questions based on that paper:
      • Which arguments were effective?
      • What made them effective?
      • Were you persuaded? Why or why not?
  • 42. Concession/Rebuttal
    • Concession and rebuttal (or counter argument). In a concession, you acknowledge that certain opposing arguments have some truth. The rebuttal explains how this does not weaken your argument. This makes you sound open–minded. This sounds like. . .
    I know what other kids would say… I have a possible solution to this problem. I realize most teachers don ’t want cell phones in class because they cause problems, but…
  • 43. Develop your Point with Concession/Rebuttal
    • Concession/rebuttal from the “late homework” prompt –
    • … I’ d want all the annoying procrastinators to get no credit, because they didn’t turn the work in on time and I did! I’m one for fairness, and a fair school is a great school! Sure it sounds mean, but some people need to take up the reins and learn some responsibility.
  • 44. Concession/Rebuttal
    • How many of you have been in a discussion with someone and you remember saying, “Yeah, that’s true, but…” This is concession/rebuttal.
    • Let s list several examples where this applies.
  • 45. Transitional Phrases – Concession/Rebuttal
    • It is true that…however…therefore…
    • Certainly…but…in short…
    • Admittedly…on the other hand…so…
    • Of course…nevertheless…as a result…
    • Obviously…on the contrary…finally…
    • Sure…however…in addition…
  • 46. Concession/Rebuttal – your turn
    • Look your Drop and Write Draft
    • Find a possible place to add a concession and rebuttal.
    • Write a concession and rebuttal that will strengthen your argument.
    • Share what you have written with someone else, discuss its effectiveness, and revise if needed.
  • 47. Organizational Structure – Causal Chain A connected series of cause/effect events
  • 48. Causal Chain – examples
    • Causal chain is a chain of cause/effect events (e.g., “a” causes “b” causes “c,” etc.) This organizational strategy can be used for an entire essay or for a portion of an essay.
    If you give us more time for a break, we will get more homework done, so our grades will be better, and our parents will be proud. If your mom forgets to buy gas, then you will run out of gas on the way to school, and then you will be late and get detention.
  • 49. Develop your Point with the Causal Chain
    • Ms. Marek, I do not wan t you to put into effect t he rule of no late homework . One reason is the grades. You see, it is scientifically proven that teenagers between the ages of eleven to sixteen need at least nine hours of sleep every night for their brain to function well. If every teen in this middle school had to stay up later to complete their homework in order for it not to be late, their grades would plummet accordingly. Soon, grades would degenerate and dwindle to the average of a C or lower in most middle and high schools. All of this just because of the ‘no late work’ policy.
  • 50. If you give a mouse a cookie, He ’s going to ask for a glass of milk. When you give him the milk, He ’ll probably ask you for a straw. When he ’s finished, he’ll ask for a napkin. ? Try it Together
  • 51. Vote Yes-Yes on Feb. 14 Do you value quality education? Do you believe that the children in our community are our future? If you have answered “yes” to these questions, here’s another one that perhaps you should stop and think about before you answer. Do you plan to support the growth in the Clear Creek Amana School District by voting Yes-Yes to the upcoming school bond issues on Feb.14? If not, you may need to re-evaluate your previous answers above. Clear Creek Amana schools are extremely overcrowded and in desperate need of additional buildings. The upcoming bond issue will not close any of the existing sites; rather, some of the bond will actually be used to upgrade the Amana and Oxford locations. Please do your own research, listen to the facts, and vote responsibly. Do not believe the rumors and other false information floating around. Schools bring residents; residents bring money to the community. Schools bring businesses; businesses bring new jobs, services and income into the community. We all have a chance on Tuesday, Feb. 14, to be active and responsible community members. Will you do your part? We urge all of you to vote Yes-Yes to each of the ballot questions for the upcoming school bond issue. Our future, our children and our community are depending on you.
  • 52. Persuasive Introductions
  • 53. Persuasive Introductions
    • What makes an effective introduction?
    • It grabs the reader ’s attention.
    • It clearly implies an organizational structure of the paper.
    • It effectively includes one or more of the following strategies:
      • anecdote or scenario
      • interesting fact or statistic
      • question
    • Its choice of support is specific and relevant, and provides a clear, connected lead-in to the paper ’s main idea or thesis.
    • Position is clearly stated or implied.
  • 54. Ineffective Persuasive Introduction
    • Dear Ms. Marek,
    • I ’m going to tell you three reasons why it is
    • not good to turn in late homework.
    • Does this introduction do the following?
      • Grab the reader ’s attention
      • Imply an organizational structure of the paper
      • Include one or more of the following strategies:
        • anecdote or scenario
        • question
        • interesting fact or statistic
      • Give support that is specific and relevant, and provide a clear, connected lead-in to paper ’s main idea
      • State or imply a clear position
  • 55. Persuasive Introductions
    • Some persuasive strategies used in introductions
    • Anecdote/ Scenario
      • The writer provides a personal experience or made-up situation to introduce the position.
    • Questioning
      • The writer asks thought-provoking questions to capture the reader ’s interest.
    • Interesting fact or statistic
      • The writer gives an interesting piece of information to grab the reader ’s attention.
  • 56. Anecdote/Scenario
    • “ Extra! Extra! Read all about it! New rule has kids scared.” Those are the headlines from The Suitland Times . The new rule is an epidemic, spreading around the country and making children cry. “No late work has a devastating effect and needs to be stopped now before it reaches other countries,” says Ms. Marek, a noted authority.
  • 57. Questioning
    • Dear Principal,
    • “ Three strikes and you’re out!” Yes, that is baseball, but really everybody deserves a second chance at things, right? In baseball you get three chances at batting, why can’t you get just two at school? I mean think of it this way. What if you just had to go visit your grandpa in the hospital because you just found out he has cancer? Shouldn’t you get a second chance if you didn’t get to your homework because it was too late by the time you got home? I think that teachers should accept late work because at least you tried and turned it in.
  • 58. Interesting Fact or Statistic
    • Dear Ms. Marek,
    • Did you know that a recent district survey showed that four out of five school kids do not have passing grades because they do not turn their work in on time? This could be changed by no longer allowing late work. Late work should no longer be accepted at Drew Freeman Middle School.
  • 59. Introduction – practice
    • Get with a partner.
    • Swap drop and writes and read each other’s letters
    • With your partner, discuss possible ideas for what you might put in the introduction. Refer to your class notes!
  • 60. Persuasive Conclusions
  • 61. Persuasive Conclusions
    • What makes an effective conclusion?
    • Clearly connects introduction and body of the paper with insightful comments/analysis.
    • Ends using one or more of the following strategies effectively:
          • Call to action
          • Anecdote or scenario
          • Prediction
    • Wraps up the writing and gives the reader something to think about.
  • 62. Ineffective Persuasive Conclusion
    • All in all I think we should not have this rule because there is not enough time for me to finish my homework, something could happen to my homework, and I have better things to do than homework. Don ’t make this a rule in our school!
    • (This is a restatement of the introduction as well as a restatement of the body of the piece.)
  • 63. Strategies for Conclusions
    • Call to Action
      • Ask the reader to do something or to make something happen
    • Provide a solution
      • Provide an answer to the problem
    • Make a Prediction
      • Explain what might be the consequences of action or inaction
  • 64. Call to Action – student sample
    • Now do you see why it’s not right to say that teachers should not accept late work? Not everyone is perfect and and sometimes we students might make mistakes. But isn’t that how we get wiser? Only you, Dr. Dean, have the power to choose between becoming a dictator or the leader of a proud school. Say no to no late work!
  • 65. Solution – student sample
    • So accepting late work would be a good idea. If you are concerned about students that repeatedly don’ t turn work in on time, take some points off for late work or put a limit on how late work can be turned in. Accept late work for good reasons. Don’t punish the innocent.
  • 66. Prediction – student sample
    • “ No late work” policies should be against the law. They make students stressed out, depressed, angry, and tired. If a rule as such is adopted, no one will take part in extra activities offered to them, the Honors Programs will be lacking, students will be falling asleep in class, and grades will begin dropping. Is it really worth it?
  • 67. Conclusion – practice
    • Get with a partner.
    • Swap drop and writes and read each other’s letters
    • With your partner, discuss possible ideas for what you might put in the conclusion. Refer to your class notes!
  • 68. Persuasive Strategies
    • Expert Testimony
    • Anecdote (Self as Expert)
    • Problem Solving
    • Statistics
    • Rhetorical Questions
  • 69. Expert Testimony
    • Expert testimony - evidence in support of a fact or statement given by a person thought to have special skill or knowledge.
    According to a noted authority… Jeremy Lin says…
  • 70. Expert Testimony – example
    • “ The effort put in reflects the outcome,” says Professor Plum from the University of Maryland. I must say that I have to agree with this powerful message.
  • 71. Expert Testimony – your turn
    • Look at your letter.
    • Consider how an expert could support your position.
    • Who would that expert be and what might he/she say?
    • Decide where to add that expert testimony and do so.
    • Share this with your partner.
  • 72. Anecdote – self as expert
    • Anecdote is a personal experience inserted into your writing in which the audience sees your own expertise or knowledge, and as a result will support your position.
    I remember the time when I had to carry my… As a seventh grader myself, I happen to know exactly why…
  • 73. Anecdote – example
    • Even an A student like me can forget an assignment once in a while! I think every student should be entitled to the right of having at least one “late pass” per quarter.
  • 74. Anecdotes – your turn
    • Look at your letter.
    • Identify some stories you could use to develop your position. Make yourself the expert in the story.
    • Write a short anecdote that might work.
    • Share this with your partner.
  • 75. Compromise or Problem Solving – examples
    • Compromise or problem solving is when you create a solution that is in between the two points of view.
    I have the solution to this problem, too. I think we can both agree that this is a pretty good deal.
  • 76. Compromise or Problem Solving – example
    • Even if you don’ t choose my position on this argument, at least consider this: Make late work be at the teacher’s discretion. Let the teachers decide a fair punishment or penalty, or if late work will be accepted after all. Thank you for taking my ideas into consideration.
  • 77. Compromise or Problem Solving – example I also understand that some students would choose not to do their homework and do it later. But I have solutions to this problem, too. A student could have to bring in a note signed by a parent or guardian that says why a student brought his or her work in late. An alternative solution is that homework can only be accepted a select number of days after it was due.
  • 78. Compromise or Problem Solving
    • You didn’ t get grades as high as expected. You are now grounded until the next report cards come out (8 weeks from now).
    • You feel this may be excessive punishment.
    • In small groups, brainstorm possible compromises or solutions. Put them on a chart. Post your chart on the wall and do a gallery walk to see what everyone has written. Put a sticky note by any solutions you really like.
  • 79. Compromise or Problem Solving – your turn
    • Look your letter.
    • Identify a compromise or solution you could use in your paper.
    • On your own paper, write what might work.
    • Share this with your partner.
  • 80. Statistics
    • Inclusion of statistics – using facts and statistics to support your position.
    Sixty-five percent of this year ’s 7 th grade students met the standard on the writing WASL. Four out of five doctors recommend…
  • 81. Statistics – example
    • Sixty-three percent of teachers surveyed on late homework say they would truthfully rather give kids zeros than go through the hassle of grading late homework. Teachers don ’t want to waste their time with procrastinators. The No Late Homework Rule will further support this belief.
  • 82. Statistics – your turn
    • Look at the baseline paper you wrote on homework.
    • Identify some statistics you could use to support your position or argument.
    • Insert one or more statistics that would strengthen your argument.
    • Share this with your partner.
  • 83. Rhetorical Questions
    • Rhetorical questions are questions that have obvious answers. They are often used to involve the audience, create interest, and to introduce your position or argument.
    Have you ever felt the glare of a teacher ’s eyes crisping the back of your neck? Hey, I did my homework on time. They didn ’t, and they still get credit for it?
  • 84. Rhetorical Questions – example
    • “ I’m sorry. I left my work at home. My mom just had a baby, so I was taking care of her, and I just ran out the door without it.”
    • Your teacher smiles at you. “It’s okay. I understand. Just bring it in tomorrow.” Isn’t that a better situation than “Oh, too bad! You don’t get any credit for it”?
  • 85. Rhetorical Questions – your turn
    • Look at the baseline paper you wrote on late homework.
    • Write a rhetorical question that might work to strengthen your argument or position.
    • Share this with your partner.
  • 86. Assessment Evaluating the quality of persuasion
  • 87. Persuasion Scoring Guide Score of 4 Score of 3 Score of 2 Score of 1  Has a clear position and stays focused on that position.  Shows a keen awareness of the audience.  Selects persuasive words, phrases, and strategies that urge or compel the reader to support a position.  Organizes writing to make the best case to support position.  Uses convincing elaboration: arguments, well-chosen, specific, and relevant details, examples, anecdotes, facts, and/or statistics as evidence for support.  Begins with a compelling opening, and ends with an effective persuasive conclusion, such as a call for action.  Addresses the opposing argument(s) consistently and, if important, refutes.  Uses purposeful transitions consistently to connect position, arguments, and evidence.  Has an identifiable position and stays adequately focused on that position.  Shows an adequate awareness of the audience.  Adequately uses persuasive words, phrases, and strategies to support a position.  Organizes in a manner to persuade the reader.  Adequately uses elaboration which may include arguments, specific, and relevant details, examples, anecdotes, facts, and/or statistics as evidence for support.  Begins with an adequate opening, and ends with an adequate persuasive conclusion.  Adequately addresses the opposing argument(s) and, if important, refutes.  Adequately uses transitions to connect position, arguments, and evidence.  Has an unclear or inconsistent position or may lose focus on that position.  Shows a limited awareness of the audience.  Has limited use of persuasive words, phrases, and strategies to support a position.  Uses a basic organizational pattern to persuade the reader.  Uses limited elaboration to support arguments.  Uses undeveloped or ineffective openings and conclusions, which are often list-like.  Has some consideration of the opposing argument(s).  Uses basic transitions to connect position, arguments, or evidence.  Has vague or no position, or lacks focus.  Shows little or no awareness of the audience.  Has few or no persuasive words, phrases, or strategies to support a position.  Lacks any organizational pattern to persuade the reader.  Has little or no elaboration, often only a list of arguments.  Has no recognizable opening or conclusion.  Has no consideration of opposing arguments.  Uses few or no transitions to connect position, arguments, or evidence.
  • 88. Assessment – your turn
    • Score the paper for effective persuasion using the Persuasion Scoring Guide.
    • Analyze what organizational structures and persuasive strategies have been used.
    • Analyze the introduction and conclusion strategies that have been used.