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TRICK or TRENDS  by Dr. Corinne Davis Rodrigues
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TRICK or TRENDS by Dr. Corinne Davis Rodrigues

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"Crime & Violence in Brazil... how safe are you really." …

"Crime & Violence in Brazil... how safe are you really."

Presented by: Dr. Corinne Davis Rodrigues

27 October 2010 - at Minas International

Published in News & Politics , Travel , Business
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  • 1. Trick or Trends: Crime and Violence in Brazil Corinne Davis Rodrigues, Ph.D. Department of Sociology and Anthropology Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais
  • 2. General Crime Trends in Brazil • Since the mid-1980’s, there has been a significant increase in crime in Brazil • These increases have occurred primarily in urban areas and in violent as opposed to property crime. • The largest increases up to 2000 ocurred in the Southeast region, especially in the cities of Sao Paulo and Rio de Janeiro.
  • 3. Total de homicídios para toda a população do Brasill 53.325 (Taxa 30,6) 14.435 (Taxa 12,2) 0 10.000 20.000 30.000 40.000 50.000 60.000 Ano 1980 Ano 2002 Númerodehomicídios
  • 4. 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 15202530 Anos TaxaTrends in Brazilian Homicide Rates – 1980 to 2000
  • 5. 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 10152025303540 Anos Taxa 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 10152025303540 Anos Taxa 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 10152025303540 Anos Taxa 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 10152025303540 Anos Taxa 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 10152025303540 Anos Taxa 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 10152025303540 Anos Taxa Brasil Norte Nordeste Sudeste Sul Centro-Oeste Trends in Brazilian Homicide Rates by Region 1980 to 2000
  • 6. Recent Crime Trends in Brazil • However, after 2000, violent crime rates in Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo have declined, whereas violent crime in other cities has increase, especially in the Northeast.
  • 7. Taxas de Homicídio (em 100.000) na População Total por Capital e Região 2000/2007 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 Anos 2000 - 2007 TaxasdeHomicídio(em100.000) Belo Horizonte Rio de Janeiro São Paulo Vitória Recife
  • 8. Robbery, Theft and Assault – Capital Cities 2004-2005 Robbery Theft Assault 2004 2005 2004 2005 2004 2005 Belo Horizonte 1,537.2 934.52 1,091.3 939.11 203.9 227.76 Rio de Janeiro 1,258.6 1,268 985.7 1,078.14 419.7 424.90 São Paulo 1,525.4 1,416.55 1,887.4 1,853.63 346.5 370.52 Vitória 1,175.6 1,165.94 2,457,7 2,416.46 397.9 393.86 Florianópolis 501.7 370.48 4,278.4 2,801.06 727.3 0 490.20 Fortaleza 1,908.1 2,617.7 2,264.7 2,678.29 342.8 425.36
  • 9. “Interiorization” of Crime • While rates for the capital cities are still high, most recently the capital cities are not “driving” the crime rates. 2005 Homicide – Jaboatão dos Guararapes, PE (92,08) Assault – Rio Branco, AC (1752,20) Robbery – Fortaleza, CE (2617,7) Theft – Brasília, DF (9916,01)
  • 10. Explaining Crime in Brazil • What are the explanations for crime in Brazil? • Explanations developed in the social sciences emerged beginning in the 1980’s. • Prior to then, discussions of crime were relegated to legal scholars.
  • 11. Explaining Crime in Brazil • Explanations from Brazilian scholars center around four explanations • Inequality/poverty • Inefficiencies of the formal system of social control • Socal transformations/social interactions • Inequality revisited
  • 12. Crime Trends for Minas Gerais • In Minas Gerais, we see a crime “peak” between 2003-2005, with substantial declines after 2005. • Minas Gerais also demonstrates the “interiorization” phenomenon, with concentrations of crime occurring in other medium size cities and not just in the Metropolitan Region of Belo Horizonte
  • 13. Crime in Belo Horizonte • Just as in the state as a whole, crime is not equally distributed in the city of Belo Horizonte. • Who you are, where you live and where you circulate affect your crime risk.
  • 14. Determinants of Crime Risk • Routine activities/Lifestyle theory • Social disorganization/Broken Windows
  • 15. Socio-demographic characteristics • Sex • Age • Race • Socio-economic status • Marital status • Employed (working at time of the survey)
  • 16. Routine activities/Lifestyle Variables • Exposure • Leisure risk • Street risk • Everyday risk • Proximity • Lives in favela/public housing • Guardianship • Number or adults in household • Preventive measures
  • 17. Social Disorganization Variables • Public disorder • factor score (abandoned builidings, empty lots, and trash) • Social disorder • sum of 10 items (street vendors, informal car attendants, homeless, beggars, public urination or defecation, public acts of obscenity, general vandalism, vandalism of public property, public arguments, and prostitution)
  • 18. Determinants of Crime Risk TYPE OF CRIME CRIME RISK Robbery Leisure Risk 7.2% Street Risk 8.9% Prevention Measures - 7.1% Assault Physical incivilities scale - 24.5% Buglary Never married - 12.8% Lives in favela/public housing 169.6%
  • 19. Determinants of Crime Risk • Physical characteristics don’t matter • Being white, male, etc. • Where you live matters • What you do (lifestyle) matters • -both degree of risk and safety measures • Lifestyle matters more for robbery than for assault
  • 20. What is being done to keep you safe? • Fica Vivo • Homicide reduction • Olho Vivo • Monitored cameras downtown • IGESP – Integration of Public Security Management (modeled on Compstat) • Integration of information and resources between police