Research Proposal
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  • 1. A STUDY ON THE EFFECTIVENESS OF TECHNOLOGY AND MULTIMEDIA USAGE IN ART TEACHING FOR EARLY CHILDHOOD By: Amira binti Ahmad Mahmud 2013146821 Master of Education (Visual Art Education) Universiti Teknologi MARA
  • 2. CONTENTS INTRODUCTION .....................................................................................................................3 1.0 Introduction......................................................................................................................3 1.1 Background of the Study..................................................................................................4 1.2 Problem Statement...........................................................................................................5 1.3 Research Objectives.........................................................................................................6 1.4 Research Questions..........................................................................................................6 1.5 Research Hypothesis........................................................................................................6 1.6 Operational Definitions....................................................................................................7 1.6.1 Definition of Technology and Multimedia................................................................7 1.6.2 Definition of Art Teaching ........................................................................................7 1.6.3 Definition of Early Childhood ..................................................................................7 1.7 Limitation of the Study....................................................................................................7 1.8 Significant of the Study ...................................................................................................8 BIBLIOGRAPHY......................................................................................................................9
  • 3. CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1.0 Introduction Technology and multimedia is a term that has been spoken by public since early of 1990s. It received widespread attention in variety of aspects, such as in field of entertainment, advertising, exhibition, presentation, games, exercises, and education. Multimedia and technology is not a new thing. It existed since the start of communication era, which involves the sound and visual display. Before this, the teacher had using multimedia when teaching, for example the teacher using video cassette for music subject. With the development of computer technology nowadays, multimedia are started to be accepted. Generally, multimedia is the usage of variety types of media that been used for communication purpose. The time and technology evolution causes the definition of multimedia changes. Nowadays, the public accepted multimedia as a communication device that combines the usage of various media with the support of computer technology (Jamalludin Harun, 2003). According to Wikipedia, (n. d.), there is a branch of educational theory for early childhood which relates to the teaching of young children until the age until about eight, with a particular focus on education, notable in the period before the start of compulsory education. The children with the early stage of age experience life more holistically, then any other age group. Social, emotional, cognitive, language, and physical lessons are not learned separately by very young children. Adults play the important role in children’s learning and understanding. The early childhood tends to learn from the whole experience, not just from the certain part of the experience which the adults give attention (Wikipedia, n. d.). The early childhood have the high sense of curiosity. They are more to explore the new thing that they facing in their life. This situation is very suitable with the approach of multimedia and technology in teaching and learning of art education in early childhood.
  • 4. 1.1 Background of the Study Education in early childhood is the education focuses on children’s learning trough play, based on the research and philosophy Jean Piaget. This belief is centred on the ‘Power of Play’. It has been thought that children learn more efficiency and gain more knowledge play-based activities such as dramatic play, art, and social games. This theory plays stems children’s natural curiosity and tendencies to ‘make believe’ mixing in educational lessons (Wenner, 2009). The need of multimedia and technology usage in art teaching is to make the learning method increase significantly along with globalization. Before this, the usage of media is already applied, i.e., the usage of cassette in music subject, in literature class to play poems, and documentaries. The early childhood students can understand and adapt easier about what they learn with the multimedia and technology as the teaching tools. This is because, the cassette provides audio that can be play and gives the sound of melody and pronunciation. It also can be access repeatedly in order to gives understanding to the students. Nowadays, the technology expands concomitant with the education evolution. In school, the multimedia and technology in teaching and learning has been implemented. Apart from that, the teaching tools have changed from media to multimedia that combined the several of media such as audio, visual, graphic, animation, and etc. that being supported with the computer technology in interactive way. Based on the statement above, clearly that the early childhood students must be familiar with the multimedia and technology in art learning. Nowadays, most of people have computers and the teachers should use multimedia in teaching. Compare to the past teacher that wrote using the chalk, and occasionally drawing simple pictures, by using multimedia in teaching must be interactive teaching (Wen, 2000). According to the previous research, the introduction of multimedia and technology has been made for its potential to facilitate the learning of other subjects, and even for the development of students’ thinking (Steve Kennewell, 2000). Therefore, the usage of multimedia and technology in art teaching should be practice to the early childhood students and identify the effectiveness on the usage of multimedia and technology in art teaching.
  • 5. 1.2 Problem Statement The education system nowadays encounters the rapid changes. Teaching and learning with the usage of multimedia and technology in art subject has been widely used. According to (Patricia Edgar, 2008) the technology has transformed the way children learn and interact with their environment. Based on the statement, the teaching and learning method have changed over the technology usage evolution. However, the ability of the student in early childhood on adapting and learning multimedia and technology should be taken into consideration. The setting of the use of technology in early childhood involves the application of tools and materials to enhance children’s learning and development, interactions, communications, and collaboration (Roberta Schomburg, 2011). The application that been used also need to be study and identify about on how it been operate. The usage of multimedia and technology need to be identified on how it influences the students in their interest, perception, and motivation. However, how effective is the multimedia and technology usage in art teaching for early childhood? Therefore, the study will explore the level of effectiveness of the multimedia and technology usage in art teaching for early childhood and suggest better ways to improve it.
  • 6. 1.3 Research Objectives The research objectives for this study are: i. To analyse the level of capability of the early childhood students in adapting and dealing with the multimedia and technology application in art learning. ii. To investigate whether the multimedia and technology usage in art teaching for early childhood improving the curriculum unit. iii. To identify the method that the teacher used to evaluate the early childhood student performance regarding to the usage of multimedia and technology in art teaching. iv. To identify how the multimedia and technology usage in art teaching influence the early childhood students in their emotion, interest, and perception. 1.4 Research Questions The research questions for this study are: i. What is the level of capability of the early childhood students in adapting and dealing with the multimedia and technology application in art learning? ii. Is the multimedia and technology usage in art teaching for early childhood improving the curriculum unit? iii. What is the method that the teacher used to evaluate the early childhood student performance regarding to the usage of multimedia and technology in art teaching? iv. How the multimedia and technology usage in art teaching influence the early childhood students in their emotion, interest, and perception. 1.5 Research Hypothesis The hypothesis for this research is: Ha: If the early childhood students reach the level of capability in adapting and dealing with the technology and multimedia in art learning and improving the curriculum unit, then the technology and multimedia usage in art teaching in art teaching for early childhood is effective.
  • 7. 1.6 Operational Definitions 1.6.1 Definition of Technology and Multimedia Technology and multimedia: According to (Jamalludin Harun, 2003), technology and multimedia is the usage of several media that being used for the communication purposes. Nowadays, the public accepted multimedia as the combination of several types of media that connected directly with the computer technology. In this study, technology and multimedia is described as the usage of multimedia software as a tool in teaching and learning, suitable in the early childhood settings. It also enables the interactivity with students. 1.6.2 Definition of Art Teaching Art teaching: Teaching is an action of someone that can increase students’ knowledge. Art teaching is the ability to provide instruction, incorporating instructional objectives, and assessing the effective learning mode of the students (Markley). In this study, art teaching is defined as the lesson that taught by teachers to students about art education. 1.6.3 Definition of Early Childhood Early childhood: According to (ScienceNetLinks), early childhood is one of the stages of physical growth and development in human being. Early childhood age range is between three to eight years old. In this study, early childhood is defined as the students in the early stage of learning, which at the age range of three to eight years old. 1.7 Limitation of the Study This research is about to study the effectiveness of technology and multimedia usage in art teaching for early childhood. The small sample size might not allow the findings of the study to be generalizable to all early childhood students in this country. So that, there may only a part of the factors that driven to the effectiveness of multimedia and technology usage in art teaching for early childhood might be found.
  • 8. 1.8 Significant of the Study Based on the previous research, the early childhood who studies about art education has enjoyed and increase amount of attention over the years (Felicity McArdle, 2002). The multimedia and technology usage in art teaching seems to be relevant being applied to the early childhood art learning as a tool for them in enjoying art education. According to (Patricia Edgar, 2008) modern technology has transformed the way children learn and interact with their environment. The multimedia and technology usage might be best approach in attracting students’ interest, perception, and motivation in studying art. Obviously, there have been tremendous developments in the capabilities of computer hardware and software, as well as computer system. These changes need the teachers to be considered as ‘computer competent’. The old list of IT skills for teachers simply is not adequate for today’s teaching demands (Tan Seng Chee, 2003). The statement support where the students will be involve in global learning. All the contribution of technology approach makes the learners to rely more on their own efforts to solve problem, generate their own learning strategies, and build their own knowledge and understanding instead rely on teachers as information givers. It is hoped that the findings from this study will provide the knowledge about the issue. This issue may explain to the public about the effectiveness of multimedia and technology usage in art teaching for early childhood, in order to follow the learning evolution and produce the computer literate students. It also enables the students to be considered as computer competent in young age.
  • 9. BIBLIOGRAPHY Felicity McArdle, B. P. (2002). Early Childhood Art Education: A Palimpsest. Jamalludin Harun, Z. T. (2003). Multimedia dalam Pendidikan. Malaysia: PTS Publications & Distributors Sdn. Bhd. Markley, T. (n.d.). Defining the Effective Teacher: Current Arguments in Education. Patricia Edgar, D. E. (2008). The New Child: In Search of Smarter Grown Up. Television, Digital Media, and Children's Learning, 1-11. Roberta Schomburg, C. D. (2011). Technology in Early Childhood Programs Serving Children from Birth through Age 8, 1-18. ScienceNetLinks. (n.d.). Retrieved April 5, 2014, from Growth Stages 1: Infancy and Early Childhood: http://sciencenetlinks.com/lessons/growth-stages-1-infancy-and-early- childhood/ Steve Kennewell, J. P. (2000). Developing the ICT Capable School. London: Routledge Falmer. Tan Seng Chee, A. F. (2003). Teaching and Learning with Technology. Singapore: Pearson Education Pte Ltd. Wen, S. (2000). Future of Education. Singapore: Asiapac Books Pte Ltd. Wenner, M. (2009). Scientific American Mind. The Serious Need for Play. Wikipedia. (n.d.). Retrieved April 5, 2013, from Early Childhood Education: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki_Early _childhood_education Wikipedia. (n.d.). Retrieved April 5, 2014, from Early Childhood: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Early_childhood