DHOLE PATIL COLLEGEDHOLE PATIL COLLEGE
OFOF
ENGINEERINGENGINEERING
Seminar onSeminar on
““EMBEDDED SYSTEM”EMBEDDED SYSTEM”...
TO THE WORLDTO THE WORLD
OFOF
EMBEEDED SYSTEMSEMBEEDED SYSTEMS
CONTENTSCONTENTS
 IntroductionIntroduction
 DefinitionDefinition
 What is an embeddedWhat is an embedded
computer?compu...
Introduction of embeddedIntroduction of embedded
systemsystem
 An embedded system is a special-purposeAn embedded system ...
Definition of embedded systemDefinition of embedded system
 An embedded system can be defined as aAn embedded system can ...
What is an embedded computer?What is an embedded computer?
 An embedded computer is frequently aAn embedded computer is f...
Uses of embedded systemUses of embedded system
 From an implementation point of view, there is a majorFrom an implementat...
Examples of embedded systemExamples of embedded system
 Telecommunication systems employ embeddedTelecommunication system...
Examples of embedded systemExamples of embedded system
 Transportation system from flight toTransportation system from fl...
Why study Embedded system?Why study Embedded system?
 Embedded systems are playing importantEmbedded systems are playing ...
CharacteristicsCharacteristics
 Embedded systems are designed to do someEmbedded systems are designed to do some
specific...
CPU platforms Ready madeCPU platforms Ready made
computer boardscomputer boards
 EmbeddedEmbedded
processorsprocessors
ar...
TOOLSTOOLS
 As for other software, embedded systemAs for other software, embedded system
designers use compilers, assembl...
Custom compilers and linkers.Custom compilers and linkers.
An embedded system may have it’s ownAn embedded system may ha...
ResourcesResources
 To save costs, embedded systems have theTo save costs, embedded systems have the
cheapest processors....
Reliability & Real-Time issuesReliability & Real-Time issues
 Specific reliability issues may include :Specific reliabili...
The system must be kept running for safetyThe system must be kept running for safety
reasons. ”LIMP MODES” are less toler...
High vs Low volumeHigh vs Low volume
 For high volumeFor high volume
systems minimizingsystems minimizing
cost is usually...
Embedded software architecturesEmbedded software architectures
 Simple Control Loop =Simple Control Loop =
In this desig...
This task is not very sensitive to unexpectedThis task is not very sensitive to unexpected
delays.delays.
This method br...
new software is easier by writing a new task ornew software is easier by writing a new task or
adding to the queue-interpr...
 Microkernels and exokernels =Microkernels and exokernels =
A microkernel is a logical step up from a real-A microkernel...
 Monolithic kernels =Monolithic kernels =
In this case a relatively large kernel withIn this case a relatively large ker...
Fixed-Point ArithmeticFixed-Point Arithmetic
 Some embedded microprocessors may have anSome embedded microprocessors may ...
Exotic custom operatingExotic custom operating
systemssystems
 A small fraction of embedded systemsA small fraction of em...
 These components consist of networkingThese components consist of networking
protocol stacks like CAN, TCP/IP, FTP,proto...
Downfalls of embedded systemDownfalls of embedded system
 An embedded system is frequently programmedAn embedded system i...
Advantages of embeddedAdvantages of embedded
systemsystem
 Ports to common embedded chip sets arePorts to common embedded...
Advantages of embeddedAdvantages of embedded
systemsystem
is more portable.is more portable.
• Many embedded systems lack ...
ReferencesReferences
 http://www.netrino.com/Embedded-http://www.netrino.com/Embedded-
system/Glossarysystem/Glossary
 h...
ANY QUESTIONS ???ANY QUESTIONS ???
THANK YOU !!!THANK YOU !!!
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Embedded systems

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Introductory Seminar on new & advance technology i.e. Embedded systems.

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Embedded systems

  1. 1. DHOLE PATIL COLLEGEDHOLE PATIL COLLEGE OFOF ENGINEERINGENGINEERING Seminar onSeminar on ““EMBEDDED SYSTEM”EMBEDDED SYSTEM”   NAME = MINAL KHOPADE T.E (I.T)
  2. 2. TO THE WORLDTO THE WORLD OFOF EMBEEDED SYSTEMSEMBEEDED SYSTEMS
  3. 3. CONTENTSCONTENTS  IntroductionIntroduction  DefinitionDefinition  What is an embeddedWhat is an embedded computer?computer?  Uses of embeddedUses of embedded systemsystem  Examples of embeddedExamples of embedded systemsystem  CharacteristicsCharacteristics  CPU platformsCPU platforms  ToolsTools  ResourcesResources  Reliability & Real timeReliability & Real time issuesissues  High vs. Low volumeHigh vs. Low volume  Embedded softwareEmbedded software architecturesarchitectures  Fixed point arithmeticFixed point arithmetic  Exotic custom OSExotic custom OS  Additional softwareAdditional software componentscomponents  Downfalls of embeddedDownfalls of embedded computerscomputers  Popularity of embeddedPopularity of embedded systemsystem
  4. 4. Introduction of embeddedIntroduction of embedded systemsystem  An embedded system is a special-purposeAn embedded system is a special-purpose computer system designed to perform onecomputer system designed to perform one or a few dedicated functions.or a few dedicated functions.  It is usually embedded as part of aIt is usually embedded as part of a complete device including hardware andcomplete device including hardware and mechanical parts.mechanical parts.  ““embedded system” is not an exactlyembedded system” is not an exactly defined term , as many systems havedefined term , as many systems have some element of programmability.some element of programmability.
  5. 5. Definition of embedded systemDefinition of embedded system  An embedded system can be defined as aAn embedded system can be defined as a control system or computer systemcontrol system or computer system designed to perform a specific task.designed to perform a specific task.  An embedded system can also be definedAn embedded system can also be defined as a single purpose computer.as a single purpose computer.  Most embedded systems are time criticalMost embedded systems are time critical applications meaning that the embeddedapplications meaning that the embedded system is working in an environmentsystem is working in an environment where timing is very important.where timing is very important.
  6. 6. What is an embedded computer?What is an embedded computer?  An embedded computer is frequently aAn embedded computer is frequently a computer that is implemented for a particularcomputer that is implemented for a particular purpose.purpose.  In general, an embedded systemIn general, an embedded system  Is a system built to perform its duty, completely orIs a system built to perform its duty, completely or partially independent of human intervention.partially independent of human intervention.  Is specially designed to perform a few tasks in theIs specially designed to perform a few tasks in the most efficient way.most efficient way.  Interacts with physical elements in our environment,Interacts with physical elements in our environment, viz. controlling and driving a motor, sensingviz. controlling and driving a motor, sensing temperature, etc.temperature, etc.
  7. 7. Uses of embedded systemUses of embedded system  From an implementation point of view, there is a majorFrom an implementation point of view, there is a major difference between a computer and an embeddeddifference between a computer and an embedded system.system.  Embedded systems are often required to provideEmbedded systems are often required to provide Real-Real- Time responseTime response..  A Real-Time system is defined as a system whoseA Real-Time system is defined as a system whose correctness depends on the timeliness of its response.correctness depends on the timeliness of its response.  In technical terminology,In technical terminology, Real-Time systemReal-Time system can becan be classified as:classified as:  Hard Real -Time systemsHard Real -Time systems  Soft Real-Time systemsSoft Real-Time systems  Hybrid Real-Time systemsHybrid Real-Time systems
  8. 8. Examples of embedded systemExamples of embedded system  Telecommunication systems employ embeddedTelecommunication systems employ embedded system from telephone switches for the networksystem from telephone switches for the network to mobile phones at the end user.to mobile phones at the end user.  Consumer electronics include personal digitalConsumer electronics include personal digital assistants (PDAs), mp3 players, digital cameras,assistants (PDAs), mp3 players, digital cameras, DVD players, video game consoles, GPSDVD players, video game consoles, GPS receivers & printers.receivers & printers.  Many household appliances, such as microwaveMany household appliances, such as microwave ovens, washing machines and dishwashers areovens, washing machines and dishwashers are including embedded systemsincluding embedded systems
  9. 9. Examples of embedded systemExamples of embedded system  Transportation system from flight toTransportation system from flight to automobiles increasingly use embeddedautomobiles increasingly use embedded systemssystems  Medical equipments uses embeddedMedical equipments uses embedded system for vital signs monitoring,system for vital signs monitoring, electronic stethoscopes for amplifyingelectronic stethoscopes for amplifying sounds and various medical imagingsounds and various medical imaging (PET, SPECT, CT, MRI) for non-invasive(PET, SPECT, CT, MRI) for non-invasive internal inspectionsinternal inspections
  10. 10. Why study Embedded system?Why study Embedded system?  Embedded systems are playing importantEmbedded systems are playing important roles in every day life, even though theyroles in every day life, even though they might not necessarily be visible.might not necessarily be visible.  Recent poll data shows that embeddedRecent poll data shows that embedded computer systems currently outnumbercomputer systems currently outnumber humans in USA.humans in USA.  Embedded system is rapidly growingEmbedded system is rapidly growing industry where growth opportunities areindustry where growth opportunities are numerous.numerous.
  11. 11. CharacteristicsCharacteristics  Embedded systems are designed to do someEmbedded systems are designed to do some specific task, rather than be a general-purposespecific task, rather than be a general-purpose computer for multiple tasks.computer for multiple tasks.  Many embedded systems are small,Many embedded systems are small, computerized parts within a large device thatcomputerized parts within a large device that serves a more general purpose.serves a more general purpose.  The program instructions written for embeddedThe program instructions written for embedded systems are referred to as firmware, and aresystems are referred to as firmware, and are stored in read-only or flash memory chips.stored in read-only or flash memory chips.
  12. 12. CPU platforms Ready madeCPU platforms Ready made computer boardscomputer boards  EmbeddedEmbedded processorsprocessors are broken into twoare broken into two categoriescategories • OrdinaryOrdinary microprocessor (mP)microprocessor (mP) • Microcontroller (mC)Microcontroller (mC) Which have many moreWhich have many more peripherals on chip,peripherals on chip, reducing cost and size.reducing cost and size.  PC/104 are PC/104+PC/104 are PC/104+ are ready modeare ready mode computer boardscomputer boards intended for small,intended for small, low-volumelow-volume embedded &embedded & buggerized systemsbuggerized systems
  13. 13. TOOLSTOOLS  As for other software, embedded systemAs for other software, embedded system designers use compilers, assemblers, anddesigners use compilers, assemblers, and debuggers to develop embedded systemdebuggers to develop embedded system software.software.  They may also use some more specificThey may also use some more specific tools astools as Debugger or emulatorsDebugger or emulators Utilities to add a checksum or CRC to aUtilities to add a checksum or CRC to a program.program.
  14. 14. Custom compilers and linkers.Custom compilers and linkers. An embedded system may have it’s ownAn embedded system may have it’s own special language or design tool, or addspecial language or design tool, or add enhancements to an existing language suchenhancements to an existing language such as Forth or Basic.as Forth or Basic. Another alternative is to add a Real-timeAnother alternative is to add a Real-time operating system or Embedded operatingoperating system or Embedded operating system, which may have DSP capability likesystem, which may have DSP capability like DSP nano RTOS.DSP nano RTOS.
  15. 15. ResourcesResources  To save costs, embedded systems have theTo save costs, embedded systems have the cheapest processors. This means programscheapest processors. This means programs need to be written as efficient as possible.need to be written as efficient as possible.  For same reason, embedded systems usuallyFor same reason, embedded systems usually have the least memory. This means theirhave the least memory. This means their algorithms must be memory efficient & can’talgorithms must be memory efficient & can’t afford to leak memory.afford to leak memory.  Most embedded processors do not haveMost embedded processors do not have hardware FPUs (Floating-Point Processing Unit)hardware FPUs (Floating-Point Processing Unit)
  16. 16. Reliability & Real-Time issuesReliability & Real-Time issues  Specific reliability issues may include :Specific reliability issues may include : Embedded systems frequently controlEmbedded systems frequently control hardware, and must be able to respond tohardware, and must be able to respond to them in real time. Failure to do so could causethem in real time. Failure to do so could cause inaccuracy in measurements or even damageinaccuracy in measurements or even damage hardware.hardware. The system cannot safely be shut down forThe system cannot safely be shut down for repair, or it is too inaccessible to repair.repair, or it is too inaccessible to repair. Examples= space systems, undersea cables,Examples= space systems, undersea cables, navigation beacons, bore-hole systems.navigation beacons, bore-hole systems.
  17. 17. The system must be kept running for safetyThe system must be kept running for safety reasons. ”LIMP MODES” are less tolerable.reasons. ”LIMP MODES” are less tolerable. Often backups are selected by an operator.Often backups are selected by an operator. Examples= reactor control systems, trainExamples= reactor control systems, train signals, aircraft navigationsignals, aircraft navigation The system will lose large amount of moneyThe system will lose large amount of money when shut down :when shut down : Examples=Telephone switches, bridge &Examples=Telephone switches, bridge & elevator control, fund transfer & marketelevator control, fund transfer & market making, automated sales and services.making, automated sales and services.
  18. 18. High vs Low volumeHigh vs Low volume  For high volumeFor high volume systems minimizingsystems minimizing cost is usually thecost is usually the primary designprimary design consideration.consideration.  Engineers typicallyEngineers typically select hardware thatselect hardware that is just “Good Enough”is just “Good Enough” to implement theto implement the necessary functions.necessary functions.  For low –volume orFor low –volume or prototype embeddedprototype embedded systems generalsystems general purpose computerspurpose computers may be adapted bymay be adapted by limiting the programslimiting the programs or by replacing theor by replacing the operating system withoperating system with a real-time operatinga real-time operating system.system.
  19. 19. Embedded software architecturesEmbedded software architectures  Simple Control Loop =Simple Control Loop = In this design, the software simply has a loop.In this design, the software simply has a loop. The loop calls each of which manage a part ofThe loop calls each of which manage a part of the hardware or software.the hardware or software.  Interrupt Controlled System =Interrupt Controlled System = Some embedded systems are predominantlySome embedded systems are predominantly interrupt controlled.interrupt controlled. This kinds of systems are used if eventThis kinds of systems are used if event handler need low latency and the eventhandler need low latency and the event handlers are short and simple.handlers are short and simple.
  20. 20. This task is not very sensitive to unexpectedThis task is not very sensitive to unexpected delays.delays. This method brings the system close to aThis method brings the system close to a multitasking kernel with discrete processes.multitasking kernel with discrete processes.  Non-preemptive multitasking =Non-preemptive multitasking = • A non-preemptive multitasking system is veryA non-preemptive multitasking system is very similar to the simple control loop schemesimilar to the simple control loop scheme except that the loop is hidden in an API.except that the loop is hidden in an API. The advantages and disadvantages areThe advantages and disadvantages are similar to the loop control loop, except thatsimilar to the loop control loop, except that addingadding
  21. 21. new software is easier by writing a new task ornew software is easier by writing a new task or adding to the queue-interpreter.adding to the queue-interpreter. • Preemptive multitasking =Preemptive multitasking = • In this type, a low-level piece of code switchesIn this type, a low-level piece of code switches between tasks or threads based on a timerbetween tasks or threads based on a timer connected to an interrupt.connected to an interrupt. • In this level system is generally considered toIn this level system is generally considered to have an “Operating System” kernel.have an “Operating System” kernel.
  22. 22.  Microkernels and exokernels =Microkernels and exokernels = A microkernel is a logical step up from a real-A microkernel is a logical step up from a real- time OS.time OS. Operating system kernel allocates memoryOperating system kernel allocates memory and switches the CPU to different threads ofand switches the CPU to different threads of execution.execution. Microkernel succeed when the task switchingMicrokernel succeed when the task switching and inter-task communication is fast, & failand inter-task communication is fast, & fail when they are slow.when they are slow.
  23. 23.  Monolithic kernels =Monolithic kernels = In this case a relatively large kernel withIn this case a relatively large kernel with sophisticated capabilities are adapted to suitsophisticated capabilities are adapted to suit an embedded environment.an embedded environment. This gives, an environment similar to aThis gives, an environment similar to a desktop operating system therefore verydesktop operating system therefore very productive for development.productive for development. It requires more hardwareIt requires more hardware These kernels can be less predictable andThese kernels can be less predictable and reliable.reliable. Examples of monolithic kernels areExamples of monolithic kernels are Embedded Linux and Windows CE.Embedded Linux and Windows CE.
  24. 24. Fixed-Point ArithmeticFixed-Point Arithmetic  Some embedded microprocessors may have anSome embedded microprocessors may have an external unit for performing floating pointexternal unit for performing floating point arithmetic (FPU) but most low-end embeddedarithmetic (FPU) but most low-end embedded system have no FPU.system have no FPU.  As a result, many embedded projects enforce aAs a result, many embedded projects enforce a no floating point rule on their programmers.no floating point rule on their programmers.  A common technique used to avoid the need forA common technique used to avoid the need for floating point number is to change thefloating point number is to change the magnitude of data stored in your variable so youmagnitude of data stored in your variable so you can utilize fixed point mathematics.can utilize fixed point mathematics.
  25. 25. Exotic custom operatingExotic custom operating systemssystems  A small fraction of embedded systemsA small fraction of embedded systems requires safe, timely, reliable or efficientrequires safe, timely, reliable or efficient behavior unobtainable with the one of thebehavior unobtainable with the one of the above architectures.above architectures.  In such cases this operating system buildsIn such cases this operating system builds a software to this kind of situation.a software to this kind of situation.
  26. 26.  These components consist of networkingThese components consist of networking protocol stacks like CAN, TCP/IP, FTP,protocol stacks like CAN, TCP/IP, FTP, HTTP and HTTPS.HTTP and HTTPS.  It also consist of storage capabilities likeIt also consist of storage capabilities like FAT and Flash memory managementFAT and Flash memory management systems.systems.  In the RTOS category, the availabilities ofIn the RTOS category, the availabilities of the additional software componentsthe additional software components depends upon the commercial offering.depends upon the commercial offering. Additional software componentsAdditional software components
  27. 27. Downfalls of embedded systemDownfalls of embedded system  An embedded system is frequently programmedAn embedded system is frequently programmed once, and the software cannot be patched.once, and the software cannot be patched.  They are often installed in a system for whichThey are often installed in a system for which unreliability is not an option.unreliability is not an option.  Embedded system needs to be tested &Embedded system needs to be tested & analyzed extensively.analyzed extensively.  The memory capacity & processing power isThe memory capacity & processing power is limited.limited.  Some embedded systems run a scaled downSome embedded systems run a scaled down version of operating system called an RTOSversion of operating system called an RTOS (real-time operating system)(real-time operating system)
  28. 28. Advantages of embeddedAdvantages of embedded systemsystem  Ports to common embedded chip sets arePorts to common embedded chip sets are available.available.  They permit re-use of publicly available code forThey permit re-use of publicly available code for Device Drivers, Web Services, Firewalls, andDevice Drivers, Web Services, Firewalls, and other code.other code.  Distribution can be configured to unneededDistribution can be configured to unneeded functionality & save the expense of the memory.functionality & save the expense of the memory.  Running application code in user mode is moreRunning application code in user mode is more reliable, easier to debug therefore thereliable, easier to debug therefore the development process is easier and the codedevelopment process is easier and the code
  29. 29. Advantages of embeddedAdvantages of embedded systemsystem is more portable.is more portable. • Many embedded systems lack the tightMany embedded systems lack the tight real-time requirements of a controlreal-time requirements of a control system. (e.g. Embedded Linux)system. (e.g. Embedded Linux) • Features requiring faster response thanFeatures requiring faster response than can be guaranteed can often be placed incan be guaranteed can often be placed in hardware.hardware. • Many RTOS systems have a per-unit cost.Many RTOS systems have a per-unit cost.
  30. 30. ReferencesReferences  http://www.netrino.com/Embedded-http://www.netrino.com/Embedded- system/Glossarysystem/Glossary  http://www.embedded.com/underhehoodhttp://www.embedded.com/underhehood  http://www.usenix.org/publications/login/20http://www.usenix.org/publications/login/20 07-12/pdfs/hesier.pdf07-12/pdfs/hesier.pdf  http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/embeddedhttp://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/embedded systems/Embedded system Basicssystems/Embedded system Basics  ^Yashavant Kanetkar “Go Embedded”^Yashavant Kanetkar “Go Embedded”
  31. 31. ANY QUESTIONS ???ANY QUESTIONS ???
  32. 32. THANK YOU !!!THANK YOU !!!
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