A STUDY ON THE EFFECTIVENESS OF TECHNOLOGY AND MULTIMEDIA
USAGE IN ART TEACHING FOR EARLY CHILDHOOD
By:
Amira binti Ahmad ...
2
CONTENTS
INTRODUCTION .....................................................................................................
3
3.2 Population and Sample ............................................................................................. ...
4
CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION
1.0 Introduction
Technology and multimedia is a term that has been spoken by public since early o...
5
The children with the early stage of age experience life more holistically, then any other
age group. Social, emotional,...
6
1.1 Background of the Study
Education in early childhood is the education focuses on children’s learning trough play,
ba...
7
According to the previous research, the introduction of multimedia and technology has
been made for its potential to fac...
8
1.2 Problem Statement
The education system nowadays encounters the rapid changes. Teaching and learning
with the usage o...
9
1.3 Research Objectives
The research objectives for this study are:
i. To analyse the level of capability of the early c...
10
1.5 Research Hypothesis
The hypothesis for this research is:
Ha: If the early childhood students reach the level of cap...
11
1.6.3 Definition of Early Childhood
Early childhood: According to (ScienceNetLinks), early childhood is one of the stag...
12
1.8 Significant of the Study
Based on the previous research, the early childhood who studies about art education
has en...
13
CHAPTER 2
LITERATURE REVIEW
2.0 Introduction
This study will explore the effectiveness of technology and multimedia usa...
14
2.1 ASSURE Model
Teachers nowadays have exciting opportunities to use innovative technology and media
to prepare the 21...
15
2.1.2 S – State Standards and Objectives
The second step in ASSURE model is to state the standard and learning objectiv...
16
2.1.5 R – Require Learner Participation
The fifth step in ASSURE model is to require learner participation. The learner...
17
2.2 Technology and Multimedia in Classrooms
The teacher nowadays have been challenged to find ways to help students and...
18
By the multimedia and technology usage that practiced in art teaching and learning for
early childhood students, they c...
19
2.3 Technology and Multimedia in Early Childhood
The age nowadays is the digital age. All people in all age range, such...
20
2.4 Learning with Visuals
The education system that using multimedia and technology are intends to use on-
screen learn...
21
2.4.2 Drawings
The drawing employs the graphic arrangement of line. The drawing can be used in all
phase of instruction...
22
2.4.3 Charts
The abstract relationship such as chronologies, quantities, and hierarchies are visual
representation that...
23
2.4.4 Graphs
The visual of numerical data are represents with graph. They illustrate the
relationships among units of d...
24
2.4.5 Posters
Images, lines, colours, and words are visual combinations that incorporate in posters.
They are intended ...
25
2.4.6 Cartoons
Cartoons are the rough caricatures of line drawings. Children from all ages can easily
and quickly read ...
26
2.5 ICT as a Tool for Learning
New knowledge, skills, and attitudes must be developed by learning as an individual
inte...
27
2.6 Conceptual Framework
The conceptual framework for this study is shown in the figure below and it illustrate how
the...
28
In this study, the effectiveness of using technology and multimedia in art teaching for
early childhood will be investi...
29
CHAPTER 3
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.0 Introduction
This chapter will discuss the research design, the population as well a...
30
The art teachers from the schools and art centers in Selangor have been chosen as the
samples for this study. A set of ...
31
3.2 Population and Sample
The major population of this study will be the art teachers from schools and art centers
in S...
32
3.3 Instrumentation
The instrument used for data collection in this research study is questionnaire.
According to (Merr...
33
3.4 Data Collection
The respondents of this questionnaire are the art teachers from schools and art centers
in Selangor...
34
QUESTIONNAIRE DISTRIBUTION
The questionnaire is distributed on weekdays during office hours, class sessions, or
lunch b...
35
3.5 Data Analysis
All the data obtained from the questionnaire were collected and analyzed to provide
answers to the re...
36
BIBLIOGRAPHY
Felicity McArdle, B. P. (2002). Early Childhood Art Education: A Palimpsest.
Institute for Work and Health...
37
sampling
Sharon E. Smaldino, D. L. (2012). Instructional Technology and Media for Learning. Boston:
Pearson Education I...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Research proposal assg 2nd

127

Published on

Published in: Education, Technology
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
127
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
3
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
3
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Research proposal assg 2nd

  1. 1. A STUDY ON THE EFFECTIVENESS OF TECHNOLOGY AND MULTIMEDIA USAGE IN ART TEACHING FOR EARLY CHILDHOOD By: Amira binti Ahmad Mahmud 2013146821 Master of Education (Visual Art Education) Universiti Teknologi MARA
  2. 2. 2 CONTENTS INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................4 1.0 Introduction .................................................................................................................4 1.1 Background of the Study .............................................................................................6 1.2 Problem Statement......................................................................................................8 1.3 Research Objectives ...................................................................................................9 1.4 Research Questions....................................................................................................9 1.5 Research Hypothesis ................................................................................................ 10 1.6 Operational Definitions.............................................................................................. 10 1.6.1 Definition of Technology and Multimedia............................................................. 10 1.6.2 Definition of Art Teaching.................................................................................... 10 1.6.3 Definition of Early Childhood .............................................................................. 11 1.7 Limitation of the Study............................................................................................... 11 1.8 Significant of the Study.............................................................................................. 12 LITERATURE REVIEW....................................................................................................... 13 2.0 Introduction ............................................................................................................... 13 2.1 ASSURE Model......................................................................................................... 14 2.1.1 A – Analyse Learners.......................................................................................... 14 2.1.2 S – State Standards and Objectives ................................................................... 15 2.1.3 S – Select Strategies, Technology, Media, and Materials.................................... 15 2.1.4 U – Utilize Technology, Media, and Materials...................................................... 15 2.1.5 R – Require Learner Participation....................................................................... 16 2.1.6 E – Evaluate and Revise .................................................................................... 16 2.2 Technology and Multimedia in Classrooms................................................................ 17 2.3 Technology and Multimedia in Early Childhood ......................................................... 19 2.4 Learning with Visuals ................................................................................................ 20 2.4.1 Pictures .............................................................................................................. 20 2.4.2 Drawings ............................................................................................................21 2.4.3 Charts.................................................................................................................22 2.4.4 Graphs ............................................................................................................... 23 2.4.5 Posters...............................................................................................................24 2.4.6 Cartoons............................................................................................................. 25 2.5 ICT as a Tool for Learning ......................................................................................... 26 2.6 Conceptual Framework ............................................................................................. 27 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY........................................................................................... 29 3.0 Introduction ...............................................................................................................29 3.1 Research Design....................................................................................................... 29
  3. 3. 3 3.2 Population and Sample ............................................................................................. 31 3.3 Instrumentation ......................................................................................................... 32 3.4 Data Collection..........................................................................................................33 3.5 Data Analysis ............................................................................................................ 35 BIBLIOGRAPHY .................................................................................................................36
  4. 4. 4 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1.0 Introduction Technology and multimedia is a term that has been spoken by public since early of 1990s. It received widespread attention in variety of aspects, such as in field of entertainment, advertising, exhibition, presentation, games, exercises, and education. Multimedia and technology is not a new thing. It existed since the start of communication era, which involves the sound and visual display. Before this, the teacher had using multimedia when teaching, for example the teacher using video cassette for music subject. With the development of computer technology nowadays, multimedia are started to be accepted. Generally, multimedia is the usage of variety types of media that been used for communication purpose. The time and technology evolution causes the definition of multimedia changes. Nowadays, the public accepted multimedia as a communication device that combines the usage of various media with the support of computer technology (Jamalludin Harun, 2003). According to Wikipedia, (n. d.), there is a branch of educational theory for early childhood which relates to the teaching of young children until the age until about eight, with a particular focus on education, notable in the period before the start of compulsory education.
  5. 5. 5 The children with the early stage of age experience life more holistically, then any other age group. Social, emotional, cognitive, language, and physical lessons are not learned separately by very young children. Adults play the important role in children’s learning and understanding. The early childhood tends to learn from the whole experience, not just from the certain part of the experience which the adults give attention (Wikipedia, n. d.). The early childhood have the high sense of curiosity. They are more to explore the new thing that they facing in their life. This situation is very suitable with the approach of multimedia and technology in teaching and learning of art education in early childhood.
  6. 6. 6 1.1 Background of the Study Education in early childhood is the education focuses on children’s learning trough play, based on the research and philosophy Jean Piaget. This belief is centred on the ‘Power of Play’. It has been thought that children learn more efficiency and gain more knowledge play- based activities such as dramatic play, art, and social games. This theory plays stems children’s natural curiosity and tendencies to ‘make believe’ mixing in educational lessons (Wenner, 2009). The need of multimedia and technology usage in art teaching is to make the learning method increase significantly along with globalization. Before this, the usage of media is already applied, i.e., the usage of cassette in music subject, in literature class to play poems, and documentaries. The early childhood students can understand and adapt easier about what they learn with the multimedia and technology as the teaching tools. This is because, the cassette provides audio that can be play and gives the sound of melody and pronunciation. It also can be access repeatedly in order to gives understanding to the students. Nowadays, the technology expands concomitant with the education evolution. In school, the multimedia and technology in teaching and learning has been implemented. Apart from that, the teaching tools have changed from media to multimedia that combined the several of media such as audio, visual, graphic, animation, and etc. that being supported with the computer technology in interactive way. Based on the statement above, clearly that the early childhood students must be familiar with the multimedia and technology in art learning. Nowadays, most of people have computers and the teachers should use multimedia in teaching. Compare to the past teacher that wrote using the chalk, and occasionally drawing simple pictures, by using multimedia in teaching must be interactive teaching (Wen, 2000).
  7. 7. 7 According to the previous research, the introduction of multimedia and technology has been made for its potential to facilitate the learning of other subjects, and even for the development of students’ thinking (Steve Kennewell, 2000). Therefore, the usage of multimedia and technology in art teaching should be practice to the early childhood students and identify the effectiveness on the usage of multimedia and technology in art teaching.
  8. 8. 8 1.2 Problem Statement The education system nowadays encounters the rapid changes. Teaching and learning with the usage of multimedia and technology in art subject has been widely used. According to (Patricia Edgar, 2008) the technology has transformed the way children learn and interact with their environment. Based on the statement, the teaching and learning method have changed over the technology usage evolution. However, the ability of the student in early childhood on adapting and learning multimedia and technology should be taken into consideration. The setting of the use of technology in early childhood involves the application of tools and materials to enhance children’s learning and development, interactions, communications, and collaboration (Roberta Schomburg, 2011). The application that been used also need to be study and identify about on how it been operate. The usage of multimedia and technology need to be identified on how it influences the students in their interest, perception, and motivation. However, how effective is the multimedia and technology usage in art teaching for early childhood? Therefore, the study will explore the level of effectiveness of the multimedia and technology usage in art teaching for early childhood and suggest better ways to improve it.
  9. 9. 9 1.3 Research Objectives The research objectives for this study are: i. To analyse the level of capability of the early childhood students in adapting and dealing with the multimedia and technology application in art learning. ii. To investigate whether the multimedia and technology usage in art teaching for early childhood improving the curriculum unit. iii. To identify the method that the teacher used to evaluate the early childhood student performance regarding to the usage of multimedia and technology in art teaching. iv. To identify how the multimedia and technology usage in art teaching influence the early childhood students in their emotion, interest, and perception. 1.4 Research Questions The research questions for this study are: i. What is the level of capability of the early childhood students in adapting and dealing with the multimedia and technology application in art learning? ii. Is the multimedia and technology usage in art teaching for early childhood improving the curriculum unit? iii. What is the method that the teacher used to evaluate the early childhood student performance regarding to the usage of multimedia and technology in art teaching? iv. How the multimedia and technology usage in art teaching influence the early childhood students in their emotion, interest, and perception.
  10. 10. 10 1.5 Research Hypothesis The hypothesis for this research is: Ha: If the early childhood students reach the level of capability in adapting and dealing with the technology and multimedia in art learning and improving the curriculum unit, then the technology and multimedia usage in art teaching in art teaching for early childhood is effective. 1.6 Operational Definitions 1.6.1 Definition of Technology and Multimedia Technology and multimedia: According to (Jamalludin Harun, 2003), technology and multimedia is the usage of several media that being used for the communication purposes. Nowadays, the public accepted multimedia as the combination of several types of media that connected directly with the computer technology. In this study, technology and multimedia is described as the usage of multimedia software as a tool in teaching and learning, suitable in the early childhood settings. It also enables the interactivity with students. 1.6.2 Definition of Art Teaching Art teaching: Teaching is an action of someone that can increase students’ knowledge. Art teaching is the ability to provide instruction, incorporating instructional objectives, and assessing the effective learning mode of the students (Markley). In this study, art teaching is defined as the lesson that taught by teachers to students about art education.
  11. 11. 11 1.6.3 Definition of Early Childhood Early childhood: According to (ScienceNetLinks), early childhood is one of the stages of physical growth and development in human being. Early childhood age range is between three to eight years old. In this study, early childhood is defined as the students in the early stage of learning, which at the age range of three to eight years old. 1.7 Limitation of the Study This research is about to study the effectiveness of technology and multimedia usage in art teaching for early childhood. The small sample size might not allow the findings of the study to be generalizable to all early childhood students in this country. So that, there may only a part of the factors that driven to the effectiveness of multimedia and technology usage in art teaching for early childhood might be found.
  12. 12. 12 1.8 Significant of the Study Based on the previous research, the early childhood who studies about art education has enjoyed and increase amount of attention over the years (Felicity McArdle, 2002). The multimedia and technology usage in art teaching seems to be relevant being applied to the early childhood art learning as a tool for them in enjoying art education. According to (Patricia Edgar, 2008) modern technology has transformed the way children learn and interact with their environment. The multimedia and technology usage might be best approach in attracting students’ interest, perception, and motivation in studying art. Obviously, there have been tremendous developments in the capabilities of computer hardware and software, as well as computer system. These changes need the teachers to be considered as ‘computer competent’. The old list of IT skills for teachers simply is not adequate for today’s teaching demands (Tan Seng Chee, 2003). The statement support where the students will be involve in global learning. All the contribution of technology approach makes the learners to rely more on their own efforts to solve problem, generate their own learning strategies, and build their own knowledge and understanding instead rely on teachers as information givers. It is hoped that the findings from this study will provide the knowledge about the issue. This issue may explain to the public about the effectiveness of multimedia and technology usage in art teaching for early childhood, in order to follow the learning evolution and produce the computer literate students. It also enables the students to be considered as computer competent in young age.
  13. 13. 13 CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW 2.0 Introduction This study will explore the effectiveness of technology and multimedia usage in art teaching for early childhood. The main objective of this chapter is to analyse the level of capability of the early childhood students in adapting and dealing with the multimedia and technology application in art learning. This is followed by deeper investigation on whether the multimedia and technology usage in art teaching for early childhood improving the curriculum unit. This study will focus on the identification on the method that the teacher used to evaluate the early childhood student performance regarding to the usage of multimedia and technology in art teaching. The last part is to identify how the multimedia and technology usage in art teaching influence the early childhood students in their emotion, interest, and perception. Therefore, the chapter intends to study the effectiveness of technology and multimedia usage in art teaching for early childhood.
  14. 14. 14 2.1 ASSURE Model Teachers nowadays have exciting opportunities to use innovative technology and media to prepare the 21st century students. Careful planning is required to get the effective instruction, such as how to plan systematically for the effective use of technology and media. The teachers need to have the lesson plan in technology and media that can effectively integrate classroom. To integrating technology and media into instruction, ASSURE model is used. Research has shown that well-designed lessons are started from the student’s interest and then followed with the present of new material, involve students in practice with feedback, assess their understanding, and provide relevant follow-up activities. All of these instruction incorporates in ASSURE model. The ASSURE model is a systematic approach that can be used to analysing the learner characteristics on their ability to learn. General characteristics, specific entry competencies, and learning styles are the analysis that will be examines in learners (Sharon E. Smaldino, 2012). 2.1.1 A – Analyse Learners The first step in ASSURE model is to identify and analyse learners’ characteristics shown to be associated with learning outcomes. It also can be the guidance on decision making during the design of the lesson. The educator needs to consider the three main areas in learner analysis. They are general characteristic of learners, specific entry competencies, and the learning style.
  15. 15. 15 2.1.2 S – State Standards and Objectives The second step in ASSURE model is to state the standard and learning objectives as specifically as possible. The state standards and objectives are based on the state and rational student performance criteria. For this state, the condition will include the use of technology and media to support learning and to assessing achievement of the standard or learning objectives. 2.1.3 S – Select Strategies, Technology, Media, and Materials The third step in ASSURE model is to select strategies, technology, media, and strategies. After established the beginning points, analyse the learners, which knowing students’ present knowledge, skills, and attitude, then stated the standards and objectives of the instruction. After that, build a bridge between these two points by choosing appropriate instructional strategies, technology, media, and materials in order to achieve the objectives. 2.1.4 U – Utilize Technology, Media, and Materials The forth step in ASSURE model is to utilize technology, media, and materials. The type of steps includes the planning of teaching role for utilizing the technology, media, and materials in order to help students to achieve the learning objectives. The ‘5P’ process must be followed to the steps. Firstly, (1) preview the technology, media, and materials. Then it followed by (2) preparing the technology, media, and materials. After that, (3) prepare the environment, then (4) prepare the learners. Lastly, (5) provide the learners with the learning experiences.
  16. 16. 16 2.1.5 R – Require Learner Participation The fifth step in ASSURE model is to require learner participation. The learners’ active mental engagements are required to set the effective instruction. Some activities also can be provided to allow them to practice the new knowledge or skills and to receive feedback on their efforts before being formally assessed. Student self-checks, computer-assisted instruction, internet activities, and group exercise are involved in practice. Teacher, a computer, other students, and self-evaluation is some kind of the feedback resource. 2.1.6 E – Evaluate and Revise The sixth step in ASSURE model is to evaluate and revise. Evaluate is impact on student learning after implementing a lesson. The assessment examines the degree to which students achieved the learning objectives and examines the entire instructional process and impact of using technology and media. Sometimes there are difference in learning objectives and student outcomes, the lesson plan need to revise, to address the areas of concern.
  17. 17. 17 2.2 Technology and Multimedia in Classrooms The teacher nowadays have been challenged to find ways to help students and to guide them, future teachers of young children to learn to use technology effectively in their practice. As mostly phenomenon, there are situations where the students are come with the limited experience of skills in using technology. In the situation, the early children student should be introduce with some boarder range in using multimedia and technology in art learning. Multimedia and technology is a powerful contributor to learning, and must be used to deepen children’s engagement in meaningful and intellectually authentic curriculum. Multimedia and technology applications should be offered to the early children students as they can experience the meaningful learning opportunities. They also need to learn multimedia and technology in the same way they learn anything also. According to the article “Meaningful Connection Using Technology in Primary Classroom”, it stated that most young children have limited experiences with technology. They need time to excess and develop the comfort, knowledge, and skills for using a variety of multimedia and technology applications before they can use them independently. Previous study has reported that during the preschool years, children should have many opportunities to explore open ended, developmentally appropriate software programs in a playful, supportive environment. This experience can help them to develop the basic skills needed to use multimedia and technology equipment, such as opening and closing programs, saving and printing documents, and navigating the screen using a mouse. This will help children become confident in their a ability to use a computer and will provide the foundation skill needs to use more advanced applications for purposeful work as they grow older (Karen L Murphy, 2003).
  18. 18. 18 By the multimedia and technology usage that practiced in art teaching and learning for early childhood students, they can see the purposeful use of multimedia and technology, and receive the benefit from the exposure to more advanced applications that they will eventually use independently.
  19. 19. 19 2.3 Technology and Multimedia in Early Childhood The age nowadays is the digital age. All people in all age range, such as young children, parents, and early childhood educators are learning about technology and multimedia. The revolution of technology and multimedia makes the technological and media literacy become more important than ever. Much of the concern has focused on the content of entertainment and educational media produced for young children including the effects of media violence and sexuality on young children, the exposure to the commercial messages, stereotypes, inappropriate behaviours, and social interactions. Based on the situation stated, to avoid the inappropriate use of technology, the educators need to shows the positive examples of how to successfully adapt and integrate technology and multimedia into the classroom. The educators need to enhance the children’s learning using a set of guidelines for the informed and intentional selection, use and evaluation of technology tools with the young children (Sawsan Nusir, 2011). There are principles for appropriate use of technology to support the optimal development and learning of young children. They are the selection of technology and screen media depends on the age, developmental level, needs, interests, and the ability of each child. In the study conducted by (Sawsan Nusir, 2011), the researcher stressed that the educators are need to know the effective uses of technology and screen media. They must be active, hands-on, engaging, and empowering. When the technology and multimedia are used appropriately, the technology can enhance the early childhood students’ cognitive and social abilities. The technology and multimedia also should be playful to develop the children’s interactions and give them the opportunities to explore digital and materials in playful and creative ways.
  20. 20. 20 2.4 Learning with Visuals The education system that using multimedia and technology are intends to use on- screen learning. This requires the students’ ability to interpret visual messages accurately ad to create such messages. This ability is called as visual literacy. Visual literacy can be developed through two major approaches called decode and encode. Decode is helping learners to ‘read’ visuals proficiently by practicing visual analysis skills. Encode is helping learners to ‘write’ visuals to express themselves and communicate with others (Sharon E. Smaldino, 2012). Commonly, there are six types of visuals that found in the classroom. 2.4.1 Pictures Pictures are photographic or photograph-like presentations. They are two- dimensional and readily available on the internet, books, magazine, and newspaper. The skills of decoding textbook and computer pictures should be teach to motivate the learners to use them for study purposes. The important factors are the quality and the quantity of the illustrations.
  21. 21. 21 2.4.2 Drawings The drawing employs the graphic arrangement of line. The drawing can be used in all phase of instruction, like from introduction of topics though evaluation and it readily found in textbook and computer-based materials. The software programs such as Adobe Photoshop and Adobe Illustrator can be used to make layout, design, and illustration. The computer graphics software programs have a lot of typeface and clip-art images can manipulate visuals in imaginable way.
  22. 22. 22 2.4.3 Charts The abstract relationship such as chronologies, quantities, and hierarchies are visual representation that can appear by chart. They are frequently in form of tables and flowcharts. A clear and well-defined instructional purpose should have in a chart. It should express only one major concept or concept relationship generally. To communicate the message through the visual channel, the chart must be in well-designed.
  23. 23. 23 2.4.4 Graphs The visual of numerical data are represents with graph. They illustrate the relationships among units of data and trends over time. It is more visually interesting than tables. The spreadsheet software such as Microsoft Excel can produce professional-looking graphs.
  24. 24. 24 2.4.5 Posters Images, lines, colours, and words are visual combinations that incorporate in posters. They are intended to capture and hold the viewers’ attention to communicate their message quickly. Posters can be effective in most of learning situations. There are a lot of sources that use posters such as airlines, government departments, travel agencies, commercial companies, and professional organizations. Posters can be made by using coloured markers, computer printouts, and devices that print poster-sized pages.
  25. 25. 25 2.4.6 Cartoons Cartoons are the rough caricatures of line drawings. Children from all ages can easily and quickly read cartoons. It can be often use them to make or reinforce a pint of instructions. The cartoons must be within the experiential and intellectual range of the students. The software like ToonDoo can provides an array of characters, settings, and props for students to assemble into a cartoon that depicts the messages.
  26. 26. 26 2.5 ICT as a Tool for Learning New knowledge, skills, and attitudes must be developed by learning as an individual interacts with information and the environment. When integrating technology and media into a lesson, the teacher must make important decisions to ensure learning. To assume the challenges of continually evolving knowledge and skill requirements for the future, learners in the 21st century need to be better educated. There is a very uncertain tomorrow, and a lifelong learning is a cornerstone to guiding students towards understanding how to approach the shifting knowledge and skills of their future. The students learning today are the preparation for them to face the future. Technology and media have become an essential interface for learners as they move forward in their education (Partnership for 21st Century Skills, 2009). The first introduction of ICT into school, it is made for its potential to facilitate the learning of other subjects and even for the development of students’ thinking. The students who learn with computer programming were expected to recognize and strengthen their own thinking. There are some software tools that are adaptable and provide great utility, such as word- processors, spreadsheets, databases, and graph plotters. By applying these tools, they may develop ICT capability. The students can perform their ability in using such tools by their repetitive operations routine. This can give them opportunity to develop the mind from routine tasks, amplifying its power, and allowing it to work at the higher levels. On the other hand, the teacher also may demonstrate their own ICT capability through the appropriate use of technology in their teaching. The teacher needs to prepare the constant change in students due to the progress of technology. The teacher also needs to prepare the students to work confidently with the new technologies. The usage of multimedia and technology in learning in schools has enable to appreciate just how complex the multimedia and technology capability is, and how many factors at different levels impact upon the standard of students’ attainment (Steve Kennewell, 2000).
  27. 27. 27 2.6 Conceptual Framework The conceptual framework for this study is shown in the figure below and it illustrate how the variables used in this study which is the usage of technology and multimedia are related with the effectiveness on teaching in art for early childhood students’ learning. According to (Jabareen, 2009), a conceptual framework is “lays out key factors, constructs and variables, and presume relationships among them”.
  28. 28. 28 In this study, the effectiveness of using technology and multimedia in art teaching for early childhood will be investigated in depth. There are variables that will perceive the literal role of the usage of technology and multimedia in defining the effectiveness for the early childhood students when the teacher are applying it in art teaching for them. As shown in the figure above, the art learning that needs the students to deal with the technology and multimedia will influence their learning experience. The experiences that being faced by the early childhood students may give the impact to their effectiveness in learning arts, either in positive or negative way. Thus, this study intends to see the effectiveness of technology or multimedia usage in art teaching for early childhood. In this study, the use of technology and multimedia in art teaching and learning is believed can give impact on students’ learning process. The technology and multimedia usage in art teaching for early childhood will determine either these implementation of technology and multimedia in teaching and learning can be effective to the early childhood students, and curriculum outcomes in art educational context or not.
  29. 29. 29 CHAPTER 3 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 3.0 Introduction This chapter will discuss the research design, the population as well as the sample of this study, the instrumentation, the method of data collection, and the data analysis plan. 3.1 Research Design The study will carried out using a quantitative approach. The research design that will be used in this study is a survey research, which is using a cross-sectional survey as its scope. An article from (Institute for Work and Health, 2009) stated that a cross-sectional study is an observational study and the researcher records information about their subject without manipulating the study environment. The research design was meant to analyze the level of capability of the early childhood students in adapting and dealing with the multimedia and technology application in art learning, to investigate whether the technology and multimedia usage in art teaching for early childhood improving the curriculum unit, to identify the method that the teacher used to evaluate the early childhood students’ performance regarding to the usage of technology and multimedia in art teaching, and to identify how the technology and multimedia usage in art teaching influence the early childhood students in their emotions, interests, and perception.
  30. 30. 30 The art teachers from the schools and art centers in Selangor have been chosen as the samples for this study. A set of questionnaires are also used as the instruments in the research to gather the data needed. Questionnaire is a set of questions that used for obtaining statistically useful or personal information from individuals (Merriam-Webster). These are the research design and research tools that will be used to gather the data that is needed for the study.
  31. 31. 31 3.2 Population and Sample The major population of this study will be the art teachers from schools and art centers in Selangor. The purpose of using the art teachers from the schools and art centers is because the art teacher is the person who are teaching art and can recognize the students’ attitude, as they can see directly on the interest and perception of their students through the art learning. The art teacher also can analyze the level of capability of the early childhood students in adapting and dealing with the multimedia and technology application in art learning. Art teacher is also the person who uses the method to evaluate the early childhood students’ performance regarding to the usage of multimedia and technology in at learning. Art teacher is the nearest person who interacts with the students; that can identify how the multimedia and technology usage in art teaching can influence the early childhood students in their emotions, interests, and perceptions. The sample of the study will be selected using the non-random sampling. Non-random sampling is the sampling technique that used to make an explicit choice based on the own judgment about exactly whom to include in the sample (Sette, 2008). In non-random sampling process, the samples are selected based on the purpose on the researcher and the accessibility of the respondents itself. It is called as the purposive sampling. The purposive sampling makes the researcher to select the samples who suits the criteria that the researcher looking for. According to (Jack R. Fraenkel, 2012) in his book, he stated that purposive sampling is the sampling that researchers do not simply study whoever is available but rather use their judgment to select a sample that they believe, based on prior information that will provide the data they need. This sampling technique is chosen as the objective of this study is to investigate the effectiveness of technology and multimedia usage in art teaching for early childhood. All of the respondents consist of the art teachers from various schools and art centers in Selangor since they were randomly selected. The sample sizes for this study are 33 respondents.
  32. 32. 32 3.3 Instrumentation The instrument used for data collection in this research study is questionnaire. According to (Merriam-Webster), questionnaire is a written set of questions that are given to people in order to collect facts or opinions about something. Some of the items in the questionnaire are designed by the researcher in order to identify the effectiveness of the technology and multimedia usage in art teaching for early childhood. For the purpose of this study, the questionnaire are includes both close-ended as well as open-ended questions. The questionnaires were distributed to each of the respondents to assist in answering the research questions of this study. The total number of questions in this questionnaire is __ items that have been divided into __ sections, they are section __________. The questions were divided into different section in order to improve the design of the questionnaire, avoid it from appearing intimidate and disorganize, as well as to segregate clearly the objectives under different sections to ease the data analysis process.
  33. 33. 33 3.4 Data Collection The respondents of this questionnaire are the art teachers from schools and art centers in Selangor. Before the respondents answer the questionnaire, there will be a short briefing and explanation on the procedures. The briefing is about the explanation on the research objectives and what the questionnaire is all about. The time taken to complete the questionnaire is about eight to ten minutes. The questionnaire is distributed to the respondents on weekdays during office hours, class sessions, or lunch break. The survey process was monitored by the researcher. This action was taken to ensure that the data given by the respondents are valid, and if there any problem or enquiries faced by the respondents during filling the survey form, the researcher could attend to them. This way is also chosen in order to avoid unreturned questionnaire. The survey forms were collected after the respondents complete answering the questionnaires. The data collections were as follows: DESIGN OF QUESTIONNAIRE The questionnaire have ___ sections. They are __________. SAMPLE SELECTION The respondents of this questionnaire are 33 peoples of art teacher from schools and art centers in Selangor.
  34. 34. 34 QUESTIONNAIRE DISTRIBUTION The questionnaire is distributed on weekdays during office hours, class sessions, or lunch break. TIME TAKEN The time needed to complete all the questions is around eight to ten minutes. SURVEY PROCESS The survey process is monitored by the researcher. This action was taken to ensure that the data given by the respondents are valid, and if there any problem or enquiries faced by the respondents during filling the survey form, the researcher could attend to them. This way is also chosen in order to avoid unreturned questionnaire. QUESTIONNAIRE COLLECTIONS The survey form is collected after the respondents completed answering the questionnaires.
  35. 35. 35 3.5 Data Analysis All the data obtained from the questionnaire were collected and analyzed to provide answers to the research questions for this study. In order to analyze and interpret the data, the Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) version ___ software was used. According to (The American University in Cairo, 2011) it stated that Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) was originally developed as a programming language for conducting statistical analysis, and it has grown into a complex and powerful application with now uses both a graphical and a syntactical interface and provides dozens of functions for managing, analyzing, and presenting data. In this system software, the data was keyed-in and descriptive statistics is used in order to analyzed and interpret data of the information gathered.
  36. 36. 36 BIBLIOGRAPHY Felicity McArdle, B. P. (2002). Early Childhood Art Education: A Palimpsest. Institute for Work and Health. (2009). Retrieved May 15, 2014, from What Researchers Mean by ... Cross-Sectional vs. Longitudinal Studies: http://www.iwh.on.ca/wrmb/cross- sectional-vs-longitudinal-studies Jabareen, Y. (2009). International Journal of Qualitative Methods. Building a Conceptual Framework: Philosophy, Definitions, and Procedure, 49-62. Jack R. Fraenkel, N. E. (2012). How to Design and Evaluate Research in Education. New York: The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Jamalludin Harun, Z. T. (2003). Multimedia dalam Pendidikan. Malaysia: PTS Publications & Distributors Sdn. Bhd. Karen L Murphy, R. D. (2003). Using Technology as a teaching and Learning Tool. Meaningful Connections Using Technology in Primary Classrooms, 1-9. Markley, T. (n.d.). Defining the Effective Teacher: Current Arguments in Education. Merriam-Webster. (n.d.). Retrieved May 15, 2014, from An Encyclopaedia Britannica Company: http://www.merriam- webster.com/dictionary/questionnaire?show=0&t=1400122060 Partnership for 21st Century Skills. (2009). Retrieved May 4, 2014, from Framework for 21st Century Learning: http://www.p21.org/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=254&ltemid=11 9 Patricia Edgar, D. E. (2008). The New Child: In Search of Smarter Grown Up. Television, Digital Media, and Children's Learning, 1-11. Roberta Schomburg, C. D. (2011). Technology in Early Childhood Programs Serving Children from Birth through Age 8, 1-18. Sawsan Nusir, I. A.-K. (2011). National Association for the Education of Young Children. Technology in Early Childhood Programs Serving Children from Birth through the Age 8, 1-18. ScienceNetLinks. (n.d.). Retrieved April 5, 2014, from Growth Stages 1: Infancy and Early Childhood: http://sciencenetlinks.com/lessons/growth-stages-1-infancy-and-early- childhood/ Sette, C. (2008, July 31). Institutional Learning and Change Initiative. Retrieved May 15, 2014, from Non-Random Sampling: http://www.cgiar-ilac.org/content/non-random-
  37. 37. 37 sampling Sharon E. Smaldino, D. L. (2012). Instructional Technology and Media for Learning. Boston: Pearson Education Inc. Steve Kennewell, J. P. (2000). Developing the ICT Capable School. London: Routledge Falmer. Tan Seng Chee, A. F. (2003). Teaching and Learning with Technology. Singapore: Pearson Education Pte Ltd. The American University in Cairo. (2011). Statistical Package for Social Science, 1-19. Wen, S. (2000). Future of Education. Singapore: Asiapac Books Pte Ltd. Wenner, M. (2009). Scientific American Mind. The Serious Need for Play. Wikipedia. (n.d.). Retrieved April 5, 2013, from Early Childhood Education: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki_Early _childhood_education Wikipedia. (n.d.). Retrieved April 5, 2014, from Early Childhood: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Early_childhood

×