REFERENCES• DA Pamphlet 350-38 – STRAC (TY-2004)• FM 3-22.9 – Rifle Marksmanship M16 Rifle / M4 Carbine• FM 3-23.35 – Combat Training with Pistols, M9• STP 21-1-SMCT – Soldiers Manual of Common Tasks (SL1)• STP 21-24-SMCT – Soldiers Manual of Common Tasks (SL2-4)• TM 9-1005-249-10 – Operators Manual, M16/M16A1 Rifle• TM 9-1005-317-10 – Operators Manual, M9 Pistol• TM 9-1005-319-10 – Operators Manual, M16A2/3/4 Rifle & M4 Carbine
Training Plan Concept w/ EST EST 2000 Weapons (Practice Fire) (M16/M4/M9) PMI M16/M4• M16/M4/M9 (Range 14)• Classroom• Hands-On M9• Evaluation (Range 5) LMTS (M16/M4) (Zero) w/ Assigned Weapon
M16 Series Rifle & M4 Carbine M9 Pistol* Select Desired Training Presentation
WORDS OF WISDOM "This Is My Rifle" THIS IS MY RIFLE. There are many like it, but this one is mine. My rifle is my best friend. It is my life. I must master it as I master my life. My rifle, without me is useless. Without my rifle, I am useless. I must fire my rifle true. I must shoot straighter than my enemy who is trying to kill me. I must shoot him before he shoots me. I will....My rifle and myself know that what counts in this war is not the rounds we fire, the noise of our burst, nor the smoke we make. We know that it is the hits that count. We will hit... My rifle is human, even as I, because it is my life. Thus I will learn it as a brother. I will learn its weakness, its strength, its parts, its accessories, its sights, and its barrel. I will ever guard it against the ravages of weather and damage. I will keep my rifle clean and ready, even as I am clean and ready. We will become part of each other. We will... Before God I swear this creed. My rifle and myself are the defenders of my country. We are the masters of our enemy. We are the saviors of my life. So be it, until there is no enemy, but Peace! THE CREED OF THE U.S.M.C.
M16 Series Rifle / M4 Carbine• Introduction to Basic Rifle Marksmanship and Mechanical Training• Marksmanship Fundamentals I• Marksmanship Fundamentals II
M16 Series Rifle / M4 CarbineTasks:• Weapon Characteristics / Components / Ammunition Identification• Clearing Procedures• Disassembly• Maintenance of Weapon and Magazines• Assembly• Cycles of Functioning• Function Check• Magazine Loading & Unloading• Weapon Loading and Unloading• Troubleshooting Malfunctions & Stoppages Classroom / Hands-On• Zeroing
M16A1 Rifle The M16-series/M4 Carbine weapons are 5.56-mm, magazine-fed, gas-operated, air-cooled, shoulder-fired weapons. The M16A1 can be fired ineither the semiautomatic or automatic fire mode by rotating the selector leverto the desired mode: (SAFE, SEMI, and AUTO).
M16A1 Rifle Right Side Left SideREAR SIGHT (1) - zeros weapon and engages targers to 460 SHOULDER GUN STOCK ASSEMBLY (9) - stabilizes rifle.meters. CHARGING HANDLE ASSEMBLY (10) - cocks weapon whenHAND GUARD SLIP RING (2) - keeps hand grards in place. preparing to fire or clearing weapon.FLASH SUPPRESSOR (3)- reduces the amount of flash from FRONT SIGHT POST (11) - adjustable for elevatlonmuzzle when weapon is fired. CARRYING HANDLE ASSEMBLY (12) - provides the meansEJECTION PORT COVER (4) - protects upper receiver from for hand-carrying the rifle,foreign matter when weapon IS not in use. Keep SELECTOR LEVER (13) - arms the rifle in SEMI or AUTO orport cover closed when not used. safes the rifle.CARTRIDGE MAGAZINE (5) - supplies 30 rounds of TRIGGER (14) - controls the firing of the weaponammunition to the weapon. SMALL ARMS SLING (15) - provides the means for shoulder-MAGZINE CATCH BUTTON (6) - releases cartridge magazine carrying the weapon,(5) from weapon when pushed. BOLT CATCH (16) - moves the key and bolt carrier assemblyLOWER RECEIVER AND EXTENSION ASSEMBLY (7)- forward when depressed,provides firing control for the weapon and provides BAYONET STUD (17) - holds bayonet in placestorage for basic cleaning materials. UPPER RECEIVER AND BARREL ASSEMBLY (18) - directsFORWARD ASSIST ASSEMBLY (M16A1 ONLY) (8) - ensures the projectile upon firing.that bolt is fully forwardand locked.
M16A2/A3 Rifle The M16A2/A3 rifle features several improvements over the M16A1. Itis designed to fire either semiautomatic or a three-round burst through the useof a selector lever (SAFE, SEMI, and BURST). The M16A3 has the samecharacteristics as the M16A2 with the exception of the selector lever(SAFE, SEMI and AUTO). This weapon fires full automatic.
M16A2/A3 RifleCaliber ............................................. 5.56 mmWeight............................................. w/30 (loaded) round mag approx 8.79 lbsLength ............................................. w/compensator 39-5/8 inMechanical Features ....................... Rifling (RH 1/7 twist)Firing Characteristics:Muzzle Velocity ............................ 3100 fpsChamber Pressure ....................... 52,000 psiCyclic Rate of Fire ........................ 700-900 rpm (approx.)Max Effective Rates of Fire:Semi-............................................. 45 rpmBurst/Auto..................................... 90 rpmSustained Rate of Fire.................. 12/15 rpmMax Effective Range ....................... 550 m (individual/point targets) 800 m (area targets)Max Range.. .................................... 3600 mFire Selector.................................... SAFE-SEMI-BURST (M16A2) SAFE-SEMI-AUTO (M16A3)
M16A4 Rifle The M16A4 rifle features additional product improvements over theM16A2 and M16A3. It is designed to fire either semiautomatic or a three-round burst through the use of a selector lever (SAFE, SEMI, andBURST). The only changes from the M16A1/A2/A3 are the addition of theM5 rail adapter system and the detachable carrying handle.
M4 Carbine The M4-series carbine features several modifications that make it anideal weapon for close combat operations. It is designed to fire eithersemiautomatic or a three-round burst through the use of a selector lever(SAFE, SEMI, and BURST). The M4A1 is fully automatic. The M4-seriescarbine buttstock has four positions: closed, 1/2 open, 3/4 open,and full open. The M4 carbine becomes the M4 MWS when the M4 railadapter system is installed on it.M4/M4A1 Carbine with standard handguards installed. M4 MWS
M16 Series Rifle / M4 Carbine Many different types of standard military ammunition are used in the M16-seriesweapons. Use only authorized ammunition manufactured to U.S. and NATO specifications. Cartridge, 5.56-mm, Ball, M193. The M193 cartridge is a center-fire cartridge with a 55-grain, gilded metal-jacketed, lead alloy core bullet. The M193 round is the standard cartridge for field use with the M16A1 rifle and has no identifying marks. Cartridge, 5.56-mm, Tracer, M196. (Used in the M16A1 rifle) The M196 cartridge has a red or orange painted tip. Its main uses are for observation of fire, incendiary effect, and signaling. Soldiers should avoid long-term use of 100 percent tracer rounds, which could cause deposits of incendiary material, or chemical compounds that could damage the barrel. Therefore, when tracer rounds are fired, they are mixed with ball ammunition in a ratio of no greater than one-to- one with a preferred ratio of three or four ball rounds to one tracer round.
M16 Series Rifle / M4 Carbine Cartridge, 5.56-mm, Ball, M855. (Used in the M16A2/3/4 and M4-series weapons.) The M855 cartridge has a 62-grain, gilded metal-jacketed, lead alloy core bullet with a steel penetrator. The primer and case are waterproof. This round is also linked and used in the M249. It has a green tip. This ammunition should not be used in the M16A1 except under emergency conditions, and only at targets less than 90 meters in distance. (The twist of the M16A1 rifling is not sufficient to stabilize the heavier projectile.) Cartridge, 5.56-mm, Tracer, M856. (Used in the M16A2/3/4 and M4-series weapons.) The M856 tracer cartridge has characteristics similar to the M196 tracer with a slightly longer tracer burnout distance. This cartridge has a 63.7-grain bullet. The M856 does not have a steel penetrator. It has a red tip (orange when linked 4 to 1 for the M249). This ammunition should not be used in the M16A1 except under emergency conditions, and only at targets less than 90 meters in distance. (The twist of the M16A1 rifling is not sufficient to stabilize the projectile of the heavier ammunition).
M16 Series Rifle / M4 Carbine Cartridge, 5.56-mm, Dummy, M199. (Used in all rifles.) The M199 dummy cartridge is used during dry firing and other training. This cartridge can be identified by the six grooves along the sides of the case beginning about ½ inch from its tip. It contains no propellant or primer. The primer well is open to prevent damage to the firing pin. Cartridge, 5.56-mm, Blank, M200. (Used in all rifles.) The M200 blank cartridge has no projectile. The case mouth is closed with a seven-petal rosette crimp and shows a violet tip. Cartridge, 5.56-mm Short-Range Training Ammunition (SRTA), M862. (Used in all rifles.) The M862 SRTA is designed exclusively for training. It can be used in lieu of service ammunition on indoor ranges and by units that have a limited range fan that does not allow the firing of service ammunition. SRTA ammunition must be used with the M2 training bolt.
M16 Series Rifle / M4 CarbineMUST BE COMPLETED IN SEQUENCE !!!!Step 1 - Place selector lever (1) on SAFE.NOTE: If weapon is not cocked, lever cannotbe pointed toward SAFE.Step 2 - Remove cartridge magazine (2) bydepressing magazine catch button (3) andpulling cartridge magazine (2) down.
M16 Series Rifle / M4 CarbineStep 3 - To lock bolt open, pull charging handleassembly (4) rearward, press bottom of boltcatch (5), and allow bolt to move forwarduntil it engages bolt catch. Return charginghandle assembly (4) forward.NOTE: Ensure that selector lever (1) is on SAFE.Step 4 - Check receiver and chamber (6) to ensurethese areas contain no ammunition.WARNING: To avoid accidental firing, alwayslook into chamber after clearing weapon tomake sure it does not contain a round.
M16 Series Rifle / M4 CarbineStep 5 - With selector lever (1) pointing towardSAFE, allow bolt to go forward by pressingupper portion of bolt catch (5).NOTE: If weapon is to be stored, it should be dryfired to release tension on hammer spring.Step 6 - Place selector lever (1) on SEMI andsqueeze trigger to release tension onhammer spring.
M16 Series Rifle / M4 CarbineGENERAL NOTE Wherever the term CLP or the words lube or lubricant are cited in this TM, it is to beinterpreted to mean that CLP, LSA, or LAW can be utilized as applicable. DO NOT mixlubricants on the same weapon. The weapon must be thoroughly cleaned during change fromone lubricant to another. Dry cleaning solvent (SD) is recommended forcleaning during change from one lubricant to another.1. With the weapon disassembled, thoroughly clean, inspect, and lube.2. Always shake CLP before use.3. After firing, clean your weapon according to instructions. Wipe dry and lubeaccording to lubrication instructions.4. Cleaning materials (swabs, pipe cleaners, and CLP) are expendable itemsthat are available from supply. CAUTION Dont mix up the parts of your weapon with those of your buddy.
M16 Series Rifle / M4 CarbineBORE The bore of your weapon has lands and grooves called rifling. Rifling makes thebullet spin very fast as it moves down the bore and down range. Because it twists so quickly,it is difficult to push a new, stiff bore brush through the bore. You will find it easier to pullyour bore brush through the bore. Also, because the brush will clean better if the bristlesfollow the grooves (called tracking), you want the bore brush to be allowed to turn as youpull it through.This is how you do it:1. Attach three rod sections together.2. Swab out the bore with a patchmoistened with CLP or rifle borecleaner (RBC).3. Attach the bore brush. When usingbore brush, don’t reverse directionwhile in bore.
M16 Series Rifle / M4 CarbineBORE (Cont)4. Point muzzle down. Hold the upper receiver in onehand while inserting the end of the rod without the brushinto the chamber. Let the rod fall straight through thebore. About 2-3 inches will be sticking out of the muzzle at this point.5. Attach the handle section of the cleaning rod tothe end of the rod sticking out of the muzzle.6. Pull the brush through the bore and out the muzzle.7. After one pull, take off the handle section andrepeat the process.8. Send a patch through the bore once in a while to help clean out the crudthat the brush is getting loose. Replace the bore brush with the rod tip (patchholder) and a wet patch. Drop it through. You won’t need to attach thehandle to pull only a patch through.
M16 Series Rifle / M4 CarbineUPPER RECEIVER - Clean with CLP:a. All areas of PowderFouling, Corrosion, Dirt, and Rust.b. Bore and Chamber.c. Locking Lugsd. Gas Tubee. Install chamber brush on cleaning rod. Dip inCLP and insert in chamber and locking lugs.Clean by pushing and twisting cleaning rod.
M16 Series Rifle / M4 CarbineUPPER RECEIVER - (Cont) NOTEGas tubes will discolor from heat. Do not attempt to remove discoloration. Use a worn out bore brush to perform the following step. This procedure ruins the bore brush.f. Use a bore brush to clean outside surface ofprotruding gas tube (get sides and bottom frombottom of upper receiver).
M16 Series Rifle / M4 CarbineBOLT CARRIER ASSEMBLY - Clean with CLP:a. Clean carbon and oil from firing pin, firing pinrecess and all surfaces of bolt/bolt carrier with dryswabs.b. Clean bolt carrier key with worn brush.c. Clean firing pin hole with pipe cleaner. NOTE Use well worn bore brush only.d. Carbon deposits and dirt from locking lugs.e. Areas behind bolt ring and under lip ofextractor.
M16 Series Rifle / M4 CarbineLOWER RECEIVER AND BUTTSTOCK ASSEMBLY. CAUTION Do not use wire brush or any type of abrasive material to clean aluminum surfaces.a Wipe dirt from trigger with a swab.b. Use a swab dipped in CLP and cleaning brush toclean powder fouling, corrosion, and dirt from outsideparts of lower receiver and extension assembly.c. Use pipe cleaner to clean buttstock screw drain hole.d. Clean buffer assembly, spring, and inside lowerreceiver and buffer tube with swab dipped in CLP. Wipedry.
M16 Series Rifle / M4 CarbineEJECTORa. Place a few drops of CLP around the ejector toform a puddle.b. Take a fired or dummy case and place it underthe Iip of the tractor. With a rocking motion,press the case down against the ejector. Since theejector is spring loaded, some resistance will befelt. Press on the case until it stops against thebolt face. Ease off with your thumb slightly andpress down again. Repeat several times. Replacethe CLP frequently. Once the spring action of theejector is smooth and strong, dry off any excess.
M16 Series Rifle / M4 CarbineBUTTSTOCK AND PISTOL GRIP NOTE Buttstock may be used for storage of cleaning gear.
M16 Series Rifle / M4 CarbineINSPECT BEFORE LUBRICATING - WARNINGUPPER RECEIVER AND BARREL ASSEMBLY DO NOT interchange bolts1. Inspect handguards (1) for cracks, broken front or rear between weapons.tabs and loose heat shields.2. Inspect front sight post (2) for straightness and checkdepression of the front detent.3. Inspect compensator (3) for looseness.4. Inspect barrel (4) for straightness, cracks or burrs.5. Inspect charging handle (5) for cracks bends or breaks.6. Inspect rear sight assembly (6) for the capability toadjust windage and elevation and the spring should retainthe short range or long range sight in position.7. Inspect gas tube (7) for bends or retention to barrel.
M16 Series Rifle / M4 CarbineINSPECT BEFORE LUBRlCATlNG -BOLT AND BOLT CARRIER ASSEMBLY1. Inspect bolt cam pin (1) for cracking orchipping.2. Inspect firing pin (2) for bends, cracks orsharp or blunted tip.3. Inspect for missing or broken gas rings (3).4. lnspect bolt cam pin area (4) for crackingor chipping.5. Inspect locking lugs (5) for cracking orchipping. Inspect bolt face (6) for excessivepitting.
M16 Series Rifle / M4 CarbineINSPECT BEFORE LUBRlCATlNG -BOLT AND BOLT CARRIER ASSEMBLY(Cont’d)6. Inspect extractor assembly (7) for missingextractor spring assembly with insert and forchipped or broken edges on the lip whichengages the cartridge rim.7. Inspect firing pin retaining pin (8) todetermine if bent or badly worn.8. Inspect bolt carrier for loose bolt carrierkey (9).9. Inspect for cracking or chipping in campin hole area (10).
M16 Series Rifle / M4 CarbinelNSPECT BEFORE LUBRICATING -LOWER RECElVER AND BUTTSTOCK ASSEMBLY1. Inspect buffer (1) for cracks or damage.2. Inspect buffer spring (2) for kinks.3. Inspect buttsock (3) for broken buttplate or cracks.4. Inspect for bent or broken selector lever (4).5. Inspect rifle grips (5) for cracks or damage.6. Inspect for broken or bent trigger (6).7. Visually inspect the inside parts of the lower receiver(7) for broken or missing parts.
M16 Series Rifle / M4 CarbineCLP - CLEANER, LUBRICANT AND PRESERVATIVEUse CLP as follows:a. Always shake bottle well before use.b. Place a few drops on a patch or rag.c. Clean your weapon with these patches and rags until they come out clean.d. Take a patch or rag and apply a fresh, light coat. NOTEDon‟t „dry clean‟ your weapon. DO NOT use hot water or other solvents or youwill wash away the Teflon lubricant that has been building up as a result of yourusing CLP. If CLP is not used, RBC may be used to remove carbon within thebore. Dry cleaning solvent may be used to completely remove lubricants. Forexample, when moving to extreme cold weather operations, to remove traces ofCLP before applying LAW.
M16 Series Rifle / M4 CarbineLUBE GUIDEUnder all but the coldest Arctic conditions, CLP or LSA are the lubricants to use on yourweapon. Remember to remove excessive lubricant from the bore and chamber before firing. CLP - Cleaner, lubricant, and perservative LSA -Weapons lubricant oil, semifluid BETWEEN 10 F (-12 C) and -10 F (-23 C) use CLP, LSA or LAW. Below -10 F (-23 C) use only LAW. LAW - Weapons lubricanting oil, arctic* Lightly Lubed - A film of lubricant barely visible to the eye.** Generously Lubed - Heavy enough so that it can be spread with the finger.
M16 Series Rifle / M4 CarbineLUBRlCATlNG UPPER RECElVER Lightly lube inside of upper receiver, bore andchamber, outer surfaces of barrel and front sight,and surfaces under handguard. Depress front sightdetent and apply one drop lube to front sight detent.Depress several times to work lube into the spring.
M16 Series Rifle / M4 CarbineLUBRlCATlNG PROCEDURES FOR M4, M4A1 AND M16A4UPPER RECEIVER AND CARRYING HANDLE1. Apply a drop or two of lubricant to both threaded studs.2. Lightly lube the clamping bar and both round nuts.3. Lightly lube the mating surfaces of the carrying handle assembly and upper receiver. NOTE Do not switch carrying handles between weapons. Switching handles may change your weapons zero.
M16 Series Rifle / M4 CarbineBOLT CARRIER ASSEMBLYLightly lubricate firing pin and firing pinrecess in bolt.1.Place one drop CLP in carrier key.2. Generously lube outside of these parts.Make certain to get cam pin area, boltrings, and outside of the bolt body. Put a lightcoat on extractor and pin.3. Lightly lube charging handle and inner andouter surfaces of bolt carrier. Generously lubeslide and cam pin area of bolt carrier.
M16 Series Rifle / M4 CarbineLUBRlCATlNG LOWER RECEIVER ASSEMBLY1.Lightly lube inside buffer tube.2. Generously lube takedown and pivot pins anddetents. Also lightly lube all moving parts inside lowerreceiver and their pins.
M16 Series Rifle / M4 CarbineADJUSTABLE REAR SIGHT NOTE Make a note of how far you move the sight so it can be returned to the original position at completion of this task.1. Use one drop of lube and rotate these parts to ensurelubricant is spread evenly above and below:a. Windage knobb. Windage screwc. Detent holesd. Elevation knobe. Elevation screw shaftf. Aperture (flip up and down)
M16 Series Rifle / M4 CarbineADJUSTABLE REAR SIGHT (Cont)2. Elevation Screw Shaft. Also lube from inside the upper receiver as follows:a. For M16A2 and M16A3 turn upper receiver upside down and remove charging handle.b. For M4, M4A1 and M16A4, remove carrying handle.c. Put two or three drops around the bottom edge of the elevation screw shaft and inelevation detent spring hole.d. Rotate the elevation dial as far as possible a few times while keeping upper receiverupside down.
M16 Series Rifle / M4 CarbineAFTER LUBING REAR SIGHT1. Reset your correct zero windage and your battlesight zero.2. Notice the rear sight comes down when the “3” is aligned with the mark onthe left side of the receiver.3. You will feel a „click” when the “3” first lines up with the mark.4. Carry your weapon with the “3” aligned with the mark5. Keep the sight on 300 meters to keep dirt and water out of sight mechanismand protect the sight from damage.
M16 Series Rifle / M4 CarbineMAGAZINE DISASSEMBLY WARNING When disassembling, turn magazine away from face, spring is under compression.1. Release base catch with end of a cleaning rod.2. Remove base.3. Jiggle spring and follower to remove.4. Inspect feeder lips for damage. If damaged orbent, replace magazine. NOTE Do not remove follower from spring.
M16 Series Rifle / M4 CarbineMAGAZINE REASSEMBLY NOTE If the spring comes loose from the follower, turn in the pieces. DO NOT try to fix it yourself.1. Clean and Lube. Wipe dirt from tube, spring,and follower; then lightly lube spring.2. Insert follower and jiggle spring to install.* Make sure printing on base is on the outside.3. Slide the base under all four tabs until basecatches.
M16 Series Rifle / M4 CarbineHOT, DRY CLIMATE – DESERT NOTE Hot, dry climates are usually areas containing blowing sand and fine dust. Deserts can be hot during daylight hours and freezing during hours of darkness. Consequently. thisharsh environment will severely tax your weapon as well as all other types of equipment.Your weapons continued operation will depend on your detailed cleaning and lubricating procedures.1. Dust and sand will get into the weapon and magazines. This will cause malfunctions.Give the inside areas and functional parts of the weapon a thorough cleaning every dayand after firing missions.2. Corrosion is less likely to form on metal parts in a dry climate: therefore,lubrication should be applied to the internal working surfaces and functionalparts only. Use light amounts of lubrication. Unload and dry ammo andinside of magazines daily. Do not lube magazines.
M16 Series Rifle / M4 CarbineHOT, DRY CLIMATE - DESERT (Cont)3. The use of overall weapon protection cover, muzzle cap, and spare magazineprotective bags will help protect the weapon ammo from sand and dust. Use these itemswhen the tactical situation permits.4. Keep the bolt and ejection port cover closed, a magazine installed in theweapon, and muzzle cap on the muzzle to help keep out sand and dust.
M16 Series Rifle / M4 CarbineGENERALTo ensure the readiness of your weapon, perform the preventive maintenanceprocedures in accordance with Table 1, prior to each mission. Preventive maintenanceprocedures include inspection, cleaning, and performance of the checkout procedures.EXPLANATION OF TABLE ENTRIESItem Number Column. Numbers in this column are for references. When completingEquipment Inspection and Maintenance Worksheet, include the item number for thecheck/service indicating a fault. Item numbers also appear in the order that you must dochecks and services for the intervals listed.Interval Column. This column tells you when you must do the procedure in theprocedure column. BEFORE (B) procedures must be done before you operate or usethe equipment for its intended mission. DURING (D) procedures must be done duringthe time you are operating or using the equipment for its intended mission. AFTER (A)procedures must be done immediately after you have operated or used the equipment.
M16 Series Rifle / M4 CarbineMan-Hour Column. This column indicates the man-hours required to complete therequired procedure.Item to be Checked or Service Column. This column provides the location and thetime to be checked or serviced. The item location is underlined.Procedure Column. This column gives the procedure you must do to check or servicethe item listed in the Check/Service column to know if the equipment is ready oravailable for its intended mission or for operation. You must do the procedure at thetime stated in the interval column.“Equipment Not Ready/Available If:" Column. Information in this columntells you what faults will keep your equipment from being capable of performingits primary mission. If you make check and service procedures that show faultslisted in this column, do not operate the equipment. Follow standard operatingprocedures for maintaining the equipment or reporting equipment failure.
M16 Series Rifle / M4 Carbine The Eight Cycles of Functioning: • Feeding • Chambering • Locking • Firing • Unlocking • Extracting • Ejecting • Cocking
M16 Series Rifle / M4 Carbine FEEDING: As the bolt carrier group movesrearward, it engages the buffer assemblyand compresses the action spring into thelower receiver extension. When the boltcarrier group clears the top of themagazine, the expansion of the magazinespring forces the follower and a new roundup into the path of the forward movementof the bolt. The expansion of the actionspring sends the buffer assembly and boltcarrier group forward with enough force tostrip a new round from the magazine.
M16 Series Rifle / M4 Carbine CHAMBERING: As the bolt carrier group continues tomove forward, the face of the bolt thruststhe new round into the chamber. At thesame time, the extractor claw grips the rimof the cartridge, and the ejector iscompressed.
M16 Series Rifle / M4 Carbine LOCKING: As the bolt carrier group movesforward, the bolt is kept in itsmost forward position by the bolt cam pinriding in the guide channel in the upperreceiver. Just before the bolt locking lugsmake contact with the barrel extension, thebolt cam pin emerges from the guidechannel. The pressure exerted by thecontact of the bolt locking lugsand barrel extension causes the bolt campin to move along the cam track (locatedin the bolt carrier) in a counterclockwisedirection, rotating the bolt locking lugs inline behind the barrel extension lockinglugs. The rifle is ready to fire.
M16 Series Rifle / M4 Carbine FIRING: With a round in the chamber, the hammer cocked, and the selector on SEMI, the firersqueezes the trigger. The trigger rotates on the trigger pin, depressing the nose of thetrigger, and disengaging the notch on the bottom of the hammer. The hammer springdrives the hammer forward. The hammer strikes the head of the firing pin, driving thefiring pin through the bolt into the primer of the round. When the primer is struck by thefiring pin, it ignites and causes the powder in the cartridge to ignite. The gas generated bythe rapid burning of the powder forces the projectile from the cartridge and propels itthrough the barrel. After the projectile has passed the gas port (located on the uppersurface of the barrel under the front sight) and before it leaves the barrel, some gas entersthe gas port and moves into the gas tube. The gas tube directs the gas into the bolt carrier.It passes through the key downward into a space between the rear of the carrier‟s boltcavity and the rear of the bolt itself. The gas then expands. The bolt is locked into thebarrel extension and unable to move forward, and the carrier is thus forced to therear by the expanding gas.
M16 Series Rifle / M4 Carbine UNLOCKING: As the bolt carrier moves to therear, the bolt cam pin follows the path ofthe cam track (located in the bolt carrier).This action causes the cam pin and boltassembly to rotate simultaneously until thelocking lugs of the bolt are no longer inline behind the locking lugs of the barrelextension.
M16 Series Rifle / M4 Carbine EXTRACTING: The bolt carrier group continues tomove to the rear. The extractor (which isattached to the bolt) grips the rim of thecartridge case, holds it firmly against theface of the bolt, and withdraws thecartridge case from the chamber.
M16 Series Rifle / M4 Carbine EJECTING: With the base of a cartridge case firmlyagainst the face of the bolt, the ejector andejector spring are compressed into the boltbody. As the rearward movement of thebolt carrier group allows the nose of thecartridge case to clear the front of theejection port, the cartridge is pushed outby the action of the ejector and spring.
M16 Series Rifle / M4 Carbine COCKING: The rearward movement of the boltcarrier overrides the hammer, forcing itdown into the receiver and compressingthe hammer spring, cocking the hammer inthe firing position. The action of the rifleis much faster than human reaction;therefore, the firer cannot release thetrigger fast enough to prevent multiplefiring.
M16 Series Rifle / M4 Carbine WARNING Before starting functional check, be sure toclear the weapon. DO NOT squeeze the triggeruntil the weapon has been cleared. Inspect the chamber to ensure that it is empty and no ammunition is in position to be chambered.1. Remove Magazine and Check Chamber.2. Perform Functional Check.a. Place selector lever on SAFE: Pull charging handle to rear and release. Pull trigger. Hammer should not fall. MUST BE COMPLETED IN SEQUENCE !!!!
M16 Series Rifle / M4 Carbine NOTE Slow is defined as 1/4 to 1/2 the normal rate of bigger release.b. SEMI: Place selector lever on SEMI. Pull trigger. Hammer should fall. Hold trigger to the rear and charge the weapon. Release the trigger with a slow, smooth motion, until the trigger is fully forward (an audible click should be heard). Pull trigger. Hammer should fall.
M16 Series Rifle / M4 Carbinec. BURST (M16A2, M16A4 and M4 Only): Place selector lever on BURST. Charge weapon and squeeze trigger, hammer should fall. Hold trigger to the rear, pull charging handle to the rear and release it three times. Release trigger. Squeeze trigger. Hammer should fall.
M16 Series Rifle / M4 Carbined. AUTO (M16A3 and M4A1 Only): Pull the charging handle to the rear, charging the weapon. Squeeze the trigger; hammer should fall. Hold the trigger to the rear and cock the weapon again. Fully release the trigger then squeeze it again. The hammer should not fall because it should have fallen when the bolt was allowed to move forward during the chambering and locking sequences.
M16 Series Rifle / M4 CarbineLOADING MAGAZlNE NOTE The magazine may be loaded quickly using ten-round stripper clips and the magazine filler found in each bandoleer.1. With the magazine filler in place, place aten-round stripper clip in position. Usingthumb pressure on the rear of the topcartridge, press down firmly until all tenrounds are below the feed lips of themagazine.
M16 Series Rifle / M4 CarbineLOADING MAGAZINE (Cont)2. Remove the empty stripper dip whileholding the magazine filler in place.3. Repeat until three ten round clips areloaded.4. Remove magazine filler and retain itfor future use.
M16 Series Rifle / M4 Carbine1. Loading for Semiauto Fire and Chambering a Round.a. With hammer cocked, place b. Open bolt and check chamber.selector lever on SAFE. Make sure it is clear. PressPoint muzzle in safe direction. bottom of bolt catch and allow bolt to move forward until it engages bolt catch. Return charging handle to full forward position.
M16 Series Rifle / M4 Carbinec. Push upward until magazine d. Tap upward to make sure it iscatch engages and holds magazine. seated right.
M16 Series Rifle / M4 Carbine WARNING Your weapon is now loaded. Ensure it is pointed in a SAFE direction.e. Depress upper portion of bolt catch. f. Tap forward assist to ensureBolt should go forward. bolt is fully forward and locked.
M16 Series Rifle / M4 Carbine• Refer to Chapter 3 of the appropriate Operator‟s Manual for TroubleshootingProcedures Table.• The table lists the common malfunctions which you may find during the operationor maintenance of the rifle. You should perform the tests/inspections and correctiveactions in the order listed.• The manual cannot list all malfunctions that may occur, nor all tests or inspectionsand corrective actions. If a malfunction is not listed or is not corrected by listedcorrective actions, notify organizational maintenance. Lists Malfunction Category directly under this heading. Lists actions you (user) must verify or perform. Lists suggestions to correct malfunctions.
M16 Series Rifle / M4 Carbine• A stoppage is a failure of an automatic or semiautomatic firearm to complete the cycleof operation. The firer can apply immediate or remedial action to clear the stoppage.Some stoppages cannot be cleared by immediate or remedial action and may requireweapon repair to correct the problem.• Immediate Action: Immediate action involves quickly applying a possible correctionto reduce a stoppage without performing troubleshooting procedures to determine theactual cause. The key word SPORTS will help the firer remember the steps in orderduring a live-fire exercise.• Remedial Action: Remedial action is the continuing effort to determine the cause fora stoppage or malfunction and to try to clear the stoppage once it has been identified. Toapply the corrective steps for remedial action, first try to place the weapon on SAFE, thenremove the magazine, lock the bolt to the rear, and place the weapon on safe (if notalready done).
M16 Series Rifle / M4 CarbineS - Slap upward on cartridgemagazine (1) to make sure it‟sproperly seated.P - Pull charging handleassembly (2) all the way back.O- Observe ejection of case orcartridge. Inspect chamber (3) andcheck for obstruction. If chamber isnot clear, apply remedial action.
M16 Series Rifle / M4 CarbineR - Release charging handleassembly (2) to feed new round.(Don‟t ride the charging handleassembly (2)T - Tap the forward assistassembly to ensure bolt closure. (4)(Ml6A1 only).S- Squeeze the trigger and try tofire the rifle.
M16 Series Rifle / M4 CarbineINTRODUCTION TO BASIC RIFLE MARKSMANSHIPACTION: Perform a function check on an M16-/M4-series weapon.CONDITIONS: Given an M16-/M4-series weapon.STANDARDS: Perform a function check to ensure that the rifle operates properlywhen the selector lever is placed in each position.ACTION: Load and unload an M16/M4 magazine.CONDITIONS: Given a 30-round magazine and five rounds of dummy ammunition.STANDARDS: Load and unload the magazine properly.ACTION: Load an M16-/M4-series weapon.CONDITIONS: Given an M16-/M4-series weapon with a magazine loaded withammunition.STANDARDS: Load the weapon in such a manner that proper chambering of a roundis accomplished.
M16 Series Rifle / M4 CarbineINTRODUCTION TO BASIC RIFLE MARKSMANSHIP (Cont’d)ACTION: Unload an M16-/M4-series weapon.CONDITIONS: Given a loaded M16-/M4-series weapon.STANDARDS: Clear the rifle in such a manner that no ammunition remains in therifle, and the rifle is on safe.ACTION: Correct malfunction of an M16-/M4-series weapon.CONDITIONS: Given an M16-/M4-series weapon that has a malfunction.STANDARDS: Eliminate the malfunction using immediate action procedures in such amanner that firing is resumed within three to five seconds.
M16 Series Rifle / M4 Carbine Zeroing is the process of aligning the rifle sights with the barrel, while consideringammunition ballistics, to achieve a bullet hit at the aiming point at a given range.There are 3 primary types of zero’s.• Mechanical Zeroing• 25 Meter Zeroing• Battlesight Zeroing
M16 Series Rifle / M4 Carbine Mechanical Zeroing is the process of centering the rifle sights to establish an initialsight setting to expedite the zeroing process. Mechanically zeroing is ONLY necessary when the weapon zero isquestionable, the weapon is newly assigned to the unit, or the weapon sights have beenserviced. NOTE: Different weapons have different Mechanical Zeroing procedures.
M16A1 Rifle If necessary, the soldier should mechanically zero the weapon as follows:(a) Adjust the front sight post (1) up or down until the base of the front sight post isflush with the front sight post housing (2). Then adjust the front sight post 11 clicksin the direction of UP.(b) Adjust the rear sight windage drum (3) all the way left until it stops. Then turn thewindage drum back (right) 17 clicks so the rear sight is approximately centered.
M16A2/A3 Series Rifle If necessary, the soldier should mechanically zero the weapon as follows:(a) Adjust the front sight post (1) up or down until the base of the front sight post isflush with the front sight post housing (2).(b) Adjust the elevation knob (3) counterclockwise, as viewed from above, until therear sight assembly (4) rests flush with the carrying handle and the 8/3 marking isaligned with the index line on the left side of the carrying handle.(c) Position the apertures (5) so the unmarked aperture is up and the 0-200 meteraperture is down. Rotate the windage knob (6) to align the index mark on the 0-200meter aperture with the long center index line on the rear sight assembly.
M16A4 Rifle If necessary, the soldier should mechanically zero the weapon as follows:(a) Adjust the front sight post (1) up or down until the base of the front sight post isflush with the front sight post housing (2).(b) Adjust the elevation knob (3) counterclockwise, when viewed from above, untilthe rear sight assembly (4) rests flush with the carrying handle and the 6/3 marking isaligned with the index line (5) on the left side of the carrying handle.(c) Position the apertures (6) so the unmarked aperture is up and the 0-200 meteraperture is down. Rotate the windage knob (7) to align the index mark on the 0-200meter aperture with the long center index line (8) on the rear sight assembly.
M4/M4A1 Carbine If necessary, the soldier should mechanically zero the weapon as follows:(a) Adjust the front sight post (1) up or down until the base of the front sight post isflush with the front sight post housing (2).(b) Adjust the elevation knob (3) counterclockwise, when viewed from above, untilthe rear sight assembly (4) rests flush with the detachable carrying handle and the 6/3marking is aligned with the index line (5) on the left side of the carrying handle.(c) Position the apertures (6) so the unmarked aperture is up and the 0-200 meteraperture is down. Rotate the windage knob (7) to align the index mark (8) on the 0-200 meter aperture with the long center index line on the rear sight assembly.
25-Meter ZeroingUse for Use forM16A1 M16A2,ONLY M16A3, M16A4 Series NOTE: Ensure that the appropriate 25 Meter Zeroing Target is used !
25-Meter ZeroingUse for M4CarbineONLY NOTE: Ensure that the appropriate 25 Meter Zeroing Target is used !
25-Meter Zeroing • The 25 meter target should be centered towards the bottom on a “E” silhouette target. • The “E” silhouette is then placed 25 meters from the firing line.
Grouping• The first task of 25 Meter Zeroing isGrouping procedures.• Shot grouping is a form of practicefiring with two primary objectives: (1)firing tight shot groups and (2)consistently placing those groups in the 4 cmsame location.• No sight adjustments should bemade to the sights until the firer canshoot six consecutive shots (two shotgroups) inside a 4-centimeter circle.• Once this is accomplished thesoldier is now ready to conduct zeroingprocedures.
Grouping • The shooter fires two separate, three- round shot groups and numbers them. • Two consecutive shot groupings must fall within a 4-centimeter circle at 25- meters before the soldier should be allowed to make any adjustments or to start zeroing procedures. • The ideal shot group will have all three rounds within a 2-centimeter circle. • Three rounds within a 4-cm circle is the minimum standard. NOTE: Location of the shot group on the 25-meter target is not important when conductinga grouping exercise. The size of the shot groups and the dispersion of the shot groupings arethe main focus of this exercise.
Shot Group Evaluation2-Centimeter Shot Groups. When firing a standard service rifle and standardammunition combination the dispersion pattern may be up to 2 centimeters apart withouthuman error. This dispersion pattern is not considered firer error. The targets shownreflect possible 25-meter shot group performances by standard rifle-ammunitioncombinations and proper soldier performance. The variances of the standard rifle andstandard ammunition must be considered during shot-group analysis and the instructortrainer must ensure the soldier understands that his weapon or ammunition may not becapable of placing three rounds within a 1-centimeter square.
Shot Group Evaluation3-Centimeter Shot Groups. The targets shown represent minimum acceptable firingperformances. A better firing performance should be expected, and the instructor-trainershould ensure the soldier is properly applying the four marksmanship fundamentals. Heshould explain that this shot group size is not due to weapon or ammunition performance.The placement of shots in these groups (about 3 centimeters apart on the target) reflectsminor shooting error. Any of these three shot groups could have been a minor change insight picture, breathing, trigger squeeze, position or an erratic round.
Shot Group Evaluation4- to 5-Centimeter Shot Groups. The targets shown represent unacceptable firingperformance. A better firing performance should be expected, and the instructor-trainershould ensure the soldier is properly applying the four marksmanship fundamentals. Heshould explain that this shot group size is not due to weapon or ammunition performance.The placement of shots in these groups (about 4 to 5 centimeters apart on the target)reflects considerable shooting error. Any of these three shot groups could have been achange in position, sight picture, breathing, trigger squeeze or an erratic round.Firers with these shot groups should receive dry-fire training to help correct firingproblems.
Shot Group Evaluation6-Centimeter or Larger Shot Groups. The targets shown represent unacceptable firingperformance. A better firing performance should be expected, and the instructor-trainershould ensure the soldier is properly applying the four marksmanship fundamentals. Heshould explain that group size is not due to weapon or ammunition performance. Theplacement of shots in these groups (more than 6 centimeters apart on the target) reflectsmajor shooting error. Any of these three shot groups could have been a change inposition, sight picture, breathing; or trigger squeeze, or the firer may be anticipating theshot. Firers with these shot groups should receive extensive dry-fire trainingto help correct firing problems.
25-Meter Zeroing 10 • Determine center mass of shot group. • Determine necessary adjustments to move the 2 strike of the round to center mass of the target. • Here the shooter needs to move the strike of his rounds down 2 clicks and to the left 10 clicks.
25-Meter Zeroing • Make the necessary adjustments to the weapon to move the strike of the rounds down 2 clicks and to the left 10 clicks.
25-Meter Zeroing• After making the correct sight changes, the soldier fires two more separate three-round shot groups to confirm the adjustments have aligned the sights with the center of the target, and the bullets are in the 4-centimeter circle• A proper 25 meter zero is achieved when at least 5 out of the last 6 rounds are in the 4cm circle• If the soldier has not achieved a zero within 18 rounds, the soldier should be taken off the firing line for remedial training.
Battlesight Zeroing The purpose of battlesight zeroing is to alignthe sights with the weapon‟s barrel givenstandard issue ammunition. When this isaccomplished correctly, the point of aim andpoint of impact are the same at a given rangesuch as 250 meters for the M16A1 and 300meters for the M16A2/A3/A4 and M4-seriesweapons. This sight setting provides thehighest hit probability for most combat targetswith minimum adjustment to the aiming point.
Battlesight Zeroing 25 Meter Zero is a process designed to achieve a battlesight zero or close to itwithout actually firing at battlesight zero distances. A standard E-type silhouette is 48.26 centimeters wide; a circle (angle) that is 48.26centimeters at 300 meters is 4 centimeters at 25 meters. A soldier who can fire allbullets in a 4-centimeter circle at 25-meters and adjusts the sights for zero will hit thetarget at all ranges out to 300 meters. 0 25 50 75 100 125 150 175 200 225 250 275 300
Battlesight Zeroing • In theory, when a 25 Meter Zero is achieved, the M16A2 will closely have a battlesight zero of 300 meters and would require only minor sight adjustments to achieve an actual battlesight zero. 25-Meter Zero Battlesight Zero25m Zero Target Front Sight Post Alignment
Aiming Points• With a Battlesight Zero at 300meters, the aiming point is centervisible mass in order to achieve thehighest probability of hitting the • Because of the trajectory orpoint marked with an “X”. ballistics of the projectile, in order to hit a target at ranges less than the battlesight zero range at the points marked with an “X”, aiming point adjustment is necessary.
M16 Series Rifle / M4 CarbineTasks:• The Four Marksmanship Fundamentals• Basic Firing Positions• Training Devices and Exercises Classroom / Hands-On
M16 Series Rifle / M4 CarbineTHE FOUR FUNDAMENTALS Soldiers must understand and apply the four key fundamentals before he approachesthe firing line. He must establish a steady position allowing observation of the target.He must aim the rifle at the target by aligning the sight system, and fire the riflewithout disturbing this alignment by improper breathing or during trigger squeeze. These skills are known collectively as the four fundamentals. Applying these fourfundamentals rapidly and consistently is the integrated act of firing. The four fundamentals are: • Steady Position • Aiming • Breathing • Trigger Squeeze
Marksmanship FundamentalsThe Steady Position Elements are as follows:(1) Nonfiring Handgrip. The rifle hand guard rests on the heel of the hand in the Vformed by the thumb and fingers. The grip of the non-firing hand is light.(2) Rifle Butt Position. The butt of the rifle is placed in the pocket of the firingshoulder. This reduces the effect of recoil and helps ensure a steady position.(3) Firing Handgrip. The firing hand grasps the pistol grip so it fits the V formed bythe thumb and forefinger. The forefinger is placed on the trigger so the lay of the rifle isnot disturbed when the trigger is squeezed. A slight rearward pressure is exerted by theremaining three fingers to ensure that the butt of the stock remains in the pocket of theshoulder, minimizing the effect of recoil.(4) Firing Elbow Placement. The firing elbow is important in providing balance. Itsexact location depends on the firing/fighting position used. Placement should allowshoulders to remain level.
Marksmanship Fundamentals(5) Nonfiring Elbow. The non-firing elbow is positioned firmly under the rifle to allowa comfortable and stable position. When the soldier engages a wide sector of fire,moving targets, and targets at various elevations, his non-firing elbow should remain freefrom support.(6) Cheek-to-Stock Weld. The stock weld should provide a natural line of sight throughthe center of the rear sight aperture to the front sight post and on to the target. The firer‟sneck should be relaxed, allowing his cheek to fall naturally onto the stock. Through dry-fire training, the soldier practices this position until he assumes the same cheek-to-stockweld each time he assumes a given position, which provides consistency in aiming.Proper eye relief is obtained when a soldier establishes a good cheek-to-stock weld. Asmall change in eye relief normally occurs each time that the firer assumes a differentfiring position. The soldier should begin by trying to touch the charging handle with hisnose when assuming a firing position. This will aid the soldier in maintaining the samecheek-to-stock weld hold each time the weapon is aimed. The soldier should be mindfulof how the nose touches the charging handle and should be consistent when doing so.This should be critiqued and reinforced during dry-fire training.
Marksmanship Fundamentals(7) Support. When artificial support (sandbags, logs, stumps) is available, it should beused to steady the position and support the rifle. If it is not available, then the bones, notthe muscles, in the firer‟s upper body must support the rifle.(8) Muscle Relaxation. If support is used properly, the soldier should be able to relaxmost of his muscles. Using artificial support or bones in the upper body as supportallows him to relax and settle into position. Using muscles to support the rifle can causeit to move due to muscle fatigue.
Marksmanship Fundamentals(9) Natural Point of Aim. When the soldier first assumes his firing position, he orientshis rifle in the general direction of his target. Then he adjusts his body to bring the rifleand sights exactly in line with the desired aiming point. When using proper support andconsistent cheek to stock weld the soldier should have his rifle and sights alignednaturally on the target. When correct body-rifle-target alignment is achieved, the frontsight post must be held on target, using muscular support and effort. As the riflefires, muscles tend to relax, causing the front sight to move away from the target towardthe natural point of aim. Adjusting this point to the desired point of aim eliminates thismovement. When multiple target exposures are expected (or a sector of fire must becovered), the soldier adjusts his natural point of aim to the center of the expected targetexposure area (or center of sector).
Marksmanship FundamentalsAiming. Having mastered the task of holding the rifle steady, the soldier must alignthe rifle with the target in exactly the same way for each firing. The firer is the finaljudge as to where his eye is focused. The instructor or trainer emphasizes this point byhaving the firer focus on the target and then focus back on the front sight post. Hechecks the position of the firing eye to ensure it is in line with the rear sight aperture.(1) Rifle Sight Alignment. Alignment of the rifle with the target is critical. It involvesplacing the tip of the front sight post in the center of the rear sight aperture. Anyalignment error between the front and rear sights repeats itself for every 1/2 meter thebullet travels. For example, at the 25-meter line, any error in rifle alignment ismultiplied 50 times. If the bullet is misaligned by 1/10 inch, it causes a target at 300meters to be missed by 5 feet.
Marksmanship Fundamentals(2) Focus of the Eye. A proper firing position places the eye directly in line with thecenter of the rear sight aperture. When the eye is focused on the front sight post, thenatural ability of the eye to center objects in a circle and to seek the point of greatest light(center of the aperture) aid in providing correct sight alignment. For the average soldierfiring at combat-type targets, the natural ability of the eye can accurately align the sights.Therefore, the firer can place the tip of the front sight post on the aiming point, but theeye must be focused on the tip of the front sight post. This causes the target to appearblurry, while the front sight post is seen clearly. Two reasons for focusing on the frontsight post are:(a) Only a minor aiming error should occur since the error reflects only as much as thesoldier fails to determine the target center. A greater aiming error can result if the frontsight post is blurry due to focusing on the target or other objects.(b) Focusing on the tip of the front sight post aids the firer in maintaining proper sightalignment.
Marksmanship Fundamentals(3) Sight Picture. Once the soldier can correctly align his sights, he can obtain a sightpicture. A correct sight picture has the target, front sight post, and rear sight aligned.The sight picture includes two basic elements: sight alignment and placement of theaiming point.(a) Placement of the aiming point varies, depending on the engagement range. Forexample, the figure shows a silhouette at 300 meters where the aiming point is the centerof mass, and the sights are aligned for a correct sight picture.
Marksmanship Fundamentals(b) A technique to obtain a good sight picture is the side aiming technique. It involvespositioning the front sight post to the side of the target in line with the vertical center ofmass, keeping the sights aligned. The front sight post is moved horizontally until thetarget is directly centered on the front sight post.
Marksmanship Fundamentals(4) Front Sight. The front sight post is vital to proper firing and should be replacedwhen damaged. The post should be blackened anytime it is shiny since precisefocusing on the tip of the front sight post cannot be done otherwise.(5) Aiming Practice. Aiming practice is conducted before firing live rounds. Duringday firing, the soldier should practice sight alignment and placement of the aimingpoint. Using training aids such as the M15A1 aiming card can do this.
Marksmanship FundamentalsAiming. Wearing a protective mask may force firers to rotate (cant) the rifle to see through therear aperture. The weapon should be rotated the least amount possible to see through and lineup the sights. The center tip of the front sight post should be placed on the ideal aiming point.This ideal aiming procedure (Figure 7-18) should be the initial procedure taught and practiced. (a) If this cannot be achieved, a canted sight picture may be practiced. The normalamount of cant needed by most firers to properly see through the sights has a limited influenceon rounds fired at ranges between 75 meters or less. (b) Rifle ballistics causes the strike of the bullet to impact low in the direction of thecant (when a cant is used) at longer ranges. Due to this shift in bullet strike and the manyindividual differences in sight alignment when wearing a protective mask, it is important toconduct downrange feedback training at ranges beyond 75 meters on known-distance ranges.This allows soldiers to determine what aiming adjustments are needed to achieve center targethits. Figure 7-19, shows what might be expected for a right-handed firer engaging a target at175 meters with no cant and a certain amount of cant, and the adjustment in point of aimneeded to move the bullet strike to the center of the target. Figure 7-20, shows what might beexpected for a right-handed firer engaging a 300-meter target. The adjustments in point of aimfor left-handed firers are the opposite of those shown in Figures 7-19 and 7-20.
Marksmanship Fundamentals (c) Although bullet strike is displaced when using a cant, individual differences aresuch that center-of-mass aiming should be used until the individual knows what aimingadjustment is needed. When distant targets are missed, a right-handed firer should usuallyadjust his point of aim to the right and high; a left-handed firer should adjust to the left andhigh. Then, the aiming rules are clear. (d) All targets should initially be engaged by aiming center mass, regardless ofcant. When targets are missed while using a cant, firers should adjust the point of aim higherand opposite the direction of the cant. Actual displacement of the aiming point must bedetermined by using downrange feedback targets at ranges beyond 75 meters.
Marksmanship FundamentalsAiming. Modifications to the aiming process vary. When firing unassisted, the firer‟soff-center vision is used instead of pinpoint focus. Both eyes are open to gather themaximum available light, and are focused down range.Off-Center Vision. During the daytime when an individual looks at an object, helooks directly at it. However, if he did this at night he would only see the object for afew seconds. In order to see this object for any length of time, he must look 6 to 10degrees from this object (Figures 7-23 and 7-24) while concentrating his attention onthe object. This allows the light sensitive area of the eye, which can detect faint lightsources or reflection, to be used.
Marksmanship FundamentalsBreath Control. As the firer‟s skills improve and as timed ormultiple targets are presented, he must learn to control his breath atany part of the breathing cycle. Two types of breath controltechniques are practiced during dry fire. The coach/trainer ensuresthat the firer uses two breathing techniques and understands them byinstructing him to exaggerate his breathing. The firer must be awareof the rifle‟s movement (while sighted on a target) as a result ofbreathing.
Marksmanship Fundamentals(1) The first technique is used during zeroing (and when time is available to fire ashot). There is a moment of natural respiratory pause while breathing when most ofthe air has been exhaled from the lungs and before inhaling. Breathing should stopafter most of the air has been exhaled during the normal breathing cycle. The shotmust be fired before the soldier feels any discomfort.
Marksmanship Fundamentals(2) The second breath control technique is employed during rapid fire (short-exposuretargets). Using this technique, the soldier stops his breath when he is about to squeezethe trigger.
Marksmanship FundamentalsTrigger Squeeze. A novice firer can learn to place the rifle in a steady position andto correctly aim at the target if he follows the basic principles. If the trigger is notproperly squeezed, the rifle will be misaligned with the target at the moment of firing.(1) Rifle Movement. Trigger squeeze is important for two reasons: First, any suddenmovement of the finger on the trigger can disturb the lay of the rifle and cause the shotto miss the target. Second, the precise instant of firing should be a surprise to thesoldier. The soldier‟s natural reflex to compensate for the noise and slight punch in theshoulder can cause him to miss the target if he knows the exact instant the rifle will fire.The soldier usually tenses his shoulders when expecting the rifle to fire. It is difficult todetect since he does not realize he is flinching. When the hammer drops on a dummyround and does not fire, the soldier‟s natural reflexes demonstrate that he is improperlysqueezing the trigger.
Marksmanship Fundamentals(2) Trigger Finger. The trigger finger (index finger on the firing hand) is placed on thetrigger between the first joint and the tip of the finger (not the extreme end) and adjusteddepending on hand size, grip, and so on. The trigger finger must squeeze the trigger tothe rear so the hammer falls without disturbing the lay of the rifle. When a live round isfired, it is difficult to see what effect trigger pull had on the lay of the rifle. It isimportant to experiment with many finger positions during dry-fire training to ensure thehammer is falling with little disturbance to the aiming process.(a) As the firer‟s skills increase with practice, he needs less time spent on triggersqueeze. Novice firers can take five seconds to perform an adequate triggersqueeze, but, as skills improve, he can squeeze the trigger in a second or less. The propertrigger squeeze should start with slight pressure on the trigger during the initial aimingprocess. The firer applies more pressure after the front sight post is steady on the targetand he is holding his breath.
Marksmanship Fundamentals(b) The coach/trainer observes the trigger squeeze, emphasizes the correct procedure,and checks the firer‟s applied pressure. He places his finger on the trigger and has thefirer squeeze the trigger by applying pressure to the coach/trainer‟s finger. Thecoach/trainer ensures that the firer squeezes straight to the rear on the trigger avoiding aleft or right twisting movement. The coach/trainer observes that the firer follows throughand holds the trigger to the rear for approximately one second after the round has beenfired. A steady position reduces disturbance of the rifle during trigger squeeze.(c) Wobble area is the movement of the front sight around the aiming point when therifle is in the steadiest position. From an unsupported position, the firer experiences agreater wobble area than from a supported position. If the front sight strays from thetarget during the firing process, pressure on the trigger should be held constant andresumed as soon as sighting is corrected. The position must provide for the smallestpossible wobble area. From a supported position, there should be minimal wobble areaand little reason to detect movement. If movement of the rifle causes the front sight toleave the target, more practice is needed. The firer should never try to quickly squeezethe trigger while the sight is on the target. The best firing performance results when thetrigger is squeezed continuously, and the rifle is fired without disturbing its lay.
Marksmanship Fundamentals During preliminary marksmanship instruction only thebasic firing positions are taught. The other positions areadded later in training to support tactical conditions. The twofiring positions used during initial training are the individualfoxhole supported firing position and the basic proneunsupported firing position. Both offer a stable platform forfiring the rifle. They are also the positions used during basicrecord fire.
Marksmanship FundamentalsIndividual Foxhole Supported Firing Position This position provides the most stable platform for engaging targets. Upon enteringthe position, the soldier adds or removes dirt, sandbags, or other supports to adjust forhis height. He then faces the target, executes a half-face to his firing side, and leansforward until his chest is against the firing-hand corner of the position. He places therifle hand guard in a V formed by the thumb and fingers of his nonfiring hand, and reststhe nonfiring hand on the material (sandbags or berm) to the front of the position. Thesoldier places the butt of the weapon in the pocket of his firing shoulder and rests hisfiring elbow on the ground outside the position. Once the individual supported fightingposition has been mastered, the firer should practice various unsupported positions toobtain the smallest possible wobble area during final aiming and hammer fall.
Marksmanship Fundamentals NOTE: The objective is to establish a steady position under various conditions. The ultimate performance of this task is combat. Although the firer must be positioned high enough to observe all targets, he must remain as low as possible to provide added protection from enemy fire.Individual Foxhole Supported Firing Position.
Marksmanship FundamentalsBasic Prone Unsupported Firing Position This firing position offers another stable firing platform for engaging targets. Toassume this position, the soldier faces his target, spreads his feet a comfortabledistance apart, and drops to his knees. Using the butt of the rifle as a pivot, the firerrolls onto his nonfiring side, placing the nonfiring elbow close to the side of themagazine. He places the rifle butt in the pocket formed by the firing shoulder, graspsthe pistol grip with his firing hand, and lowers the firing elbow to the ground. Therifle rests in the V formed by the thumb and fingers of the non-firing hand. Thesoldier adjusts the position of his firing elbow until his shoulders are about level, andpulls back firmly on the rifle with both hands. To complete the position, he obtains astock weld and relaxes, keeping his heels close to the ground.
Marksmanship Fundamentals Basic Prone Unsupported Firing Position
Marksmanship Fundamentals This exercise assists the coach and the firer in determining which eye the firer shoulduse when engaging targets. The firer‟s dominant eye should be identified early in thetraining process to prevent unnecessary problems such as a blurred sight picture or theinability to acquire a tight shot group during the grouping exercise.(a) Cut a 1-inch circular hole in the center of an 8- by 10-inch piece of material (can beanything from paper to plywood).(b) The trainer positions himself approximately 5 feet in front of the soldier. The trainercloses his nondominant eye and holds his finger up in front of and just below his dominanteye to provide the soldier with an aiming point.(c) The soldier holds the training aid with both hands at waist level and looks with botheyes open at the trainer‟s open eye. With both eyes focused on the trainer‟s open eye andarms fully extended, the soldier brings the training aid up between himself and the trainerwhile continuing to look at the trainer‟s eye through the hole in the training aid. Thesoldier‟s eye the trainer sees through the hole in the training aid is the soldier‟s dominanteye.
Marksmanship FundamentalsDime (Washer) Exercise. This dry-fire technique is used to teach or evaluate the skillof trigger squeeze and is effective when conducted from an unsupported position. Whenusing the M16A1 rifle for this exercise, the soldier must cock the weapon, assume anunsupported firing position, and aim at the target. An assistant places a dime (washer) onthe rifle‟s barrel between the flash suppressor and front sight post assembly. The soldierthen tries to squeeze the trigger naturally without causing the dime (washer) to fall off.Several repetitions of this exercise must be conducted to determine if the soldier hasproblems with trigger squeeze. The purpose of the exercise is for the firer to dry-fire sixof six consecutive shots without causing the dime or was her to fall. (Repeat this exercisefrom the prone unsupported firing position.)(a) If the dime (washer) is allowed to touch the sight assembly or flash suppressor, itmay fall off due to the jolt of the hammer. Also, the strength of the hammer spring onsome rifles can make this a difficult exercise to perform.(b) When using the M16A2 rifle, the dime (washer) exercise is conducted the sameexcept that a locally fabricated device must be attached to the weapon. A piece of 3/4-inch bonding material is folded into a clothes-pin shape and inserted in the flashsuppressor of the weapon so the dime (washer) can be placed on top of it.
Marksmanship Fundamentals The Weaponeer is an effective rifle marksmanship-training device that simulatesthe live firing of the M16-series rifle. The system can be used for developing andsustaining marksmanship skills, diagnosing and correcting problems, and assessingbasic skills.
Marksmanship Fundamentals The engagement skills trainer (EST) 2000 supports realistic and comprehensive“gated” rifle marksmanship instruction, identifies soldiers needs by requiring them tosatisfy gate requirements in order to progress, and, when needed, facilitates remedialtraining prior to qualification. The EST 2000 is designed to be used primarily as aunit/institutional, indoor, multipurpose, multilane, small-arms, crew-served, andindividual antitank training simulator to:• Train and evaluate individual marksmanship training for initial entry soldiers(BCT/OSUT).• Provide Active and Reserve Component unit sustainment training in preparationfor qualification on individual and crew small arms live-fire weapons.• Provide unit collective tactical training for static dismounted infantry, scout,engineer, military police squads, and combat support/combat service support(CS/CSS) elements.
Marksmanship Fundamentals The BEAMHIT Laser Marksmanship Training System (LMTS) combines theprecision of eye safe lasers with the processing power of modern lap top computers intoa training solution that military personnel can use anywhere, anytime without the needfor ranges or special facilities of any kind. Using the LMTS, soldiers train with theirservice weapons for increased realism. The LMTS supports training with all militaryhandguns, rifles, riot (shot) guns and machine guns. No weapon modifications arerequired. LMTS hardware options include electronic targets for various trainingobjectives including teaching marksmanship fundamentals; shot group analysis, targetdetection and transition and pre-qualification practice. The MP-400 Laser transmitterprojects the exact bullet point of impact for modern assault rifles out to ranges of 100m.System accuracy lets personnel bore sight their weapons (i.e., day sights, enhancedoptics, night aiming systems, etc.) before firing a live round. The computer shot groupanalysis (dispersion, center of mass, etc.) eliminates much of the guesswork seen on livefire ranges, minimizes the live rounds required to confirm zero and enables units tomaintain weapon readiness at all times.
Marksmanship Fundamentals Refer to Appendix A, FM 3-22.9 foradditional Marksmanship Training Devices and Exercises.
M16 Series Rifle / M4 CarbineTasks:• Zeroing Procedures – Simulations (EST 2000/FATS/LMTS)• Engage Single and Multiple Targets (Practice Fire) – Simulations (EST 2000/FATS/LMTS)• Live Fire Exercises: • M16/M4 • Zeroing • Qualification • NBC Fire • Night Fire
Marksmanship Fundamentals IIPRACTICE RECORD FIREACTION: Detect and engage timed targets with the M16-/M4-series weapon.CONDITIONS: Day, given an M16-/M4-series weapon on an EST 2000, 40timed target exposures at ranges from 50 to 300 meters. Engage 20 targets withcoaching allowed from the supported firing position and 20 targets from theunsupported firing position while wearing a Kevlar helmet, LCE/LBV, and BodyArmor.STANDARDS: With assistance from a coach, the soldier detects and engages targetswith the M16-/M4-series weapon, and achieves a minimum of 23 target hits out of 40target exposures.
Marksmanship Fundamentals IIZERO THE M16/M4 SERIES WEAPONSACTION: Conduct 25-meter zeroing.CONDITIONS: On a 25-meter range, given an M16-/M4-series weapon, from thesupported firing position; 18 rounds of 5.56-mm ammunition, 300-meter M16/M4zero target placed on a standard E-type silhouette; sandbags for support; with Kevlarhelmet, LCE/LBV, and Body Armor.STANDARDS: Each soldier must adjust the sights so five out of six rounds fired intwo consecutive shot-groups strike within the 4-centimeter circle on the 25-meter zerotargets.
Marksmanship Fundamentals IIRECORD FIREACTION: Detect and engage timed targets with the M16-/M4-series weapon.CONDITIONS: Day, given an M16-/M4-series weapon on a record fire range, 40timed target exposures at ranges from 50 to 300 meters, and 40 rounds ofammunition (two 20-round magazines). Engage 20 targets from the supported firingposition and 20 targets from the unsupported firing position while wearing a Kevlarhelmet, LCE/LBV, and Body Armor.STANDARDS: Without assistance, the soldier detects and engages targets with theM16-/M4-series weapon, and achieves a minimum of 23 target hits out of 40 targetexposures.
Marksmanship Fundamentals IIConduct of Record Fire Range The record fire course provides for the engagement of two-20 round exercises. Twenty singleor multiple targets are engaged from the foxhole supported fighting position. Twenty targetsare engaged from the prone unsupported position. Once firing begins, no cross loading isallowed. (1) Credit for targets hit should not be given when bullets are “saved” from difficulttargets to be used on easier targets for example. Not firing a 300-meter target so an additionalbullet can be fired at a 150-meter target. However, when double targets are exposed, the soldiershould fire two bullets. If the first target is missed, he may fire at that same target with thesecond bullet. (2) Engage the target that poses the greatest threat first (normally assumed to be thecloser target), no scoring distinction is made between near targets and far targets or thesequence in which they are engaged. Credit is not given if unused ammunition from one 20-round table is added to the magazine provided for the next table.
Marksmanship Fundamentals II (3) Soldiers who fail to qualify on the first attempt should be given appropriateremedial training and allowed to refire in a few days. When a soldier refires the course, he willbe unqualified if he hits 22 targets or less and will be rated as a marksman if he hits 23 to 40.When automated scoring procedures are available that allow the performance of the soldier tobe stored and retrieved before the malfunction, his performance is added to the score of his firstattempt after weapons repair and refire. If a soldier’s weapon becomes inoperable and hisperformance before the malfunction precludes qualification he is considered unqualified andmust refire. (4) Alibi firing is reserved for those soldiers who have encountered a malfunctioningtarget, ammunition, or rifle. A soldier will not be issued more than 20-rounds of ammunitionfor each table. If he fires all 20 rounds despite a target malfunction, he will not be issued anyadditional alibi rounds. There are no alibis for soldier-induced weapon malfunctions or fortargets missed during application of immediate action. The following are the procedures thatmust be strictly adhered to when a malfunction occurs. NOTE: The ammunition procedures, allocation, and alibi procedures for practice record fire and record fire are conducted the same. The only exception is that coaching is authorized for practice record fire.
Marksmanship Fundamentals II (a) The soldier must apply immediate action and continue to fire theexercise. After firing, the soldier notifies the NCOIC to determine if the ammunition was faultyor if the target malfunctioned. (b) The NCOIC verifies the malfunction. The soldier is permitted to fireat that target(s)with the exact number of rounds equal to the target malfunctions. Forexample, the soldier had two confirmed target malfunctions at 250 meters. Although he mayhave had five rounds left from the overall exercise. The soldier would be given only two roundsto engage the two 250-meter target exposures, if repaired, or the next closer target. He wouldnot be allowed to fire all remaining five rounds at the two 250-meter target exposures. (c) The NCOIC or scorer monitoring the lane must verify the targetmalfunction. The soldier continues to fire the exercise. On a computerized range, the toweroperator confirms which target and how many malfunctions occurred. (d) Inoperable weapons are uncorrectable malfunctions such as a brokenfiring pin, jam caused by double feed not caused by the soldier, failure to extract due to brokenextractor, or round in the bore. The soldier must apply correct immediate action to eliminatethe stoppages. If the stoppage is determined to be correctable for example, the soldier did notapply correct immediate action and as a result the soldier did not engage the required numberof targets, he is at fault.
Marksmanship Fundamentals II (e) Qualified weapons personnel or the NCOIC must verify weaponmalfunctions before the soldier can refire the course. Soldiers who erroneously claim amalfunction on the firing line are considered unqualified and refire as a second-time firer. (f) On-site observation, detailed analysis and evaluation of individualresults, and unit performance identify weaknesses. Training can then focus on combattasks, skills, or other factors that address these weaknesses. For example, rifles that are notserviceable could be the cause of poor zeroes or failures to fire and, therefore, failures to qualify.Some soldiers may not qualify because of a lack of understanding of immediate-actionprocedures or maintenance of the rifle and magazine. Soldiers who miss targets are notapplying the four fundamentals or are not accurately zeroing the rifle. Soldiers who do not fireat exposed targets during qualification may indicate: • Failure to scan the designated area. • Lack of ability to detect targets. • Lack of ability to shift from one target to another. • Failure to manage ammunition. • A stoppage.
Marksmanship Fundamentals IIStandards: To achieve the lowest possible individual qualificationrating, a soldier must achieve a minimum score of 23 target hits on astandard record fire range. The following are the qualification ratings: Expert: Hits 36 to 40 targets. Sharpshooter: Hits 30 to 35 targets. Marksman: Hits 23 to 29 targets.
Marksmanship Fundamentals IINBC PRACTICE & RECORD FIREACTION: Detect and engage timed targets with the M16-/M4-series weapon whilewearing assigned M40/M42-series protective mask.CONDITIONS: Day, given an M16/M4-series weapon on a record fire range, 2050m target exposures, and 20 rounds of ball ammunition. Engage ten (10) 50 meterF-type silhouette targets with one 10-round magazine while in the foxhole supportedfiring position while in MOPP 4 and wearing a Kevlar helmet, LCE/LBV, and BodyArmor. Engage ten (10) 50 meter F-type silhouette targets with one 10-roundmagazine while in the prone unsupported position while in MOPP 4 and wearing aKevlar helmet, LCE/LBV, and Body Armor.STANDARDS: Without assistance, the soldier detects and engages targets with theM16-/M4-series weapon, and achieves a minimum of 11 target hits out of 20 targetexposures.
Marksmanship Fundamentals II Record Results of NBC Record Fire
Marksmanship Fundamentals IINIGHT UNASSISTED PRACTICE & RECORD FIREACTION: Detect and engage timed targets with the M16-/M4-series weaponwithout the aid of any night vision devices.CONDITIONS: Night, given an M16/M4-series weapon on a record fire range, 3050m target exposures, and 20 rounds of ball and 10 rounds of tracer ammunition.Engage fifteen (15) 50 meter F-type silhouette targets with one 15-round(10 Ball/5Tracer) magazine while in the foxhole supported firing position whilewearing a Kevlar helmet, LCE/LBV, and Body Armor. Engage fifteen (15) 50 meterF-type silhouette targets with one 15-round (10 Ball/5 Tracer) magazine while in theprone unsupported position while wearing a Kevlar helmet, LCE/LBV, and BodyArmor.STANDARDS: Without assistance, the soldier detects and engages targets with theM16-/M4-series weapon, and achieves a minimum of 7 target hits out of 30 targetexposures.
Marksmanship Fundamentals II Record Results of Night Unassisted Record Fire