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Basal ganglia 101
Basal ganglia 101
Basal ganglia 101
Basal ganglia 101
Basal ganglia 101
Basal ganglia 101
Basal ganglia 101
Basal ganglia 101
Basal ganglia 101
Basal ganglia 101
Basal ganglia 101
Basal ganglia 101
Basal ganglia 101
Basal ganglia 101
Basal ganglia 101
Basal ganglia 101
Basal ganglia 101
Basal ganglia 101
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Basal ganglia 101

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Quyen's Basal Ganglia 101

Quyen's Basal Ganglia 101

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  • Deep nuclear structures in the brain. Initially thought to be involved only with motor control but it is now known that they are involved a many other cognitive and behavioral pathways.
  • Globus pallidus and putamen are also called the lenticular nucleus
  • Similar in histology and connectivity
  • Two parallel loops from the cortex through the basal ganglia to the thalamus and back to the cortex
  • Transcript

    • 1. Basal Ganglia 101 Journal Club September 9, 2010
    • 2. Anatomy
    • 3. Bird’s eye view
    • 4. Basal Ganglia Components <ul><li>Neostriatum: Caudate nucleus and putamen </li></ul><ul><li>Globus Pallidus: externa and interna </li></ul><ul><li>Substantia Nigra: pars compacta and pars reticulata </li></ul><ul><li>Subthalamic nucleus </li></ul><ul><li>Pedunculopontine nucleus </li></ul>
    • 5. Caudate nucleus and Putamen <ul><li>Receives input from cortex, limbic structures, thalamus, and SNc </li></ul><ul><li>Medium spiny neurons </li></ul><ul><ul><li>GABAergic </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sends output to globus pallidus externa and interna </li></ul>
    • 6. Globus Pallidus interna (GPi) and Substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr) <ul><li>Output center for the Basal Ganglia </li></ul><ul><li>Receives input from striatum,GPe, SNc and subthalamic nucleus </li></ul><ul><li>Sends efferents to thalamus and brainstem </li></ul><ul><li>GABAergic </li></ul>
    • 7. Globus Pallidus externa (GPe) and Substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) <ul><li>Modulator </li></ul><ul><li>Receives input from striatum </li></ul><ul><li>Sends efferents to subthalamic nucleus and GPi </li></ul>
    • 8. Subthalamic Nucleus <ul><li>Internal modulator </li></ul><ul><li>Receives input from striatum, frontal cortex, thalamus, brainstem nuclei </li></ul><ul><li>Send efferents to GPi and GPe </li></ul><ul><li>Glutaminergic </li></ul>
    • 9. Peduncular nucleus (PPN) <ul><li>Midbrain locomotor </li></ul><ul><li>Cholinergic and glutaminergic cells </li></ul>
    • 10.  
    • 11.  
    • 12. Circuitry <ul><li>Information processing loop </li></ul><ul><li>Input from cortex, limbic structures, brainstem nuclei </li></ul><ul><li>Output from globus pallidus interna or substantia nigra par reticulata to thalamus </li></ul><ul><li>Relayed back to cortex </li></ul>
    • 13. Direct Pathway <ul><li>Cortex  Striatum (glutaminergic, excitatory signal) </li></ul><ul><li>Striatum  GPi/SNr (GABAergic, inhibatory signal) </li></ul><ul><li>GPi/SNr  Thalamus (GABA, inhibitory signal) </li></ul><ul><li>Thalamus  Cortex (glutaminergic, excitatory signal) </li></ul>
    • 14. Indirect Pathway <ul><li>Cortex  Striatum (glutaminergic, excitatory signal) </li></ul><ul><li>Striatum  GPe </li></ul><ul><li>(GABAergic, inhibatory signal) </li></ul><ul><li>GPe  Subthalamic Nucleus (GABAergic, inhibitory signal) </li></ul><ul><li>STN  GPi/SNr </li></ul><ul><li>(glutaminergic, excitatory signal) </li></ul><ul><li>GPi/SNr  Thalamus (GABAergic, inhibitory signal </li></ul><ul><li>Thalamus  Cortex (glutaminergic, excitatory signal) </li></ul>
    • 15. Reality?
    • 16.  
    • 17. Parallel Loops
    • 18.  

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